Observation of the cytoarchitecture of the human esophageal mucosa with special attention to the lamina muscularis mucosae and the distribution of lymphatic vessels
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The cytoarchitecture of the esophageal mucosa was examined by using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The cytoarchitecture of the muscularis mucosae varied greatly among the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal esophagus, especially in the cervical esophagus, the muscularis mucosae suffered a loss and the distribution of lymphatic vessels also varied according to the site. It was suggested that these morphological differences would have a strong influence on the infiltration of esophageal cancer and the mode of lymph node metastasis.
KeywordsEsophagus Lamina muscularis mucosae Lymphatic vessels
The authors express their sincere gratitude to Tatsuo Shimada, professor emeritus at Oita University; the late Yuzo Ucnida, honorary professor of Oita University Faculty of Medicine; and the late Tsuyoshi Noguchi, associate professor of the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, for their direct instruction and advice. Heartfelt gratitude is also expressed to colleagues in the previous Second Department of Surgery, Oita University Faculty of Medicine; Seigo Kitano, president of Oita University, for kindly providing a research setting; and Tsutomu Daa, Haruto Nishida, and Nobutsugu Yano at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Oita University Faculty of Medicine; researchers and staff members in the Department of Respiratory and Breast Surgery, Oita University Faculty of Medicine; Hiroaki Kawasato and Aiko Yasuda at the Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, for their cooperation in this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work conforms to the guidelines set forth in the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000, concerning Human and Animal Rights, and followed the policy concerning informed consent.
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in the present study.
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