Passive smoking at home increased the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in China

  • Hong-Chun Lu
  • Li Yuan
  • Huan Yu
  • Hai-Shan Tang
  • Yang-Yang Zhao
  • Li-li Huang
  • Chang Su
  • Yuan-Hua Chen
  • De-Xiang Xu
  • Mei Zhao
Original Article



Active smoking during pregnancy may increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but little is known about the potential association between passive smoking and risk of GDM. The present study investigated the association between passive smoking at home and/or in the workplace and risk of GDM among non-smoking Chinese women.


A population-based study including 995 pregnant women taking antenatal care from December 2015 to May 2016 was conducted. Screening was carried out after 24 gestational weeks, during which women were offered a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Basic information and self-reported passive smoking were collected by a questionnaire. Passive smoking was classified as passive smoking at home, passive smoking in the workplace, or passive smoking at home and in the workplace. They were further classified by time period, total exposure time, and amount. Logistic regression was used to estimate both crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).


The prevalence of passive smoking was 78.3%. Compared with women who were non-exposed to passive smoking, a passive smoker has an increased risk of GDM with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.60 (1.09, 2.33). In addition, there was a strong association between passive smoking exposure at home and GDM (adjusted OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.13, 2.24), and significant dose–response relationships in total exposure time and amount of passive smoking at home were observed. However, there is no obvious evidence for the link between passive smoking in the workplace and GDM risk (adjusted OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.87, 1.80).


Passive smoking at home was associated with an increased risk of GDM among non-smoking Chinese women. These findings emphasize the importance of preventing passive smoking, especially at home.


Gestational diabetes mellitus Passive smoking Home Workplace Chinese 



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number: 81671471).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of NursingAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.Department of NursingAnqing Medical CollegeAnqingChina
  3. 3.The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and MedicineUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  4. 4.The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina
  5. 5.Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Population Health & AristogenicsHefeiChina
  6. 6.Department of Histology and EmbryologyAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina
  7. 7.Department of ToxicologyAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina

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