Prospective pilot study of adoptive immunotherapy with autologous αβT cells for five cases of advanced and/or recurrent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
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Although several clinical trials of vaccination and cellular immunotherapy for esophageal cancer have been reported, clinical trials of anti-CD3-activated autologous αβT cell therapy for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are limited.
A total of five patients with recurrent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this prospective pilot study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patients were cultured with immobilized anti-CD3 antibody and interleukin-2 for approximately 14 days, and 5 × 109 lymphocytes were harvested. Expanded lymphocytes were intravenously infused every 2 weeks for six courses. All patients were followed up until death. The treatment response was assessed by the number of lymphocytes, CD4/CD8 ratio, serum tumor markers, and computed tomography scan.
A total of 23 courses of treatment were completed. Three of the five patients (cases 2, 3, and 4) completed six courses of cell therapy according to the protocol. However, case 1 quit treatment after three courses and case 5 quit treatment after two courses because of tumor progression. There were no adverse effects related to cell therapy. Although cases 1 and 5 did not show any treatment benefits, cases 2, 3, and 4 showed some treatment benefits. Cases 2 and 4 showed long-term survived for more than 1 year.
These results might suggest the safety and benefits of anti-CD3-activated autologous αβT cell therapy for the part of the patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
KeywordsImmunotherapy Squamous cell carcinoma Esophagus
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions. Informed consent or substitute for it was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
Conflict of interest
Shigenori Goto and Takashi Kamigaki are the employees of Seta Clinic. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.