Journal of Public Health

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 495–499 | Cite as

Determinants of factors associated with childhood immunization in Punjab, Pakistan: evidence from the multiple indicator cluster survey

  • Muhammad Ameen
  • Sajid Rasul
  • Muhammad Ahsan ul HaqEmail author
  • Qaisar Khalid Mahmood
Original Article



Immunization is a significant public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to detect socio-demographic factors affecting the immunization process among the children under 3 years old.

Subjects and methods

This study was based on secondary data taken from the 2011 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS). This survey was conducted in Punjab, the most populous province in Pakistan. From these secondary data, information related to socio-demographic characteristics and the status of immunization among children up to 3 years old were taken as study variables. The analysis was comprised of descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression.


The findings reveal that only 56.18% of the total children were fully immunized. The results showed that place of birth, availability of an immunization card and the mother’s education level were primary factors based on which immunization of the child differed. However, the sex and type of family of the child did not predict any difference in the immunization status of the child.


Immunization of children is significantly associated with predictors, i.e., the mother’s education level, residence, gender and wealth index.


Immunization status MICS Coverage Socio-demographic factors 



The authors would like to thank Punjab Bureau of Statistics Department for providing the data for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Informed consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Punjab Bureau of Statistics, Planning and Development DepartmentGovernment of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Quality Enhancement Cell (QEC)National College of ArtsLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of SociologyInternational Islamic University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan

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