Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 73–81 | Cite as

Establishment of a normative database and evaluation of the test-retest repeatability of the Spaeth/Richman contrast sensitivity test

  • Lalita Gupta
  • Michael Waisbourd
  • Carina T. Sanvicente
  • Michael Hsieh
  • Sheryl S. WizovEmail author
  • Eric E. Spaeth
  • Jesse Richman
  • George L. Spaeth
Clinical Investigation



To evaluate the test-retest repeatability of a computer-based contrast sensitivity (CS) test, the Spaeth/Richman contrast sensitivity (SPARCS) test, and to determine the effects of age and lens status on CS in normal eyes.

Study design

Prospective cross-sectional study.


The participants were assessed by use of the SPARCS test in each eye 3 times. The first 2 sessions were supervised, while the third was unsupervised. CS was determined for 5 areas of vision (central, superotemporal, superonasal, inferotemporal, and inferonasal) and combined to provide a total score. The test-retest repeatability was determined using Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).


The total SPARCS scores (maximum possible score = 100) ranged from 86.37 (±1.09) (for those aged 20 to 29 years) to 70.71 (±2.64) (for those aged 80 to 87 years). Individuals aged between 10 and 87 years with a normal eye examination (n = 205) were enrolled. When the SPARCS scores for the first 2 sessions were compared, the ICC was 0.79, and the repeated tests were fairly equivalent (mean difference = −0.29, P = .491). The test-retest 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA) ranged from −11.07 to +11.35. When the supervised sessions were compared with the unsupervised session, the ICC was 0.80, and there was slight improvement in the CS scores during the unsupervised session (mean difference = −1.15, P = .0001). The test-retest 95% LoA ranged from −9.18 to +10.60. The CS declined with advanced age and increased cataract severity (P <0.0001).


Strong agreement was found between repeated SPARCS scores. Older age and increased lens opacity were associated with decline in CS in 5 areas of the visual field. The SPARCS test provides reliable and reproducible assessment of CS in normal eyes.


Cataract Contrast sensitivity Healthy participants Normative database Repeatability 



This work was supported by the Partridge Foundation (grant # PRT13001).

Conflicts of interest

L. Gupta, None; M. Waisbourd, None; C. T. Sanvicente, None; M. Hsieh, None; S. S. Wizov, None; E. E. Spaeth, P (Spaeth/Richman contrast sensitivity test (SPARCS), No. 8,042,946); J. Richman, P (Spaeth/Richman contrast sensitivity test (SPARCS), No. 8,042,946); G. L. Spaeth, P (Spaeth/Richman Contrast Sensitivity Test (SPARCS), No. 8,042,946).


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Copyright information

© Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lalita Gupta
    • 1
  • Michael Waisbourd
    • 2
  • Carina T. Sanvicente
    • 3
  • Michael Hsieh
    • 4
  • Sheryl S. Wizov
    • 3
    Email author
  • Eric E. Spaeth
    • 5
  • Jesse Richman
    • 3
  • George L. Spaeth
    • 3
  1. 1.Mount Sinai HospitalNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Glaucoma Research CenterWills Eye HospitalPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.New York College of Podiatric MedicineNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Independent contributorPhiladelphiaUSA

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