Advertisement

Journal of Public Health

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 475–483 | Cite as

Unmet healthcare needs among indigenous peoples in Canada: findings from the 2006 and 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Surveys

  • Piotr Wilk
  • Alana Maltby
  • Joel Phillips
Original Article
  • 548 Downloads

Abstract

Aim

The objective of this study was to assess and compare the prevalence of self-reported unmet healthcare needs (UHN) among Canadian indigenous groups using the 2006 and 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Surveys (APS).

Subject and methods

Frequency distributions and cross tabulations were produced to estimate the proportion of indigenous people who reported UHN in 2006 and 2012 and for sub-populations, based on indigenous identity, gender, age, geographic region and urban/rural area. Additionally, frequency distributions were produced for reasons for UHN and types of care needed. Standard errors and confidence intervals were calculated and took into account bootstrap weights.

Results

In 2006, 11.65% (CI: 11.04, 12.26) of indigenous people reported UHN, and this proportion significantly increased to 13.74% (CI: 12.88, 14.60) in 2012. UHN varied among indigenous identities; however, only Inuit had a significant difference in UHN between 2006 (10.19%, CI: 9.05, 11.33) and 2012 (14.58%, CI: 12.57, 16.59). Individuals aged 18–34 years, females, and those in the Prairies and Territories and in urban areas had significant differences in UHN. The most common reasons for UHN were related to availability, and the majority of respondents reported needing care for physical health problems.

Conclusions

Further research is warranted that examines the association between general factors related to UHN and indigenous-specific factors. Additionally, assessing how chronic disease impacts UHN will provide information on reasons for UHN (e.g., healthcare system-related versus personal circumstances).

Keywords

Unmet healthcare needs Indigenous health Healthcare services Canada 

Notes

Acknowledgements

[Author’s name suppressed] was supported by the ‘Children’s Heart Health’ grant from the Children’s Health Foundation.

[Author’s name suppresssed] was supported by the ‘Schulich Research Opportunities Program’ grant from the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

Ethical approval was not needed as the study relied on anonymous and confidential secondary data from Statistics Canada. Consent from respondents was obtained at the time of data collection. Formal consent was not required for our study. Data were provided by Statistics Canada through the Research Data Centers Program and accessed under the Statistics Act of Canada. The analyses and interpretation are the authors’ alone.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aday LA, Andersen R (1974) A framework for the study of access to medical care. Health Serv Res 9:208–220PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Allin S, Grignon M, Le Grand J (2010) Subjective unmet need and utilization of health care services in Canada: what are the equity implications? Soc Sci Med 70:465–472.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.10.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baiden P, den Dunnen W, Arku G, Mkandawire P (2014) The role of sense of community belonging on unmet health care needs in Ontario, Canada: findings from the 2012 Canadian community health survey. J Public Health 22:467–478.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-014-0635-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bryant T, Leaver C, Dunn J (2009) Unmet healthcare need, gender, and health inequalities in Canada. Health Policy 91:24–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2008.11.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement (2014) Healthcare Priorities in Canada: A Backgrounder Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement. http://www.cfhi-fcass.ca/sf-docs/default-source/documents/harkness-healthcare-priorities-canada-backgrounder-e.pdf. Accessed October 12, 2017
  6. Chen J, Hou F (2002) Unment needs for health care. Health Rep 13:23–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke J (2016) Difficulty accessing health care services in Canada. Health at a GlanceGoogle Scholar
  8. Connolly S, Wren MA (2017) Unmet healthcare needs in Ireland: analysis using the EU-SILC survey. Health Policy 121:434–441.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2017.02.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Frohlich KL, Ross N, Richmond C (2006) Health disparities in Canada today: some evidence and a theoretical framework. Health Policy 79:132–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.12.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hargreaves DS, Elliott MN, Viner RM, Richmond TK, Schuster MA (2015) Unmet health care need in US adolescents and adult health outcomes. Pediatrics 136:513–520.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-0237 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Health Canada (2010) Canada Health Act. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/medi-assur/cha-lcs/index-eng.php. Accessed June 14, 2017
  12. Lee SY, Kim CW, Kang JH, Seo NK (2015) Unmet healthcare needs depending on employment status. Health Policy 119:899–906.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.09.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Marrone S (2007) Understanding barriers to health care: a review of disparities in health care services among indigenous populations. Int J Circumpolar Health 66:188–198.  https://doi.org/10.3402/ijch.v66i3.18254 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Nelson CH, Park J (2006) The nature and correlates of unmet health care needs in Ontario, Canada. Soc Sci Med 62:2291–2300.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.10.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ronksley PE, Sanmartin C, Quan H, Ravani P, Tonelli M, Manns B, Hemmelgarn BR (2012) Association between chronic conditions and perceived unmet health care needs. Open Med 6:e48PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Sanmartin C, Houle C, Tremblay SP, Berthelot J-M (2002) Changes in unmet health care needs. Health Rep 13:15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Sibley LM, Glazier RH (2009) Reasons for self-reported unmet healthcare needs in Canada: a population-based provincial comparison. Healthcare Policy 5:87–101PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Snyder M, Wilson K (2012) Urban aboriginal mobility in Canada: examining the association with health care utilization. Soc Sci Med 75:2420–2424.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.09.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Soril LJJ, Adams T, Phipps-Taylor M, Winblad U, Clement FM (2017) Is Canadian healthcare affordable? A comparative analysis of the Canadian healthcare system from 2004 to 2014. Healthcare Policy 13:43–58PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Statistics Canada (2007) Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS). http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&Id=28330. Accessed June 22, 2017
  21. Statistics Canada (2012) Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS). http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=3250. Accessed June 22, 2017
  22. Statistics Canada (2013) Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit: National Household Survey, 2011 http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-011-x/99-011-x2011001-eng.cfm. Accessed June 22, 2017
  23. Statistics Canada (2016) Unmet health care needs, 2014. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2016001/article/14310-eng.htm. Accessed April 18, 2017
  24. Tjepkema M (2002) The health of the off-reserve aboriginal population. Health Rep 13:1–16Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology & BiostatisticsWestern UniversityLondonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PaediatricsWestern UniversityLondonCanada
  3. 3.Children’s Health Research InstituteLondonCanada
  4. 4.Schulich School of Medicine & DentistryWestern UniversityLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations