Magnitude of occupational exposure to bagasse dust and associated factors among Metehara Sugarcane Factory workers, east Shoa, Ethiopia
Occupational exposure to bagasse dust is known to pose direct and indirect costs to workers. However, the paucity of information on the extent of occupational exposure to sugarcane workers in Ethiopia is a challenge. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of occupational exposure to bagasse dust and associated factors.
Study area and period
The study was conducted at Metehara Sugarcane Factory from February 15–May 15, 2017.
A cross-sectional study design was employed among 552 participants. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire adapted from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. In addition, the DustTrak™ Aerosol Monitor, CELL-880, brand name Casella, was used to measure exposure. Then, the data were entered and cleaned using Epi Info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Finally, the crude odds ratio (COR) and adjusted OR (AOR), together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were computed. p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant in this study.
Lack of labor inspections and safety audits, lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), absence of job rotation, absence of ventilation, weekly working hours and job dissatisfaction were significantly associated, with AOR = 6.12 (2.52, 7.48), 7.17 (4.05, 8.87), 1.96 (1.27, 3.02), 3.63 (2.28, 5.78), 5.9 (3.64, 9.56), 6.34 (3.79, 10.62) and 2.19 (1.05, 4.57), respectively.
Lack of safety audits and labor inspections, lack of PPE, absence of job rotation, absence of ventilation and current job dissatisfaction were found to be predictors of occupational exposure to bagasse dust. Hence, the identified factors should be considered to minimize exposure of sugarcane factory workers to bagasse dust.
KeywordsOccupational exposure Bagasse dust Sugarcane Safety audit Ethiopia
The authors thank Zewdu Girma and Sara, and other workers in the factory, for their support and collaboration, Dereje, the factory occupational hygienist, and the factory for giving us the opportunity to carry out this study. Thanks to Ashenafi Hailu, Fistum Birhanu and Fikru Keno for their help and advice on sampling materials and methods. We are grateful to the workers for their participation. Last but not least, we thank Mekelle University for the ethical clearance and financial support for data collection.
All the authors made significant contributions to the proposal development, data collection, data analysis and manuscript preparation process of this work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
There is no competing interest in the presented data with any person or organization.
- Cameron M (2012) The effectiveness of targeted labour inspections in occupational health and safety, Institute for Work & Health, 481 University Ave, Suite 800, Toronto, ON Canada M5G 2E9Google Scholar
- CDC, NIOSH (2012) Exposure Assessment method:1–29Google Scholar
- Clark MW et al (2017) High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes. Heliyon 3:e00294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00294 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Eskezia D, Aderaw Z, Ahmed KY, Tadese F (2016) Prevalence and associated factors of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 16:862. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3483-1 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- ILO, WHO (2010) Identification and recognition of occupational diseases. BRI 74:1–82Google Scholar
- Kassu J, Daniel K (2016) A litrature review on global occupational safety and health practices and accidents severity. International Journal of Quality Research 10(2):279–310. https://doi.org/10.18421/IJQR10.02-04
- Kumie A, Amera T, Berhane K, Samet J, Hundal N, G/Michael F, Gilliland F (2016) Occupational health and safety in Ethiopia: A review of situational analysis and needs assessment the ethiopian journal of health development = Ya'Ityopya tena lemat mashet 30:17–27Google Scholar
- McClean M, Laws R, Ramirez Rubio O, Brooks D (2010) Industrial hygiene/Occupational health assessment:Evaluating potential hazards associated with chemicals and work parctices at the Igenio San Antonio (Chichigalpa, Nicaragua), Boston University School of Public Health 715 Albany St-Boston, MA02118. http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/documents/FINALIHReport-AUG302010-ENGLISH.pdf. Accessed 14 Nov 2011
- Molla GA, Salgedo WB, Lemu YK (2015) Prevalence and determinants of work related injuries among small and medium scale industry workers in Bahir Dar town, north West Ethiopia. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 27:12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40557-015-0062-3
- NIOSH. (1977) Occupational exposure sampling strategy manual:49–60Google Scholar
- NIOSH, OSHA. (2010) Promoting Productive work place through safety & health research. NIOSHGoogle Scholar
- Osman Y, Kumie A (2010) Assesment of occupational injuries in Tandaho agricultural development S.C. Afar Regional State. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 24:3. https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhd.v24i3.68380
- Pornpun S, Naesinee C, Chalermchai C, Steven S (2011) Concentrations and size distribution of inhalable and respirable dust among sugar industry workers: a pilot study in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health 23:967–979. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539510365099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tadesse S, Israel D (2016) Occupational injuries among building construction workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology (London, England) 11(16). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12995-016-0107-8
- Yohannes B (2007) Energy assessment, generation and utilization efficiency in Ethiopian sugar factories (Case Study in Metehara Sugar Factory), Addis Ababa University Thesis. http://etd.aau.edu.et/dspace/handle/123456789/1599. Accessed 25 Dec 2017