Evaluation of determinant factors for the presence and activity of dental caries in five-year-old children: study with decision tree
- 118 Downloads
The aim of the present study was to investigate dental caries and caries activity as well as determine associations with sociodemographic factors and visits to the dentist among 5-year-old children.
Subjects and methods
Seven hundred sixty-nine children enrolled in preschools in a medium-sized city in northeast Brazil participated in the study. Two examiners who had undergone training exercises performed the examinations using the ICDAS-II. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression for complex samples were performed (α = 5%). An inductive decision tree was created for the occurrence of cavitated lesions (J48 algorithm).
The prevalence of caries was 91.5% (59.5% cavitated lesions and 32.0% white spots). Among the children diagnosed with caries, 87.1% had active caries. In the multivariate analysis, low income (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.05–8.05) and having visited a dentist for treatment (OR = 7.94; 95% CI: 2.58–24.39) were associated with dental caries (white spot and/or cavitated lesion). For caries activity, low income (OR = 4.63; 95% CI: 1.60–13.35) and having visited a dentist for treatment (OR = 4.80; 95% CI: 2.06–11.18) remained in the final model. In the decision tree, the following variables were predictors of cavitated lesions: lower parent schooling level (p < 0.001), reason for visiting the dentist (p = 0.003) and low income (p = 0.006).
Low income and having visited a dentist for treatment were determinants of dental caries as well as caries activity in 5-year-old children. In the decision tree, low income, reason for visiting a dentist and lower parent schooling level exerted an influence on the occurrence of cavitated lesions.
KeywordsDental caries Child Oral health Decision trees Pediatric dentistry
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Altman DG (2006) Practical statistics for medical research, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Braga MM, Martignon S, Ekstrand KR, Ricketts DNJ, Imparato JCP, Mendes FM (2010) Parameters associated with active caries lesions assessed by two different visual scoring systems on occlusal surfaces of primary molars—a multilevel approach. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 38:549–558. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00567.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brazil. Ministério Da Saúde (2010). SB Brasil 2010, Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal: Resultados Principais. http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/pesquisa_nacional_saude_bucal.pdf Accessed 08 Jan 2016
- Browner WS, Newman TB, Hulley SB (2007) Estimating sample size and power: applications and exemples. In: Hulley SB, Cummings SR, Browner WS, Grady DG, Newman TB (eds) Designing clinical research. Lippincott and Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Camargo MB, Barros AJ, Frazão P, Matijasevich A, Santos IS, Peres MA, Peres KG (2012) Predictors of dental visits for routine check-ups and for the resolution of problems among preschool children. Rev Saude Publica 46:87–97. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102012005000004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- França-Pinto CC, Cenci MS, Correa MB, Romano AR, Peres MA, Peres KG, Matijasevich A, Santos IS, Barros AJ, Demarco FF (2012) Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort. Caries Res 46:170–176. https://doi.org/10.1159/000337280 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gomes MC, Clementino MA, Pinto-Sarmento TC, Martins CC, Granville-Garcia AF, Paiva SM (2014) Association between parental guilt and oral health problems in preschool children: a hierarchical approach. BMC Public Health 14:854. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-854 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Granville-Garcia AF, Clementino MA, Gomes MC, Costa EM, Pinto-Sarmento TC, Paiva SM (2015) Influence of oral problems and biopsychosocial factors on the utilization of dental services by preschool children. J Dent Child (Chic) 82:76–83Google Scholar
- Machry RV, Tuchtenhagen S, Agostini BA, Silva Teixeira CRS, Piovesan C, Mendes FM, Ardenghi TM (2013) Socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of dental healthcare use among Brazilian preschool children. BMC Oral Health 13:60. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-13-60 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pine C, Adair P, Burnside G, Robinson L, Edwards RT, Albadri S, Curnow M, Ghahreman M, Henderson M, Malies C, Wong F, Muirhead V, Weston-Price S, Whitehead H (2015) A new primary dental care service compared with standard care for child and family to reduce the re-occurrence of childhood dental caries (dental RECUR): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 16:505. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-015-1010-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pine C, Adair P, Robinson L, Burnside G, Moynihan P, Wade W, Kistler J, Curnow M, Henderson M (2016) The BBaRTS healthy teeth behaviour change Programme for preventing dental caries in primary school children: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials 17:103. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-016-1226-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pinto-Sarmento TCA, Abreu MH, Gomes MC, Costa EM, Martins CC, Granville-Garcia AF, Paiva SM (2016) Determinant factors of untreated dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children using ICDAS. PLoS One 11:e0150116. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150116 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Piovesan C, Ardenghi TM, Mendes FM, Agostini BA, Michel-Crosato E (2017) Individual and contextual factors influencing dental health care utilization by preschool children: a multilevel analysis. Braz Oral Res 31:e27. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107BOR-2017.vol31.0027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar