Advertisement

Journal of Public Health

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 195–204 | Cite as

Behavioral risk factors and non-communicable diseases among adult men in demographically developed states of India: evidence from District Level Household and Facility Survey-4

  • Shri Kant Singh
  • Swati Srivastava
Original Article
  • 234 Downloads

Abstract

Aim

To examine the association between behavioral habits (alcohol consumption, smoking, and chewing tobacco) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among adult males (18 years and above) in demographically developed states of India.

Subjects and methods

The latest round of the District Level Household and Facility Survey (2012–2013) and multivariate logistic regression model was carried out to accomplish the objective.

Results

The analysis reveals that alcohol consumption significantly increases the risk of the respiratory infection and hypertension. However, smoking and smokeless tobacco do not show a significant association with the set of NCDs included in this analysis. Moreover, the adjusted effect of the regression model shows that alcohol consumption, smoking, chewing tobacco, age and BMI are the major risk factors for the occurrence of NCDs among males in states in India.

Conclusions

The findings are vital for national commitments and policy instruments, especially in the context of the existing epidemiological transition, which are burdened with a high occurrence of NCDs. They clearly demand programs and services targeting individuals with increased risk of alcohol consumption, a combination of tobacco and alcohol use, and users of multiple substances. It is worth to mentioning that NCDs are a crude measures that does not reveal the reason for the disease. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and chewing tobacco have the lifetime exposure, but NCDs are recurrent events. Therefore, it is recommended that the relationship between behavioral habits and NCDs should be analyse by using longitudinal data instead of cross-sectional data.

Keywords

Non-communicable disease Behavioral habits CAB component Multivariate regression analysis 

Abbreviations

NCD

Non-communicable diseases

DLHS

District Level Household and Facility Survey

CAB

Clinical, anthropometric and biochemical

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Authors’ contributions

SKS conceived the idea. SS and SKS designed the experiment and analyzed it, interpreted the results, and drafted the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

No funding was available for this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declared that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

This analysis is based on a secondary data set with no identifiable information on the survey participants. This data set is available in the public domain for research use; hence, no approval was required from any institutional review board as there is no issue of human subject protection arising from this case.

Data availability

The data are available online on the website and can be downloaded. The International Institute for Population Sciences was the nodal agency for DLHS-4; therefore, the IIPS data center has also made the data available for public use. As the faculty and students of this institute, we accessed the data from the institute’s data center.

References

  1. Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Spelsberg A, Manson JE (2000) Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Arch Intern Med 160(7):1025–1030.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.7.1025 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allender S, Lacey B, Webster P, Rayner M, Deepa M, Scarborough P, Arambepola C, Datta M, Mohan V (2010) Level of urbanization and noncommunicable disease risk factors in Tamil Nadu, India. Bull World Health Organ 88(4):297–304.  https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.09.065847 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aryal KK, Mehata S, Neupane S, Vaidya A, Dhimal M, Dhakal P, Rana S, Bhusal CL, Lohani GR, Paulin FH, Garg RM, Guthold R, Cowan M, Riley LM, Karki KB (2015) The burden and determinants of non communicable diseases risk factors in Nepal: findings from a nationwide STEPS survey. PLoS One 10(8):e0134834.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134834 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Balkau B, Randrianjohany A, Papoz L, Eschwege E (1991) A prospective population-based study of alcohol use and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol 134(12):1469–1470.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116056 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhagyalaxmi A, Atul T, Shikha J (2013) Prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in a District of Gujarat, India. J Health Popul Nutr 31(1):78–85CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhardwaj SD, Shewte MK, Bhatkule PR, Khadse JR (2012) Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable disease in a rural area of Nagpur district, Maharashtra—a WHO step wise approach. Int J Biol Med Res 3(1):1413–1418Google Scholar
  7. Boutayeb A, Boutayeb S (2005) The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Int J Equity Health 4(1):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-4-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ebrahim S, Smeeth L (2005) Non-communicable diseases in low and middle-income countries: a priority or a distraction? Int J Epidemiol 34(5):961–966.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi188 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Emanuele NV, Swade TF, Emanuele MA (1998) Consequences of alcohol use in diabetics. Alcohol Health & Research World 22(3)Google Scholar
  10. Feskens EJM, Kromhout D (1989) Cardiovascular risk factors and the 25-year incidence of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. The Zutphen Study. Am J Epidemiol 130(6):1101–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115437 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Goisis A, Ozcan B, Mikko M (2017) Decline in the negative association between low birth weight and cognitive ability. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114(1):84–88.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1605544114 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hodge AM, Dowse GK, Collins VR, Zimmet PZ (1993) Abnormal glucose tolerance and alcohol consumption in three populations at high risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol 137(2):178–189.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116658 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Holbrook TL, Connor EB, Wingard DL (1990) A prospective population-based study of alcohol use and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol 132(5):902–909.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115733 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. IIPS and MoHFW (2010) Global Adult Tobacco Survey India report (GATS India) 2009–10. MoHFW, Government of India; Mumbai: IIPS, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  15. IIPS and ORC Macro (2000) National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) 1998–1999. International Institute for Population Sciences, MumbaiGoogle Scholar
  16. Koethe JR, Jenkins CA, Turner M, Bebawy S, Shepherd BE, Wester CW, Sterling TR (2015) Body mass index and the risk of incident noncommunicable diseases after starting antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med 16(1):67–72.  https://doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12178 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Krisela S, Damasceno A (2006) Lifestyle and related risk factors for chronic diseases. Dis Mortal Sub-Saharan Africa 2:247–265.  https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-6397-3 Google Scholar
  18. Luyckx VA, Brenner BM (2015) Birth weight, malnutrition and kidney-associated outcomes—a global concern. Nat Rev Nephrol 11(3):135–149.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2014.251 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. McKee M, Britton A (1998) The positive relationship between alcohol and heart disease in eastern Europe: potential physiological mechanisms. J R Soc Med 91(8):402–407CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Mini GK (2014) Pattern and Correlates of Chronic Non Communicable Diseases Among Older Adults in Selected States of India. Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India, Series II, Working Paper-3. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  21. Misra PJ, Mini GK, Thankappan KR (2014) Risk factor profile for non-communicable diseases among Mishing tribes in Assam, India: results from a WHO STEPs survey. Indian J Med Res 140(3):370–378.  https://doi.org/10.1177/014107689809100802 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Parry CD, Patra J, Rehm J (2011) Alcohol consumption and non-communicable diseases: epidemiology and policy implications. Addiction 106(10):1718–1724.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03605.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Rehm J, Ashley MJ, Room R, Single E, Bondy S, Ferrence R, Giesbrecht N (1996) On the emerging paradigm of drinking patterns and their social and health consequences. Addiction 91(11):1615–1621.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1996.911116153.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Rehm J, Baliunas D, Borges GLG, Graham K, Irving H, Kehoe T, Parry CD, Patra J, Popova S, Poznyak V, Roerecke M, Room R, Samokhvalov AV, Taylor B (2010) The relation between different dimensions of alcohol consumption and burden of disease: an overview. Addiction 105(5):817–843.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02899.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Rehm J, Room R, Graham K, Monteiro M, Gmel G, Sempos CT (2003) The relationship of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking to burden of disease: an overview. Addiction 98(9):1209–1228.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00467.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (1995) Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men. BMJ 310(6979):555–559.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.310.6979.555 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Room R, Babor T, Rehm J (2005) Alcohol and public health. Lancet 365(9458):519–530.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17870-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Sharma K (2013) Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action. Int J Med Sci Publ Health 2(1):7–11.  https://doi.org/10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE, Arky RA, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE (1988) A prospective study of moderate alcohol drinking and risk of diabetes in women. Am J Epidemiol 128(3):549–558.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Terzic A, Waldman S (2011) Chronic diseases: The emerging pandemic. Clin Translat Sci 4(3):22–226.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-8062.2011.00295.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thankappan KR, Shah B, Mathur P, Sarma PS, Srinivas G, Mini GK, Daivadanam M, Soman B, Vasan RS (2010) Risk factor profile for chronic non-communicable diseases: results of a community-based study in Kerala, India. Indian J Med Res 131:53–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Tsumura K, Hayashi T, Suematsu C, Endo G, Fujii S, Okada K (1999) Daily alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men: the Osaka Health Survey. Diabetes Care 22(9):1432–1437.  https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.22.9.1432 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Upadhyay RP (2012) An overview of the burden of non-communicable diseases in India. Iran J Publ Health 41(3):1–8Google Scholar
  34. Vijaykumar A, Sreekanthan K, Belicita A (2014) Respiratory problems among smokers in a rural area in South India: A pilot study. Indian J Clin Pract 25(4):381–385Google Scholar
  35. Wakabayashi M, McKetin R, Banwell C, Yiengprugsawan V, Kelly M, Seubsman S, Iso H, Sleigh A (2015) Alcohol consumption patterns in Thailand and their relationship with non-communicable disease. BMC Public Health 2015 15:1297.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2662-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wannamethee S, Shaper A, Perry I, Alberti K (2002) Alcohol consumption and the incidence of type II diabetes. J Epidemiol Community Health 56(7):542–548.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.56.7.542 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Wei M, Gibbons LW, Mitchell TL, Kampert JB, Blair SN (2000) Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men.Diabetes. Care 23(1):18–22.  https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.23.1.18 Google Scholar
  38. WHO (2011) Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  39. WHO (2014) Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  40. WHO (2015) Noncommunicable diseases progress monitor, 2015. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017
corrected publication January/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematical Demography and StatisticsInternational Institute for Population SciencesMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations