Advertisement

Behavior and attitudes towards smoking among teachers in Turkey

  • Serap Ozbas
  • Rustu Onur
  • Mehmet Ali Alkan
Original Article
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

Aim

Investigation of the attitudes of teachers who smoke and those who do not smoke is important in terms of their status for being a role model for their students and for intervention and prevention of smoking in a society. This study investigated the behavior and attitudes about smoking among teachers in a province (Şanlıurfa) in Turkey.

Subjects and methods

The data were collected from 546 teachers from public schools. The participants consisted of 291 female (53.3%) and 255 male (46.7%) teachers. These data were collected by convenience sampling. We used the attitude scale towards smoking.

Results

This study indicates that half of the participants were smokers and there were more male smokers than female smokers. Smoker teachers had more positive inclination towards smoking than the non-smokers. Male teachers displayed more favorable attitudes towards smoking than female teachers.

Conclusion

The attitude of teachers towards smoking varied according to their cigarette smoking status. Their behavior and attitudes about smoking corresponded well with cognitive dissonance theory.

Keywords

Attitude towards smoking Gender Smoking behavior Teachers 

References

  1. Ajili F, Kourda N, Karay S, Darouiche A, Chebil M, Boubaker S (2013) Impact of smoking intensity on outcomes of patients with non muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by BCG immunotherapy. Ultrastruct Pathol 37(4):273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Algan Ü (1995) Türkiye’de Turizm Sektörü ve Turizm Sektörü İle İlgili Projeksiyonlar. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 3(3)Google Scholar
  3. Barrueco M, Hernandez-Mezquita MA, Jimenez-Ruiz C, Torrecilla M, Vega MT, Garrido E (2000) Attitudes of teachers about tobacco prevention at school. Allergol Immunopathol 28(4):219–224Google Scholar
  4. Bem DJ (1967) Self-perception: an alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena. Psychol Rev 74(3):183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bin Yaacob I, bin Harun MH (1994) Smoking habits and attitudes among secondary school teachers. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 25(1):74–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blake KD, Viswanath K, Blendon RJ, Vallone D (2009) The role of tobacco-specific media exposure, knowledge, and smoking status on selected attitudes toward tobacco control. Nicotine Tob Res 12(2):117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanz M (2015) Forschungsmethoden und Statistik für die Soziale Arbeit: Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Kohlhammer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  8. Cantu DA (2008) Paradoxical paradigms: A comparative study of discipline-based and education-based history teacher education. Hist Educ 101:3–29Google Scholar
  9. Chen TL, Rakip WR (1975) The effect of the teachers smoking behavior on their involvement in smoking education in the schools. J Sch Health 45(8):455–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark E, McCann TV, Rowe K, Lazenbatt A (2004) Cognitive dissonance and undergraduate nursing students’ knowledge of, and attitudes about, smoking. J Adv Nurs 46(6):586–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Claus M, Kimbel R, Spahn D, Dudenhöffer S, Rose D-M, Letzel S (2014) Prevalence and influencing factors of chronic back pain among staff at special schools with multiple and severely handicapped children in Germany: results of a cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 15(1):55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Çoban SA, Sungur G (2013) Öğretmenlerin sigara kullanım konusundaki davranışları ve görüşleri. Türk Toraks Derg 14(2):98–102Google Scholar
  13. Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  14. Çoşkun F, Karadağ M, Ursavaş A, Ege E (2010) Öğretmenlerin sigara içme alışkanlıkları ve yeni yasaya bakışları. Solunum 12:119–124Google Scholar
  15. Cote ML, Colt JS, Schwartz KL, Wacholder S, Ruterbusch JJ, Davis F, Purdue M, Graubard BI, Chow WH (2012) Cigarette smoking and renal cell carcinoma risk among black and white Americans: effect modification by hypertension and obesity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 21(5):770–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Danacı AE, Yorgancıoğlu A, Çelik P, Topçu F, Şen FS (2000) Manisa ili lise öğretmenlerinin sigara içmeye karşı tutumları. Toraks Dergisi 3:16–20Google Scholar
  17. D’Alessandro A, Boeckelmann I, Hammwhöner M, Goette A (2012) Nicotine, cigarette smoking and cardiac arrhythmia: an overview. Eur J Prev Cardiol 19(3):297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Leeuw RNH, Engels RCME, Vermulst AAV, Scholte RHJ (2008) Do smoking attitudes predict behaviour? A longitudinal study on the bi-directional relations between adolescents’ smoking attitudes and behaviours. Addiction 103(10):1713–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Moor C, Cookson K, Elder JP, Young R, Molgaard CA, Wildey M (1992) The association between teacher attitudes, behavioral intentions, and smoking and the prevalence of smoking among seventh-grade students. Adolescence 27(107):565–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dinç A (2016) Chapter 53. Smoking behaviour among high school teachers in Turkey. In: Adil Çamlı A, Ak B, Arabacı R, Efe R (eds) Recent advances in health sciences. St. Kliment Ohridski University Press, Sofia, pp 572–579Google Scholar
  21. Doll R, Hill AB (2004) The mortality of doctors in relation to their smoking habits: a preliminary report. BMJ 328(7455):1529–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elkind AK (1985) The social definition of women’s smoking behaviour. Soc Sci Med 20(12):1269–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Erbaydar T, Avcı S, Altay G (2003) Öğretmenlerin okul ortamında sigara içilmesi ve öğrencilerin sigara kullanımı konusuna yaklaşımları. MÜ Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi Yıl 17:63–74Google Scholar
  24. Ergüder T, Çakır B, Aslan D, Warren CW, Jones NR, Asma S (2008) Evaluation of the use of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data for developing evidence-based tobacco control policies in Turkey. BMC Public Health 8(1):4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Erick PN, Smith DR (2013) Prevalence of tobacco smoking among school teachers in Botswana. Tob Induc Dis 11(1):24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eriksen M, Mackay J, Schluger N, Gomeshtapeh FI, Drope J (2015) The Tobacco Atlas. Fifth Edition. Revised, expanded, and updated. The American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA. http://3pk43x313ggr4cy0lh3tctjh.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/TA5_2015_WEB.pdf Google Scholar
  27. Festinger L (1957) A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CAGoogle Scholar
  28. Fidan F, Sezer M, Demirel R, Kara Z, Ünlü M (2006) Öğretmenlerin sigara içme durumu ve sigara yasağı karşısındaki tutumları. Toraks Dergisi 7(3):196–199Google Scholar
  29. Fotuhi O, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Borland R, Yong HH, Cummings KM (2013) Patterns of cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs among smokers: a longitudinal analysis from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tob Control 22(1):52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ganley BJ, Rosario DI (2013) The smoking attitudes, knowledge, intent, and behaviors of adolescents and young adults: implications for nursing practice. J Nurs Educ Pract 3(1):40Google Scholar
  31. GTSS Collaborative Group (2006) A cross country comparison of exposure to secondhand smoke among youth. Tob Control 15(2):4–19Google Scholar
  32. Gu F, Derkach A, Freedman ND, Landi MT, Albanes D, Weinstein SJ et al (2015) Cigarette smoking behaviour and blood metabolomics. Int J Epidemiol 45(5):1421–1432.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyv330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Haddad LG, Malak MZ (2002) Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among university students in Jordan. Int J Nurs Stud 39(8):793–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hanewinkel R, Isensee B, Sargent JD, Morgenstern M (2010) Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking. Am J Prev Med 38(4):359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heilert D, Kaul A (2017) Smoking behaviour in Germany—evidence from the SOEP. Available online at: http://www.econ.uzh.ch/static/wp/econwp245.pdf
  36. İnce N, Özyıldırım B, İnce H, İşsever H, Malkoç S, Karagöz Z et al (2010) İstanbul’daki (Silivri) Öğretmenlerde Mesleksel Maruziyete Bağli Hastaliklarin Araştirilmasi. Nobel Med 2012 8(1):35–41 http://www.nobelmedicus.com/Content/1/22/35-41.pdf Google Scholar
  37. Johnson RE (1968) Smoking and the reduction of cognitive dissonance. J Pers Soc Psychol 9(3):260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jyrkkiö S, Boström P, Minn H (2012) Smoking and cancer—what are the benefits of cessation? Duodecim 128(10):1081–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kleinjan M, van den Eijnden RJ, Dijkstra A, Brug J, Engels RC (2006) Excuses to continue smoking: the role of disengagement beliefs in smoking cessation. Addict Behav 31(12):2223–2237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Konan N (2012) İlköğretim okulu ve lise öğretmenlerinin sigara içme alışkanlıkları. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 2(4):74–98Google Scholar
  41. Korzeniowska K, Cieślewicz A, Zasadzka E, Borowicz A, Pawlaczyk M, Jabłecka A (2015) Analysis of the problem of addiction in the elderly. Przegl Lek 72(3):111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kusma B, Quarcoo D, Vitzthum K, Welte T, Mache S, Meyer-Falcke A et al (2010) Berlin’s medical students’ smoking habits, knowledge about smoking and attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling. J Occup Med Toxicol 5(1):9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kutlu R, Çivi S (2007) The frequency and affecting factors of smoking among the high school teachers in Konya. TAF Prev Med Bull 6:273–278Google Scholar
  44. Macy JT, Chassin L, Presson CC (2012) Smoking behaviors and attitudes during adolescence prospectively predict support for tobacco control policies in adulthood. Nicotine Tob Res 14(7):871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mermer G, Daghan S, BiIge A, Dönmez RÖ, Özsoy S, Günay T (2016) Prevalence of tobacco use among school teachers and effect of training on tobacco use in western Turkey. Cent Eur J Public Health 24(2):137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı (MEB) (2015) Millî Eğitim İstatistikleri. Örgün Eğitim. National Education Statistics. Formal Education. 2014/’15. Available online at: http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/istatistik/meb_istatistikleri_orgun_egitim_2014_2015.pdf
  47. Morgenstern M, Wiborg G, Hanewinkel R (2008) Acceptance of a total smoking ban in schools: students’ attitudes. Gesundheitswesen 70(6):360–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Official Gazette (2015) Yönetmelik. Millî Eğitim Bakanlığından: Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı Öğretmen Atama ve Yer Değiştirme Yönetmeliği. Sayı: 29329. Available online at: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2015/04/20150417-4.htm
  49. Orcullo DJC, San TH (2016) Understanding cognitive dissonance in smoking behaviour: a qualitative study. Int J Soc Sci Humanit 6(6):481–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2013) OECD health statistics 2013; national sources for non-OECD countries.  https://doi.org/10.1787/health-data-en
  51. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD (2014) OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey 2014. OECD Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1787/eco_surveystur-2014-en
  52. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2015) Education at a glance 2015. OECD indicators. Available online at: http://download.ei-ie.org/Docs/WebDepot/EaG2015_EN.pdf
  53. Pericas J, Gonzalez S, Bennasar M, De Pedro J, Aguilo A, Bauza L (2009) Cognitive dissonance towards the smoking habit among nursing and physiotherapy students at the University of Balearic Islands in Spain. Int Nurs Rev 56(1):95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pervin LA, Yatko RJ (1965) Cigarette smoking and alternative methods of reducing dissonance. J Pers Soc Psychol 2(1):30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Piontek D, Buehler A, Donath C, Floeter S, Rudolph U, Metz K et al (2008) School context variables and students’ smoking. Eur Addict Res 14(1):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Public Health Institution of Turkey (2012) Global Adult Tobacco Survey – Turkey 2012. http://www.halksagligiens.hacettepe.edu.tr/KYTA_TR.pdf
  57. Rakete G, Strunk M, Lang P (2010) Smoking prevention in schools. A model for success. Bundesgesundheitsbl Gesundheitsforsch Gesundheitsschutz 53(2):170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reuband KH (2014) Tobacco consumption in a changing society. Extent of consumption and attitudes to smoking bans, Düsseldorf 1997–2009. Gesundheitswesen 76(1):32–40 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23564265 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Schumann A, John U, Thyrian JR, Ulbricht S, Hapke U, Meyer C (2006) Attitudes towards smoking policies and tobacco control measures in relation to smoking status and smoking behaviour. Eur J Public Health 16(5):513–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shore TH, Tashchian A, Adams JS (2000) Development and validation of a scale measuring attitudes toward smoking. J Soc Psychol 140:615–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Simmons VN, Webb MS, Brandon TH (2004) College-student smoking: an initial test of an experiential dissonance-enhancing intervention. Addict Behav 29(6):1129–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Süssenbach P, Niemeier S, Glock S (2013) Effects of and attention to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. Psychol Health 28(10):1192–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tagliacozzo R (1979) Smokers’ self-categorization and the reduction of cognitive dissonance. Addict Behav 4:393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. The World Bank (2014) Turkey. Data. Available online at: http://data.worldbank.org/country/turkey
  65. TUİK (2009) Küresel Yetişkin Tütün Araştırması. 2008. Haber Bülteni. 30Google Scholar
  66. Tuncer D (2008) Sigaranın Ağız ve Diş Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri. Klasmat Matbaacılık, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  67. Ünal Ç (2008) İnsani Gelişmişlik Endeksine Göre Türkiye’nin bölgesel farklılıkları. Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi 6(2):89–113Google Scholar
  68. Uzuner A, Kaya HT, Akman M, Yalçın N, Yavuzer Ö, Akturan S (2015) Öğretmenlerin sağlık durumuna bir bakış: Kesitsel bir çalışma. J Turk Fam Physician 6(1):1–10Google Scholar
  69. Vitzthum K, Koch F, Groneberg DA, Kusma B, Mache S, Marx P et al (2013) Smoking behaviour and attitudes among German nursing students. Nurse Educ Pract 13(5):407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wen M, Van Duker H, Olson LM (2009) Social contexts of regular smoking in adolescence: towards a multidimensional ecological model. J Adolesc 32(3):671–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. World Health Organization (WHO) (2008) WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER packageGoogle Scholar
  72. World Health Organization (WHO) (2012) Turkey’s transformation. Bull World Health Organ 90(6):401–476. http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/6/12-030612/en Google Scholar
  73. World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2013: enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  74. World Health Organization (WHO) FCTC (2013) Signature and ratification. http://www.who.int/fctc/protocol/protocol_sign/en/. Accessed 29 Aug 2017
  75. World Health Organization (WHO) (2015) WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2015. Available online at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/156262/1/9789241564922_eng.pdf
  76. Xu X, Liu L, Sharma M, Zhao Y (2015) Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, smoking cessation idea and education level among young adult male smokers in Chongqing, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:2135–2149CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationNear East UniversityNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineNear East UniversityNicosiaCyprus
  3. 3.Milli Eğitim MüdürlüğüŞanlıurfaTurkey

Personalised recommendations