Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Cognitive disparities between US- and foreign-born individuals

Abstract

Aim

This study aims to assess whether heterogeneity in cognitive functioning trajectories differ across racial/ethnic and nativity (REN) groups, as well as if gender, level of education, physical comorbidities, history of health behaviors, and functional limitations reflect the processes associated with cumulative advantage (disadvantage), persistent inequality, and age as leveler.

Methods

The empirical work of this study is based on the 1996–2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Growth curve modeling is used to assess the aims of this study.

Results

Long-term change in cognitive functioning trajectories are shaped along REN lines. US-born whites have significantly better cognitive function but experience a faster rate of cognitive deterioration than foreign-born whites, as well as foreign- and US-born blacks, Mexicans, other Hispanics, and other racial ethnic groups, even after taking gender, level of education, health behaviors, and the relevant chronic and physical health conditions into account.

Conclusion

There is a pressing need for more culturally appropriate and culturally adapted programs and preventive strategies that take the cultural, linguistic, and other specific needs and issues of individuals in different REN groups into account. There remains a pressing need for an integrated treatment and screening for physical comorbidities, functional limitations, and cognitive interventions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Borrell LN, Lancet EA (2012) Race/ethnicity and all-cause mortality in US adults: revisiting the Hispanic paradox. Am J Public Health 102(5):836–843

  2. Brown CH 4th, Sharrett AR, Coresh J, Schneider AL, Alonso A, Knopman DS, Mosley TH, Gottesman RF (2015) Association of hospitalization with long-term cognitive and brain MRI changes in the ARIC cohort. Neurology 84(14):1443–1453

  3. Castora-Binkley M, Peronto CL, Edwards JD, Small BJ (2015) A longitudinal analysis of the influence of race on cognitive performance. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 70(4):512–518

  4. Colby SL, Ortman JM (2015) Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population: 2014 to 2060. Available online at: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2015/demo/p25-1143.pdf. Accessed 2 Mar 2019

  5. Commodore-Mensah Y, Ukonu N, Obisesan O, Aboagye JK, Agyemang C, Reilly CM, Dunbar SB, Okosun IS (2016) Length of residence in the United States is associated with a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in immigrants: a contemporary analysis of the National Health Interview Survey. J Am Heart Assoc 5(11):e004059. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.116.004059

  6. Commodore-Mensah Y, Ukonu N, Cooper LA, Agyemang C, Himmelfarb CD (2018a) The association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease risk in Ghanaian and Nigerian-born African immigrants in the United States: the Afro-Cardiac Study. J Immigr Minor Health 20(5):1137–1146

  7. Commodore-Mensah Y, Selvin E, Aboagye J, Turkson-Ocran RA, Li X, Himmelfarb CD, Ahima RS, Cooper LA (2018b) Hypertension, overweight/obesity, and diabetes among immigrants in the United States: an analysis of the 2010–2016 National Health Interview Survey. BMC Public Health 18(1):773

  8. Díaz-Venegas C, Downer B, Langa KM, Wong R (2016) Racial and ethnic differences in cognitive function among older adults in the USA. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 31(9):1004–19912

  9. Divney AA, Echeverria SE, Thorpe LE, Trinh-Shevrin C, Islam NS (2019) Hypertension prevalence jointly influenced by acculturation and gender in US immigrant groups. Am J Hypertens 32(1):104–111

  10. Dokkedal U, Hansen TG, Rasmussen LS, Mengel-From J, Christensen K (2016) Cognitive functioning after surgery in middle-aged and elderly Danish twins. Anesthesiology 124(2):312–321

  11. Esme M, Yavuz BB, Yavuz B, Asil S, Tuna Dogrul R, Sumer F, Kilic MK, Kızılarslanoğlu MC, Varan HD, Sagir A, Balci C, Halil M, Cankurtaran M (2018) Masked hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in geriatric age—Geriatric MASked Hypertension and Cognition (G-MASH-cog) Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 73(2):248–254

  12. Fenelon A, Chinn JJ, Anderson RN (2017) A comprehensive analysis of the mortality experience of Hispanic subgroups in the United States: variation by age, country of origin, and nativity. SSM Popul Health 3:245–254

  13. Garcia MA, Reyes AM, Downer B, Saenz JL, Samper-Ternent RA, Raji M (2018a) Age of migration and the incidence of cognitive impairment: a cohort study of elder Mexican-Americans. Innov Aging 1(3):igx037. https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx037

  14. Garcia MA, Saenz J, Downer B, Wong R (2018b) The role of education in the association between race/ethnicity/nativity, cognitive impairment, and dementia among older adults in the United States. Demogr Res 38:155–168

  15. Hall JR, Vo HT, Johnson LA, Barber RC, O’Bryant SE (2011) The link between cognitive measures and ADLs and IADL functioning in mild Alzheimer’s: what has gender got to do with it? Int J Alzheimers Dis 2011:276734. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/276734

  16. Hammond CA, Blades NJ, Chaudhry SI, Dodson JA, Longstreth WT Jr, Heckbert SR, Psaty BM, Arnold AM, Dublin S, Sitlani CM, Gardin JM, Thielke SM, Nanna MG, Gottesman RF, Newman AB, Thacker EL (2018) Long-term cognitive decline after newly diagnosed heart failure: longitudinal analysis in the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study). Circ Heart Fail 11(3):e004476. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.117.004476

  17. Health and Retirement Study (2011) Sample sizes and response rates. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Available online at: http://hrsonline.isr.umich.edu/sitedocs/sampleresponse.pdf. Accessed 2 Mar 2019

  18. Hickling LM, Perez-Iglesias R, Ortiz-García de la Foz V, Balanzá-Martínez V, McGuire P, Crespo-Facorro B, Ayesa-Arriola R (2018) Tobacco smoking and its association with cognition in first episode psychosis patients. Schizophr Res 192:269–273

  19. Horlyck-Romanovsky MF, Wyka K, Echeverria SE, Leung MM, Fuster M, Huang TTK (2019a) Foreign-born blacks experience lower odds of obesity but higher odds of diabetes than US-born blacks in New York City. J Immigr Minor Health 21(1):47–55

  20. Horlyck-Romanovsky MF, Fuster M, Echeverria SE, Wyka K, Leung MM, Sumner AE, Huang TT (2019b) Black immigrants from Africa and the Caribbean have similar rates of diabetes but Africans are less obese: the New York City Community Health Survey 2009–2013. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 6(3):635–645

  21. Jiménez-Balado J, Riba-Llena I, Abril O, Garde E, Penalba A, Ostos E, Maisterra O, Montaner J, Noviembre M, Mundet X, Ventura O, Pizarro J, Delgado P (2019) Cognitive impact of cerebral Small vessel disease changes in patients with hypertension. Hypertension 73(2):342–349

  22. Karlamangla AS, Miller-Martinez D, Aneshensel CS, Seeman TE, Wight RG, Chodosh J (2009) Trajectories of cognitive function in late life in the United States: demographic and socioeconomic predictors. Am J Epidemiol 170(3):331–342

  23. Kong D, Davitt J, Dong X (2018) Loneliness, depressive symptoms, and cognitive functioning among US Chinese older adults. Gerontol Geriatr Med 4:1–8

  24. Krieger N, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Koenen K (2011) Racial discrimination, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US-born and foreign-born black Americans. Am J Public Health 101(9):1704–1713

  25. Langballe EM, Ask H, Holmen J, Stordal E, Saltvedt I, Selbæk G, Fikseaunet A, Bergh S, Nafstad P, Tambs K (2015) Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia up to 27 years later in a large, population-based sample: the HUNT study, Norway. Eur J Epidemiol 30(9):1049–1056

  26. Levine DA, Galecki AT, Langa KM, Unverzagt FW, Kabeto MU, Giordani B, Wadley VG (2015) Trajectory of cognitive decline after incident stroke. JAMA 314(1):41–51

  27. Lourenco J, Serrano A, Santos-Silva A, Gomes M, Afonso C, Freitas P, Paul C, Costa E (2018) Cardiovascular risk factors are correlated with low cognitive function among older adults across Europe based on the SHARE database. Aging Dis 9(1):90–101

  28. Mahon S, Parmar P, Barker-Collo S, Krishnamurthi R, Jones K, Theadom A, Feigin V (2017) Determinants, prevalence, and trajectory of long-term post-stroke cognitive impairment: results from a 4-year follow-up of the ARCOS-IV study. Neuroepidemiology 49(3–4):129–134

  29. Mayeda ER, Glymour MM, Quesenberry CP, Whitmer RA (2016) Inequalities in dementia incidence between six racial and ethnic groups over 14 years. Alzheimers Dement 12(3):216–224

  30. Michaud PC, Kapteyn A, Smith JP, Van Soest A (2011) Temporary and permanent unit non-response in follow-up interviews of the Health and Retirement Study. Longit Life Course Stud 2(2):145–169

  31. Mukamal KJ, Longstreth WT Jr, Mittleman MA, Crum RM, Siscovick DS (2001) Alcohol consumption and subclinical findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Stroke 32:1939–1946

  32. Ofstedal MB, Fisher GG, Herzog AR (2005) Documentation of cognitive functioning measures in the Health and Retirement Study. Survey Research Center, Ann Arbor

  33. Ortman JM, Velkoff VA, Hogan H (2014) An aging nation: the older population in the United States. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC

  34. Oza-Frank R, Stephenson R, Narayan KM (2011) Diabetes prevalence by length of residence among US immigrants. J Immigr Minor Health 13(1):1–8

  35. Palta P, Carlson MC, Crum RM, Colantuoni E, Sharrett AR, Yasar S, Nahin RL, DeKosky ST, Snitz B, Lopez O, Williamson JD, Furberg CD, Rapp SR, Golden SH (2017) Diabetes and cognitive decline in older adults: the Ginkgo evaluation of memory study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 73(1):123–130

  36. Radloff LS (1977) The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1(3):385–401

  37. Richard EL, Kritz-Silverstein D, Laughlin GA, Fung TT, Barrett-Connor E, McEvoy LK (2017) Alcohol intake and cognitively healthy longevity in community-dwelling adults: the Rancho Bernardo study. J Alzheimers Dis 59(3):803–814

  38. Rubenstein ES (2016) Immigration replacing births as primary driver of U.S. population growth. The Social Contract. Available online at: https://www.thesocialcontract.com/pdf/twentysix-two/tsc_26_2_rubenstein_2.pdf. Accessed 2 Mar 2019

  39. Ruitenberg A, van Swieten JC, Witteman JC, Mehta KM, van Duijn CM, Hofman A, Breteler MM (2002) Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: the Rotterdam study. Lancet 359(9303):281–286

  40. Ryan-Ibarra S, Sanchez-Vaznaugh EV, Leung C, Induni M (2017) The relationship between food insecurity and overweight/obesity differs by birthplace and length of US residence. Public Health Nutr 20(4):671–677

  41. Singh GK, Hiatt RA (2006) Trends and disparities in socioeconomic and behavioural characteristics, life expectancy, and cause-specific mortality of native-born and foreign-born populations in the United States, 1979–2003. Int J Epidemiol 35(4):903–919

  42. Singh GK, Siahpush M (2001) All-cause and cause-specific mortality of immigrants and native born in the United States. Am J Public Health 91(3):392–399

  43. Singh GK, Siahpush M (2002) Ethnic-immigrant differentials in health behaviors, morbidity, and cause-specific mortality in the United States: an analysis of two national data bases. Hum Biol 74(1):83–109

  44. St. Clair P, Blake D, Bugliari D, Chien S, Hayden O, Hurd M, Ilchuk S, Kung FY, Miu A, Panis C, Pantoja P (2010) RAND HRS Data Documentation, Version J. RAND Corporation, RAND Center for the Study of Aging, Santa Monica, CA

  45. Thomas SC, Umer A, Commodore-Mensah Y, Davidov D, Abildso CG (2019) Length of residence and cardiovascular health among Afro-Caribbean immigrants in New York City. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 6(3):487–496

  46. Weuve J, Rajan KB, Barnes LL, Wilson RS, Evans DA (2018a) Secular trends in cognitive performance in older black and white US adults, 1993–2012: findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 73(suppl_1):S73–S81

  47. Weuve J, Barnes LL, Mendes de Leon CF, Rajan KB, Beck T, Aggarwal NT, Hebert LE, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Evans DA (2018b) Cognitive aging in black and white Americans: cognition, cognitive decline, and incidence of Alzheimer disease dementia. Epidemiology 29(1):151–159

  48. Winkler A, Dlugaj M, Weimar C, Jöckel KH, Erbel R, Dragano N, Moebus S; Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigative Group (2014) Association of diabetes mellitus and mild cognitive impairment in middle-aged men and women. J Alzheimers Dis 42(4):1269–1277

  49. World Health Organization (WHO) (2015) World report on ageing and health 2015. Available online at: https://www.who.int/ageing/events/world-report-2015-launch/en/. Accessed 2 Mar 2019

  50. Wu B, Fillenbaum GG, Plassman BL, Guo L (2016) Association between oral health and cognitive status: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc 64(4):739–751

  51. Xu H, Vorderstrasse AA, McConnell ES, Dupre ME, Østbye T, Wu B (2018) Migration and cognitive function: a conceptual framework for Global Health Research. Glob Health Res Policy 3(1):34. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0088-5

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Hui-Peng Liew.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and informed consent

Ethical or Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and informed consent are exempted from this study because it is based on secondary data, namely the 1996–2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the HRS Cross-Wave Tracker file.

Conflict of interest

The author certifies that no conflict of interest exists regarding this manuscript and there is no connection, financial or otherwise, that might imply or introduce bias in any aspect of my work in review of the manuscript. This manuscript has not been considered for publication elsewhere. No similar works have been submitted elsewhere.

Open access

Not applicable.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The sole author is responsible for merging of the data, cleaning the data, interpreting the data, and writing up of the results.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liew, H. Cognitive disparities between US- and foreign-born individuals. J Public Health (Berl.) (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-020-01218-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cognitive function
  • Growth curve modeling
  • Aging
  • Health and Retirement Study