Advertisement

EcoHealth

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 156–175 | Cite as

Climate Change and Health Research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

  • Rima R. Habib
  • Kareem El Zein
  • Joly Ghanawi
Original Contribution

Abstract

Anthropologically induced climate change, caused by an increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, is an emerging threat to human health. Consequences of climate change may affect the prevalence of various diseases and environmental and social maladies that affect population health. In this article, we reviewed the literature on climate change and health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This region already faces numerous humanitarian crises, from conflicts to natural hazards and a high burden of disease. Climate change is likely to aggravate these emergencies, necessitating a strengthening of health systems and capacities in the region. However, the existing literature on climate change from the region is sparse and informational gaps stand in the way of regional preparedness and adaptation. Further research is needed to assess climatic changes and related health impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Such knowledge will allow countries to identify preparedness vulnerabilities, evaluate capacity to adapt to climate change, and develop adaptation strategies to allay the health impacts of climate change.

Keywords

climate change health adaptation Eastern Mediterranean Region 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ms. Aida Farha, the Librarian at the American University of Beirut, for her assistance in the archival database search. This work was supported by a grant from the Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs at the American University of Beirut.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest and no personal financial gains.

References

  1. Abouzaid H (2008) Health and the Environment with focus on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 14(Suppl):S132–S142.Google Scholar
  2. Ageep TB, Cox J, Hassan MM, Knols BG, Benedict MQ, Malcolm CA, Babiker A, El Sayed BB (2009) Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control. Malaria Journal 8(1):123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Ahwal, SH, Norman JN, Alexander BJ (2000) Heat cramps in a hot desert work-site. Kuwait Medical Journal 32(4):382–386.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Ajam MR, Bizri AR, Mokhbat J, Weedon J, Lutwick L (2006) Short report: mucormycosis in the Eastern Mediterranean: A seasonal disease. Epidemiological Infection 134(2):341–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al Fellani MA, Khan AH, Al Gazoui RM, Zaid MK, Al Ferjani MA (2007) Prevalence and clinical features of blastocystis hominis infection among patients in Sebha, Libya. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Sciences Journal 7(1):35–40.Google Scholar
  6. Al-Salem SS (2001) Overview of the water and wastewater reuse crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 7(6):1056–1060.Google Scholar
  7. Al-Mansoob MA, Al-Mazzah MM (2005) The role of climate on malaria incidence rate in four governorates of Yemen. Medical Journal of Malaysia 60(3):349–357.Google Scholar
  8. Al-Madani AA (1991) Problems in the control of schistosomiasis in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Community Health 16(3):143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Al Rubaish AM (2007) Thunderstorm-associated bronchial asthma: a forgotten but very present epidemic. Journal of Family and Community Medicine 14(2):47–51.Google Scholar
  10. Al-Taiar A, Shabbar J, Assabri A, Al-Hobary M, Azazy A, Al-Mahdi N, Ameen K, Greenwood BM, Whitty CJM (2006) Severe malaria in children in Yemen: two site observational study. British Medical Journal 333:827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Al-Taiar A, Shabbar J, Assabri A, Al-Hobary M, Azazy A, Al-Gabri A, Al-Ganadi M, Attal B, Whitty CJM (2008) Who develops severe malaria- Impact of access to healthcare, socio-economic and environmental factors in Yemen: a case-control study. Tropical Medicine & International Health 13(6):762–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Al-Tawheed AR, Al-Awadi KA, Kehinde EO, Abdul-Halim H, Al-Hunayan A, Ali Y, Mohammed AH (2003) Anuria secondary to hot weather-induced hyperuricaemia: diagnosis and management. Annals of Saudi Medicine 23(5):283–287.Google Scholar
  13. Anwar WA (2003) Environmental health in Egypt. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 206(4/5):339–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Balbus JM, Malina C (2009) Identifying vulnerable subpopulations for climate change health effects in the United States. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 51(1):33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bassyouni MI (1993) Incidence of mycoplasma pneumoniae in lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children. El-Minia Medical Bulletin 4(2):298–319.Google Scholar
  16. Bassiouny HK (2001) Bioenvironmental and meteorological factors related to the persistence of malaria in Fayoum Governorate: a retrospective study. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 7(6):895–906.Google Scholar
  17. Bassiouny HK, Awad OM, Ahmed MH (1999) Bionomics of the anopheline vectors in an endemic area in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 74(3-4):241–261.Google Scholar
  18. BBC News (26 November 2009) Saudi Arabia floods leave 48 dead. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8380501.stm. Accessed 3 March 2010
  19. Bedri B, Osama S (1992) Environmental crisis and its impact on women. The case of the Sudan Women 2000 5:4–7.Google Scholar
  20. Beggs PJ (2004) Impacts of climate change on aeroallergens: past and future. Clinical Exp Allergy 34:1507–1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ben-Ahmed K, Aoun K, Jeddi F, Ghrab J, El-Aroui M-A, Bouratbine A (2009) Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tunisia: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81(1):40–45.Google Scholar
  22. Bener A, Abdulrazzaq YM, Al-Mutawwa J, Debuse P (1996) Genetic and environmental factors associated with asthma. Human Biology 68(3):405–414.Google Scholar
  23. Bener A, Uduman SA, Qassimi EM, Khalaily G, Sztriha L, Kilpelainen H, Obineche E (2000) Genetic and environmental factors associated with migraine in schoolchildren. Headache 40(2):152–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bouma MJ, Sondorp HE, van der Kaay HJ (1994) Health and climate change. Lancet 343(8892):302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chaudhary JR, Husain T (2006) Uncertainty analysis of humidity and precipitation changes using data from global climactic models with a case study. EIC Climate Change Technology, 2006 IEEE, May 2006, 1–10Google Scholar
  26. Dar AJ, Ahmed H, Hanif MK, Yasin UU (2006) Refractory keratitis in hot climate. Professional Medical Journal - Q. 13(1):151–155.Google Scholar
  27. Douglas AS, al-Sayer H, Rawles JM, Allan TM (1991) Seasonality of disease in Kuwait. Lancet 337(8754):13937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ebi K, McGregor G (2008) Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts. Environmental Health Perspectives 116:1449–1455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. El Gamal FM (1993) Epidemiology of bronchial asthma. Saudi Medical Journal 14(5):419–423.Google Scholar
  30. El-Gilany AH (2000) Acute respiratory infections in primary health care centers in northern Saudi Arabia. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 6:955-960.Google Scholar
  31. El-Sayed HF, Rizkalla NH, Mehanna S, Abaza SM, Winch PJ (1995) Prevalence and epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni and S haematobium infection in two areas of Egypt recently reclaimed from the desert. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 52(2):194–198.Google Scholar
  32. El Setouhy M, Ramzy RMR (2003) Lymphatic filariasis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: current status and prospects for elimination. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 9(4):534–541.Google Scholar
  33. El-Zein A, Tewtel-Salem M (2005) On the association between high temperature and mortality in warm climates. Science of the Total Environment 343(1-3):273–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. El-Zein A, Tewtel-Salem M, Nehme G (2004) A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature in Greater Beirut. Science of the Total Environment 330(1-3):71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Emch M, Feldacker C, Islam MS, Ali M (2008) Seasonality of cholera from 1974 to 2005: a review of global patterns. International Journal of Health Geographics 7:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Erling V, Jalil F, Hanson LA, Zaman S (1999) The impact of climate on the prevalence of respiratory tract infections in early childhood in Lahore, Pakistan. J Public Health Med 21(3):331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ezeamuzie CI, Thomson MS, Al-Ali S, Dowaisan A, Khan M, Hijazi Z (2000) Asthma in the desert: spectrum of the sensitizing aeroallergens. Allergy 55(2):157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ghauri B, Lodhi A, Mansha M (2007) Development of baseline (air quality) data in Pakistan. Environ Monit Assessment 127(1–3):237–252 (Epub 2006 Oct 21)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Griffin DW (2007) Atmospheric movement of microorganisms in clouds of desert dust and implications for human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 20(3):459–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Güsten H, Heinrich G, Weppner J, Abdel-Aal MM, Abdel-Hay FA, Ramadan AB, Tawfik FS, Ahmed DM, Hassan GK, Civitas T, et al. (1994) Ozone formation in the greater Cairo area. Sci Total Environment 155(3):285–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hamad AA, Nugud AE, Arnot DE, Giha HA, Abdel-Muhsin AM, Satti GM, Theander TG, Creasey AM, Babiker HA, Elnaiem DE (2002) A marked seasonality of malaria transmission in two rural sites in eastern Sudan. Acta Tropica 83(1):71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Handmer JW, Dovers S, Downing TE (1999) Societal vulnerability to climate change and variability, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 4:267–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hashemipour M, Amini M, Kelishadi R, Hovsepian S, Haghighi S, Hosseini M, Talaei M (2007) Seasonal variation in the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in Isfahan, Iran. Saudi Medical Journal 28(10):1582–1586.Google Scholar
  44. Hassan AN, Kenawy MA, Kamal H, Abdel Sattar AA, Sowilem MM (2003) GIS-based prediction of malaria risk in Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 9(4):548–558.Google Scholar
  45. Himeidan YE, El Rayah AE (2008) Role of some environmental factors on the breeding activity of Anopheles arabiensis in New Halfa town, eastern Sudan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 14(2):252–259.Google Scholar
  46. Himeidan YE, Elbashir MI, El-Rayah el-A, Adam I (2005) Epidemiology of malaria in New Halfa, an irrigated area in eastern Sudan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 11(3):499–504.Google Scholar
  47. Himeidan YE, Hamid EE, Thalib L, Elbashir MI, Adam I (2007) Climatic variables and transmission of falciparum malaria in New Halfa, Eastern Sudan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 13(1):17–24.Google Scholar
  48. Hoghooghi-Rad N (1994) Some epidemiological aspects of cryptosporidiosis in Ahvaz, Capital of Khuzestan province, Islamic Republic of Iran. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 1:17–22.Google Scholar
  49. Husain T, Chaudhary JR (2008) Human health risk assessment due to global warming: a case study of the gulf countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 5:204–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huq A, Colwell RR (1996) Environmental factors associated with emergence of disease with special reference to cholera. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2(1):37-45.Google Scholar
  51. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1998) The regional impacts of climate change: an assessment of vulnerability. In: A Special Report of IPCC Working Group II Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH, Dokken DJ (editors), Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  52. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) Working Group II Contribution of to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Climate Change 2007: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/contents.html. Accessed 16 March 2010
  53. Jaff HN, Hashim HM, Omar MN (1995) Adult asthma in northern Iraq. Zanco Journal of Medical Science 2(1):14–20.Google Scholar
  54. Junk J, Helbig A, Luers J (2003) Urban climate and air quality in Trier, Germany. International Journal of Biometeorology 47(4):230–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kalkstein LS, Smoyer KE (1993) The impact of climate change on human health: some international implications. Experientia 49(11):969–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Karaivanova GM (1995) Viral respiratory infections and their role as public health problem in tropical countries (review). African Journal of Medicine and Medical Science 24(1):1–7.Google Scholar
  57. Kashef S, Kashef MA, Eghtedari F (2003) Prevalence of aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis in Shiraz. Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology 2(4):185–188Google Scholar
  58. Khallaayoune K, Laamrani H (1992) Seasonal patterns in the transmission of schistosoma haematobium in Attaouia, Morocco. Journal of Helminthology 66:89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Khan S (1991) Hot climate and kidney stones. Journal of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences 2(1):98.Google Scholar
  60. Khogali M (2005) Health and disease in a changing Arab world 2000/2025/2050: global, environmental, and climate change and emerging diseases. Ethnicity and Disease (1 Suppl 1):S1:74–75Google Scholar
  61. Klaus SN, Frankenburg S, Ingber A (1999) Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical Dermatology 17(3):257–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kolahi AA, Rastegarpour A, Abadi A, Gachkar L (2010) An unexpectedly high incidence of acute childhood diarrhea in Koot-Abdollah, Ahwaz, Iran. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  63. Kwaasi AAA, Parhar RS, Al-Mohanna FAA, Harfi HA, Collison KS, Al-Sedairy ST (1998) Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust: Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments. Allergy 53:255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lindsay SW, Thomas CJ (2000) Mapping and estimating the population at risk from lymphatic filariasis in Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94(1):37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Makhseed M, Musini VM, Ahmed MA, Abdul Monem R (1999) Influence of seasonal variation on pregnancy-induced hypertension and/or preeclampsia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 39(2):196–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Malik GM, Seidi O, El-Taher A, Mohammed AS (1998) Clinical aspects of malaria in the Asir Region, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine 18(1):15–17.Google Scholar
  67. Malone JB, Huh OK, Fehler DP, Wilson PA, Wilensky DE, Holmes RA, Elmagdoub AI (1994) Temperature data from satellite imagery and the distribution of schistosomiasis in Egypt. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50(6):714–722.Google Scholar
  68. Malone JB, Abdel-Rahman MS, El Bahy MM, Huh OK, Shafik M, Bavia M (1997) Geographic information systems and the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni in the Nile delta. Parasitology Today 13(3):112–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McGeehin MA, Mirabelli M (2001) The potential impacts of climate variability and change on temperature-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(2):185–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mehraj V, Hatcher J, Akhtar S, Rafique G, Beg MA (2008) Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among children in an urban slum of Karachi. PLoS One 3(11):e3680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mezrioui N, Oufdou K, Baleux B (1995) Dynamics of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and fecal coliforms in experimental stabilization ponds in the arid region of Marrakesh, Morocco, and the effect of pH, temperature, and sunlight on their experimental survival. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41(6):489–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Miller AC, Arquilla B (2007) Disasters, women’s health, and conservative society: working in Pakistan with the Turkish Red Crescent following the South Asian Earthquake. Prehospitalizaation Disaster Medicine 22(4):269–273.Google Scholar
  73. Modarres R, Dehkordi AK (2005) Daily air pollution time series analysis of Isfahan City. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2(3):259-267.Google Scholar
  74. Morris CJG, Simmonds I (2000) Associations between varying magnitudes of the urban heat island and the synoptic climatology in Melbourne, Australia. International Journal of Climatology 20:1931–1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mott JA, Mannino DM, Alverson CJ, Kiyu A, Hashim J, Lee T, et al. (2005) Cardiorespiratory hospitalizations associated with smoke exposure during the 1997 Southeast Asian forest fires. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 208:75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Musa HA, Shears P, Kafi S, Elsabag SK (1999) Water quality and public health in northern Sudan: a study of rural and peri-urban communities. Journal of Applied Microbiology 87(5):676–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Musani A, Ebener S, El Morjani Z, Boos J, Thomsen I (2006) Launch of the WHO/EMRO Atlas of disaster risk: volume 1. Exposure to natural hazards. World Health Organization (submitted). http://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/17thunrccapIP9.pdf. Accessed 6 March 2010
  78. Musani A, Shaikh IA (2008) The Humanitarian consequences and actions in the Eastern Mediterranean region over the last 60 years-a health perspective. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal Special Issue S-14:150–156.Google Scholar
  79. Nabi SA, Qader SS (2008) Is global warming likely to cause an increased incidence of malaria? Libyan Journal of Medicine AOP:090105Google Scholar
  80. Neouimine NI (1996) Leishmaniasis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2(1):94–101.Google Scholar
  81. Nilsson ED, Paatero J, Boy M (2001a) Effects of air masses and synoptic weather on aerosol formation in the continental boundary layer. Tellus Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 53:462–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nilsson ED, Rannik U, Kulmala M, Buzorius G, O’Dowd CD (2001b) Effects of continental boundary layer evolution, convection, turbulence and entrainment, on aerosol formation. Tellus Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 53:441–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nofal FMH, Issa AI (1990) A study of atmospheric photochemical oxidants and their precursors. Bulletin High Inst Public Health 20(1):83–92.Google Scholar
  84. Noor AM, Clements AC, Gething PW, Moloney G, Borle M, Shewchuk T, Hay SI, Snow RW (2008) Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia. Malaria Journal 21(7):159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Oumeish OY (1998) The global ozone crisis. Clinical Dermatology 16(1):11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Oshaghi MA, Ravasan NM, Javadian E, Rassi Y, Sadraei J, Enayati AA, Vatandoost H, Zare Z, Emami SN (2009) Application of predictive degree day model for field development of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 46(4):247–255.Google Scholar
  87. Patz JA, Kovats RS (2002) Hotspots in climate change and human health. British Medical Journal 325:1094–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Patz JA, Campbell-Lendrum D, Holloway T, Foley JA (2005) Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature 438:310–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Piscopo TV, Mallia AC (2006) Leishmaniasis. Postgraduate Medical Journal 82:649–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Polack S, Brooker S, Hannah Kuper H, Mariotti S, Mabey D, Foster A (2005) Mapping the global distribution of trachoma. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 83:913–919.Google Scholar
  91. Pope CA, Dockery WA (2004) Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association 56:709–742.Google Scholar
  92. Poureslami IM, MacLean DR, Spiegel J, Yassi A (2004) Sociocultural, environmental, and health challenges facing women and children living near the borders between Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (AIP region). MedGenMed. 6(3):51.Google Scholar
  93. Prothero RM (1994) Forced movements of population and health hazards in tropical Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology 23(4):657–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Qasem JA, Nasrallah H, Al-Khalaf BN, Al-Sharifi F, Al-Sherayfee A, Almathkouri SA, Al-Saraf H (2008) Meteorological factors, aeroallergens and asthma-related visits in Kuwait: a 12-month retrospective study. Annals of Saudi Medicine 28(6):435–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rathor HR (2000) The role of vectors in emerging and re-emerging diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Dengue Bulletin Volume 24. http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section332/Section522_2535.htm. Accessed 3 March 2010
  96. Reid CE, Gamble JL (2009) Aeroallergens, allergix disease, and climate change: impacts and adaptation. EcoHealth. doi:  10.1007/s10393-009-0261-x
  97. Reiter P (2008) Global warming and malaria: knowing the horse before hitching the cart. Malaria Journal 11(7 Suppl 1):S3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rweyemamu M, Paskin R, Benkirane A, Martin V, Roeder P, Wojciechowski K (2000) Emerging diseases of Africa and the Middle East. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 916:61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Saab A (2009) Climate change and human rights: the impact of climate change on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, L.L.M dissertation, King’s College LondonGoogle Scholar
  100. Sachs J, Malaney P (2002) The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature 415(6972):680–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Salehi M, Mohammad K, Farahani MM, Zeraati H, Nourijelyani K, Zayeri F (2008) Spatial modeling of malaria incidence rates in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Islamic Republic of Iran. Saudi Medical Journal 29(12):1791–1796.Google Scholar
  102. Saliba NA, Moussa S, Salame H, El-Fadel M (2006)Variation of selected air quality indicators over the city of Beirut, Lebanon: assessment of emission sources. Atmospheric Environment 40(18):3263–3268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sauerborn R, Matthies F (2005) Global environmental change and human health. In: Earth System Science in the Anthropocene: Emerging Issues and Problems, Ehlers E, Krafft T (editors), pp 113–134Google Scholar
  104. Semenza JC, Menne B (2009) Climate change and infectious diseases in Europe. Lancet Infectious Diseases 9:365–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shaikh SU, Shaikh RB, Faiz MS (2003) Seasonal paradox in acute meningitis at Nawabshah. Journal of College Physicians Surgery Pakistan 13(4):207–209.Google Scholar
  106. Shanks NJ, Papworth G (2001) Environmental factors and heatstroke. Occupational Medicine 51:45–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shinn EA, Griffin DW, Seba DB (2003) Atmospheric transport of mold spores in clouds of desert dust. Archives of Environmental Health 58(8):498–504.Google Scholar
  108. Sturrock HJ, Picon D, Sabasio A, Oguttu D, Robinson E, Lado M, Rumunu J, Brooker S, Kolaczinski JH (2009) Integrated mapping of neglected tropical diseases: epidemiological findings and control implications for northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan. PLoS Negl Tropical Diseases 3(10):e537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tavana MA, Fallah Z, Ataee RA (2006) Is cholera outbreak related to climate factors? report of seven year study from 21th March 1998-to 21th March 2004 in Iran. Journal of Medical Sciences 6(3):480–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Theander TG (1998) Unstable malaria in Sudan: the influence of the dry season. Malaria in areas of unstable and seasonal transmission. Lessons from Daraweesh. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92(6):589–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Uduman SA, Ijaz MK, Kochiyil J, Mathew T, Hossam MK (1996) Respiratory syncytial virus infection among hospitalized young children with acute lower respiratory illnesses in Al Ain, UAE. Communicable Diseases 28(4):245-252.Google Scholar
  112. UNICEF (2007) Pakistan: cyclone floods in Pakistan leave thousands displaced and desperate. http://www.unicef.org/emerg/pakistan_40175.html. Accessed 16 March 2010
  113. United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP (2007) United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Office for West Asia. Air quality and atmospheric pollution in the Arab region. http://huwu.org/esa/sustdev/csd/csd14/escwaRIM_bp1.pdf. Accessed 14 May 2009
  114. Watts S, Siddiqi S, Shukrullah A, Karim K, Serag H (2007) Social Determinants of Health in Countries in Conflict and Crises: The Eastern Mediterranean Perspective. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  115. Waibel KH (2005) Allergic rhinitis in the Middle East. Mil Med. 170(12):1026–1028.Google Scholar
  116. Wahid A (1998) Green house effect. Journal of Ayub Medical College - Abbotabad - Pakistan 10(2):46–48.Google Scholar
  117. Wakabi W (2009) Fighting and drought worsen Somalia’s humanitarian crisis. Lancet 374(9695):1051–1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Waked M, Salameh P (2006) Asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in 13- to 14-year-old schoolchildren across Lebanon. Lebanese Medical Journal 54(4):181–190.Google Scholar
  119. Wiwanitkit V (2005) Overview of clinical reports on urinary schistosomiasis in the tropical Asia. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 21 (4):499–501.Google Scholar
  120. WHO (2000) World Health Report. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000. http://www.who.int/whr/2000/en/whr00_en.pdf. Accessed 7 March 2010
  121. WHO (2003) Climate change and human health: risks and responses. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  122. WHO (2007a) Risk reduction and emergency preparedness: WHO six-year strategy for the health sector and community capacity development. http://www.who.int/hac/techguidance/preparedness/emergency_preparedness_eng.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2010
  123. WHO (2007b) Fact Sheet #207. Rift Valley fever. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs207/en/index.html. Accessed 13 March 2010
  124. WHO (2008a) Technical discussion on climate change. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  125. WHO (2008b) Health action in crises: primary health care in crises. Annual Report 2008Google Scholar
  126. WHO (2009a) Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf. Accessed 14 March 2010
  127. WHO (2009b) Fact sheet #117. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/index.html. Accessed 13 March 2010
  128. WHO/EMRO (2005) Annual Report 2004: the way forward. Division of Communicable Disease ControlGoogle Scholar
  129. WHO/EMRO (2007) Technical discussion on Food marketing to children and adolescents in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: implications for public healthGoogle Scholar
  130. WHO/EMRO (2008a) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. Annual report of the Regional Director, 1 January–31 December 2008. http://www.emro.who.int/rd/annualreports/2008/pdf/annualreport_08.pdf. Accessed 2 March 2010
  131. WHO/EMRO (2008b) Regional office for the Eastern Mediterranean. June, 2008. Technical discussion on Malaria elimination in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: vision, requirements and strategic outline. http://www.emro.who.int/RC55/media/pdf/EMRC55TECHDISC02en.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2010
  132. World Bank (2006) Hazards of nature, risks to development: an IEG evaluation of world bank assistance for natural disasters, 2006. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  133. Yousif F, Roushdy M, Ibrahim A, el Hommossany K, Shiff C (1996) Cercariometry in the study of schistosoma mansoni transmission in Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 26(2):353–365.Google Scholar
  134. Zawahri MZ (2004) Stroke and the weather. Neurosciences 9(1):60–61.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association for Ecology and Health 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Health SciencesAmerican University of BeirutRiad El SolhLebanon

Personalised recommendations