The relationship between dairy food intake and psychological distress among Iranian adults: results from a large cross-sectional population-based study
- 6 Downloads
Psychological distress is associated with decreased quality of life. The nutritional factor is one of the most important for mental well-being.
Subjects and methods
The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between dairy food intake and psychological distress. In this cross-sectional study, data on the dietary food intake of 4763 participants were collected using a validated FFQ. Also, the Iranian validated version of the GHQ was used to screen psychological distress.
Individuals in the highest tertile of total dairy food intake were less likely to have psychological distress (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70–0.91, P = 0.04) in the final adjusted model. At stratified analysis based on sex, the same findings were obtained only among women. Inversely, individuals in the highest category of high-fat dairy intake had greater odds of suffering from psychological distress (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07–1.83, P = 0.01). Also, higher intake of high-fat dairy was significantly associated with greater odds of psychological distress among women in models stratified by sex. However, we found a marginally significant inverse association between higher intake of low-fat dairy and psychological distress risk (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69–1.01, P = 0.07). This association was not significant among men and women in a stratified analysis based on sex.
The result showed dairy intake is associated with psychological distress. Further studies are required to confirm these associations.
KeywordsDairy food intake High-fat dairy Low-fat dairy Psychological distress
The authors thank the staff and participants of SEPAHAN for their important contributions.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
The study protocol was approved by the regional bioethics committee of IUMS (Adibi 2012).
- Adibi P (2012) The study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition (SEPAHAN): overview of methodology. J Res Med Sci 17:S292–S298Google Scholar
- Atkins J, Naismith SL, Luscombe GM, Hickie IB (2013) Psychological distress and quality of life in older persons: relative contributions of fixed and modifiable risk factors. Bmc Psychiatr 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-13-249
- de Souza RJ et al. (2015) Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies Bmj-Brit Med J 351. https://doi.org/10.1136/Bmj.H3978
- Hajian S (2016) Positive effect of antioxidants on immune system. Immunopathologia Persa 1Google Scholar
- Kalantari N, Doaei S, Gordali M, Rahimzadeh G, Gholamalizadeh M (2016) The Association between dairy intake, simple sugars and body mass index with expression and extent of anger in female students. Iranian J Psychiatr 11:43–50Google Scholar
- Keshteli A, Esmaillzadeh A, Rajaie S, Askari G, Feinle-Bisset C, Adibi P (2014) A dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of dietary intakes in epidemiologic studies in Iran: design and development. Int J Prevent Med 5:29–36Google Scholar
- Perez-Cornago A, Zulet MA, Martinez JA (2015) Association between mood and diet quality in subjects with metabolic syndrome participating in a behavioural weight-loss programme: a cross-sectional assessment. Nutr Neurosci 18:137–144. https://doi.org/10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000116 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Richard A, Rohrmann S, Vandeleur CL, Mohler-Kuo M, Eichholzer M (2015) Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: results from a population-based study. Bmc Psychiatr 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/S12888-015-0597-4
- Shahreza FD (2016) From oxidative stress to endothelial cell dysfunction. J Prevent Epidemiol 1Google Scholar
- Uemura M et al (2016) Association between psychological distress and dietary intake among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake in a cross-sectional study: the Fukushima Health Management Survey. BMJ Open 6:e011534. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011534 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar