Journal of Public Health

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 461–475 | Cite as

Clinical research, an empirical work on the European market of human experimentation

  • Roberto IppolitiEmail author
Original Article



The target of this work is to support the thesis that pharmaceutical companies’ testing phase would be treated like any other form of production in a globalization process, that is to say, a specific phase of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) could be localized where the cost of clinical evidence is lower.

Subject and methods

Considering Europe, an empirical analysis in order to support the main hypothesis is performed. Taking trials of phases II and III, funded by Industry (dependent variable) and the main macroeconomic features (independent variables) of each nation into account, the empirical work is implemented via regression analysis on panel data (2000–2007). The sample analyzed considers EU-27 plus the candidate states—Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey—as well as Norway, Switzerland and Iceland.


Results suggest the appropriateness of this process since clinical research is clearly affected by economic conditions, regardless of the scientific purpose.


The conclusions regard the policy maker’s point of view, that is to say, how national competitiveness could be increased on the European market of human experimentation.


Pharmaceutical company R&D Human experimentation Medical researcher Research subject 


Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IEL - International Program in Institutions, Economics & LawReal Collegio Carlo AlbertoMoncalieriItaly

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