, 6:6 | Cite as

Chytridiomycosis, Amphibian Extinctions, and Lessons for the Prevention of Future Panzootics

  • Kerry M. KrigerEmail author
  • Jean-Marc Hero


The human-mediated transport of infected amphibians is the most plausible driver for the intercontinental spread of chytridiomycosis, a recently emerged infectious disease responsible for amphibian population declines and extinctions on multiple continents. Chytridiomycosis is now globally ubiquitous, and it cannot be eradicated from affected sites. Its rapid spread both within and between continents provides a valuable lesson on preventing future panzootics and subsequent erosion of biodiversity, not only of amphibians, but of a wide array of taxa: the continued inter-continental trade and transport of animals will inevitably lead to the spread of novel pathogens, followed by numerous extinctions. Herein, we define and discuss three levels of amphibian disease management: (1) post-exposure prophylactic measures that are curative in nature and applicable only in a small number of situations; (2) pre-exposure prophylactic measures that reduce disease threat in the short-term; and (3) preventive measures that remove the threat altogether. Preventive measures include a virtually complete ban on all unnecessary long-distance trade and transport of amphibians, and are the only method of protecting amphibians from disease-induced declines and extinctions over the long-term. Legislation to prevent the emergence of new diseases is urgently required to protect global amphibian biodiversity.


chytrid wildlife disease amphibian declines extinction Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis pet trade 



We thank Jeremy Thompson, Monique Van Sluys, and two anonymous reviewers for comments that greatly improved the quality of the final manuscript. Financial support for this work was graciously provided by the Eppley Foundation for Research.

Supplementary material

10393_2009_228_MOESM1_ESM.doc (557 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 557 kb)


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Copyright information

© International Association for Ecology and Health 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Innovative Conservation Strategies, School of EnvironmentGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia

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