Alcohol consumption change of English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada
- 150 Downloads
The multicultural study aimed at examining alcohol consumption change or drinking change of English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada, and identifying demographic factors that impact the change.
Subjects and methods
In all, 810 immigrants of three language sub-groups were recruited by purposive-sampling. Using self-reports, respondents answered questions regarding drinking change and demography in the Multicultural Lifestyle Change Questionnaire in either the English, French or Chinese versions. Data on drinking were analyzed statistically.
The immigrants of different gender, language and category sub-groups exhibited different drinking rates, drinking rates before immigration, drinking rates after immigration, drinking change rates and drinking belief change rates. Drinking change (drinking behavior change + drinking belief change) was correlated positively with mother tongue and negatively with gender. Drinking behavior change was negatively correlated with gender and category of immigration. Mother tongue and gender significantly impacted drinking change. Gender significantly impacted drinking behavior change.
The immigrants of different sub-groups in Canada experienced different drinking change. Mother tongue and gender were main impacting factors. Culture and acculturation were important contributing factors. Data of immigrant drinking change may provide evidence for drinking policy-making and policy-revising in Canada.
KeywordsImmigration Culture Acculturation Alcohol consumption change Difference Impacting factors
The authors appreciate lingual support of the bilingual teachers, Claude Couture and Denis Mascotto in Vision Avenir, Gatineau, Québec, Canada. Particularly, the authors are very grateful for the assistance of immigrant health expert, Dr. Brian Gushulak in Immigration Health Consultants in Canada.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
The Immigrant Alcohol Consumption or Drinking Change study was part of the principal researcher’s (correspondent author) DrPH (Doctor of Public Health) project (multicultural lifestyle-change research project in Canada, which included smoking change, drinking change, mood change, sleep change, physical activity change, dietary change and health status change of English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada). The research project was funded by the corresponding author.
The Immigrant Drinking Change study was part of a multicultural lifestyle change research project that was approved by the Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee in Australia in 2010 and by the Office of Research Ethics and Integrity, University of Ottawa in Canada in 2014.
- Abraido-Lanza AF, Chao MT, Florez KR (2005) Do healthy behaviors decline with greater acculturation? Implications for the Latino mortality paradox. Soc Sci Med 61:1243–1255. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15970234?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000,f1000m,isrctn. September 2005
- Ali JS (2002) Mental health of Canada’s immigrants. Health reports, Vol. 13 (Statistics Canada, Catalogue No. 82-003) Ottawa: Health Canada. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-s/2002001/pdf/82-003-s2002006-eng.pdf. March 2015
- Becerra MB, Herring P, Marshak HH, Banta JE (2013) Association between acculturation and binge drinking among Asian-Americans: results from the California health interview survey. J Addict 2013:248196. doi: 10.1155/2013/248196
- Caetano R, Mora ME (1988) Acculturation and drinking among people of Mexican descent in Mexico and the United States. J Stud Alcohol 9(5):462–471. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3216651. September 2015
- Caetano R, Ramisetty-Mikler S, Wallisch LS, Mcgrath C (2008) Acculturation, drinking, and alcohol abuse and dependence among Hispanics in the Texas–Mexico border. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:314–321. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00576.x/abstract. March 2015
- Cook WK, Mulia N, Karriker-Jaffe K (2012) Ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol use among Asian American adults: findings from a national survey. Alcohol Alcohol 47(3):340–348. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/ags017
- De La Rosa M, Dillon FR, Sastre F, Babino R (2013) Alcohol use among recent Latino immigrants before and after immigration to the United States. Am J Addict 22(2). 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.00310.x
- Ekeberg OM, Bautz-Holter E, Tveitå EK, Keller A, Juel NG, Brox JI (2008) Agreement, reliability and validity in 3 shoulder questionnaires in patients with rotator cuff disease. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 9:68. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/9/68. May 2015
- Eshaghi S-E, Ramezani MA, Shahsanaee A, Pooya A (2006) Validity and reliability of the short form: 36 items questionnaire as a measure of quality of life in elderly Iranian population. Am J Appl Sci 3(3):1763–1766. http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajas/ajas331763-1766.pdf. March 2015
- Galvan FH, Caetano R (2003) Alcohol use and related problems among ethnic minorities in the United States. Alcohol Res Health 27(1):87–94. http://www.ehd.org/health_alcohol_4.php. March 2015
- Grau E (2007) Using factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha to ascertain relationships between questions of a dietary behavior questionnaire. Section on survey research methods. Mathematica Policy Research, Princeton, NJ. http://www.amstat.org/sections/srms/proceedings/y2007/Files/JSM2007-000505.pdf. March 2015
- Health Canada (2013) Canadian alcohol and drug use monitoring survey: summary of results for 2012. http://hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/drugs-drogues/stat/_2012/summary-sommaire-eng.php#s2. May 2015
- Hopkins C, Fairley J, Yung M, Hore I, Galasubramaniam S, Haggard M (2010) The 14-item paediatric throat disorders outcome test: a valid, sensitive, reliable, parent-reported outcome measure for paediatric throat disorders. J Laryngol Otol 124:306–314. http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FJLO%2FJLO124_03%2FS0022215109992386a.pdf&code=ea89a4dd63b9103cb1a15cd526574854. January 2015
- Kunz JL (1999) Cultural diversity: lifestyle differences between immigrant and Canadian-born youth. ACCSD Res Program 23:3. http://www.ccsd.ca/subsites/cd/docs/insite/insite.htm. March 2015
- LaFromboise T, Coleman HL, Gerton J (1993) Psychological impact of biculturalism: evidence and theory. Psychol Bull 114(3):395–412. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8272463/. November 2015
- Lu C, Sylvestre J, Melnychuck N, Li J (2008) East meets West: Chinese-Canadians perspectives on health and fitness. Can J Public Health 99(1):22-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18435385
- Mainous AG, Diaz VA, Geese ME (2008) Acculturation and healthy lifestyle among Latinos with diabetes. Ann Fam Med 6(2):131–137.Google Scholar
- Man G (2004) Gender, work and migration: Deskilling Chinese immigrant women in Canada. Women's Stud Int Forum 27(2):135-148. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277539504000172
- McDonald JT (2005) The Health Behaviors of Immigrants and Native-born People in Canada. Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 144, McMaster University. http://ideas.repec.org/p/mcm/sedapp/144.html
- McDonald JT (2006) The health behaviours of immigrants and native-born people in Canada. The Atlantic Metropolis Centre’s working papers series. http://atlantic.metropolis.net/WorkingPapers/McDonald-WP1.pdf. March 2015
- Mulira JE (2010) Ugandans in Canada: a life experience. Xlibris Corporation, ISBN: Ebook: 978-1-4535-8513-9. http://www.bookwire.com/book/Ugandans-in-Canada-9781453585139-Mulira-J-E-34196772
- Parikh NS, Fahs MC, Shelley D, Yerneni R (2009) Health behaviors of older Chinese adults living in New York City. J Community Health 34:6–15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18830807. February 2009
- Pedersen ER, Cruz RA, LaBrie JW, Hummer JF (2011) Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term American sojourners in foreign environments. Prev Sci 12(4):401–410. doi: 10.1007/s11121-011-0232-7
- Pérez-Escamilla R, Putnik P (2007) The role of acculturation in nutrition, lifestyle, and incidence of type 2 diabetes among Latinos. J. Nutr 137(4):860-870. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/137/4/860.full. March 2015
- Research Methods Knowledge Base (RMKB) (2006) Nonprobability sampling. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampnon.php. October 2015
- Roy J-O, Belkhodja C, Gallant N (2007) Nos diverses cites: immigration francophone en milieu minoritaire : le défi de la ruralité. Université Concordia, Canada. http://nre.concordia.ca/__ftp2004/featured_publication/ODC_Summer07_3_fr.pdf#page=89. October 2015
- Statistics Canada (2002) The daily: health status of Canada’s immigrants. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/020919/dq020919a-eng.htm. September 2015
- Statistics Canada (2009) Immigration in Canada: a portrait of the foreign-born population, 2006 census: portraits of major metropolitan centres: Ottawa - Gatineau—fifth-largest proportion of foreign-born. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/p23-eng.cfm. November 2015
- Statistics Canada (2010) Survey methods and practices. Catalogue no. 12-587-X. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/12-587-x/12-587-x2003001-eng.pdf. October 2003
- Su LJ, Nguyen SV, Nguyen LT, Hinh P, Lin H-Y, Legardeur B, Scribner R (2002) Level of acculturation and lifestyle changes in a Vietnamese American population. The 130th annual meeting of American Public Health Association, Philadelphia, November 11. https://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_45928.htm. November 2002
- Vaeth PAC, Caetano R, Rodriguez LA (2012) The Hispanic Americans baseline alcohol survey (HABLAS): the association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups. Addict Behav 37:1029–1037. http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC3795416. April 2012
- Verney SP (2007) Acculturation and alcohol treatment in ethnic minority populations: assessment issues and implications. Alcohol Treat Q 25(4):47–61. doi: 10.1300/J020v25n04_04