Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology

, Volume 61, Issue 5, pp 402–407 | Cite as

Distant stereoacuity in children with anisometropic amblyopia

  • Yeon Woong Chung
  • Shin Hae Park
  • Sun Young ShinEmail author
Clinical Investigation



To characterize changes in distant stereoacuity using Frisby–Davis Distance test (FD2) and Distant Randot test (DR) during treatment for anisometropic amblyopia, to determine factors that influence posttreatment stereoacuity and to compare the two distant stereotests.


Fifty-eight anisometropic amblyopic patients with an interocular difference of ≥1.00 diopter who achieved the visual acuity 20/20 following amblyopia treatment were retrospectively included. Stereoacuity using FD2 and DR for distant and Titmus test for near measurement were assessed and compared at the initial, intermediate, and final visit. Multivariate regression models were used to identify factors associated with initial and final stereoacuity.


The two distant stereotests revealed a significant improvement in distant stereoacuity after successful amblyopia treatment. Distant stereoacuity using FD2 showed the greatest improvement during the follow up period. The number of nil scores was higher in DR than FD2 at each period. In multivariate analysis, better final stereoacuity was associated with better initial amblyopic eye acuity in both distant stereotests, but not in the Titmus test. Comparing the two distant stereotests, final stereoacuity using FD2 was associated with initial stereoacuity and was moderately related with the Titmus test at each period, but final stereoacuity using DR was not.


Distant stereoacuity measured with both FD2 and DR showed significant improvement when the visual acuity of the amblyopic eye achieved 20/20. Changes in distant stereoacuity by FD2 and DR during the amblyopia treatment were somewhat different.


Distant stereoacuity Anisometropic amblyopia Pediatrics 


Conflicts of interest

Y. W. Chung, None; S. H. Park, None; S. Y. Shin, None.


  1. 1.
    Preslan MW, Novak A. Baltimore vision screening project. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:105–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rahi J, Logan S, Timms C, Russell-Eggitt I, Taylor D. Risk, causes, and outcomes of visual impairment after loss of vision in the non-amblyopic eye: a population-based study. Lancet. 2002;360:597–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Simons K. Amblyopia characterization, treatment, and prophylaxis. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005;50:123–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study Group. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in African American and Hispanic children ages 6 to 72 months the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(1229–36):e1.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Giordano L, Ibironke J, Hawse P, et al. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in white and African American children aged 6 through 71 months the Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(2128–34):e1–2.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schmidt P, Maguire M, Dobson V, Quinn G, Ciner E, Cyert L, et al. Comparison of preschool vision screening tests as administered by licensed eye care professionals in the Vision In Preschoolers Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:637–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Von Noorden GK. Factors involved in the production of amblyopia. Br J Ophthalmol. 1974;58:158–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Weakley DR Jr. The association between nonstrabismic anisometropia, amblyopia, and subnormal binocularity. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:163–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. The clinical profile of moderate amblyopia in children younger than 7 years. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:281–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weakley DR. The association between anisometropia, amblyopia, and binocularity in the absence of strabismus. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1999;97:987–1021.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shroff AP, Billore OP, Dubey AK, Antani PR. A combined approach by spectacle correction, occlusion and active pleoptic treatment in management of amblyopia. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1983;31:568–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cotter SA, Edwards AR, Wallace DK, Beck RW, Arnold RW, Astle WF, et al. Treatment of anisometropic amblyopia in children with refractive correction. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:895–903.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Su L, Yan H, Xing Y, Zhang Y, Zhu B. Evaluation of occlusion treatment outcomes for unilateral amblyopia using different definitions of outcome. Semin Ophthalmol. 2014;. doi: 10.3109/08820538.2014.962158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beardsell R, Clarke S, Hill M. Outcome of occlusion treatment for amblyopia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1999;36:19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wallace DK, Lazar EL, Melia M, Birch EE, Holmes JM, Hopkins KB, et al. Stereoacuity in children with anisometropic amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2011;15:455–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caputo R, Frosini R, De Libero C, Campa L, Magro EF, Secci J. Factors influencing severity of and recovery from anisometropic amblyopia. Strabismus. 2007;15:209–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee SY, Isenberg SJ. The relationship between stereopsis and visual acuity after occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:2088–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Holmes JM, Fawcett SL. Testing distance stereoacuity with the Frisby–Davis 2 (FD2) test. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:193–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Holmes JM, Birch EE, Leske DA, Fu VL, Mohney BG. New tests of distance stereoacuity and their role in evaluating intermittent exotropia. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1215–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Leske DA, Birch EE, Holmes JM. Real depth vs randot stereotests. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:699–701.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adams WE, Leske DA, Hatt SR, Holmes JM. Defining real change in measures of stereoacuity. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:281–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wong BP, Woods RL, Peli E. Stereoacuity at distance and near. Optom Vis Sci. 2002;79:771–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    von Gunter K, Noorden MD, Emilio C, Campos MD. Binocular vision and ocular motility theory and management of Strabismus. Mosby Inc., sixth edition 2002; 631 pages, 315 illustrations. Am Orthopt J. 2002;2001(51):161–2.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lam AK, Chau AS, Lam WY, Leung GY, Man BS. Effect of naturally occurring visual acuity differences between two eyes in stereoacuity. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1996;16:189–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yeon Woong Chung
    • 1
  • Shin Hae Park
    • 2
  • Sun Young Shin
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, St. Vincent’s HospitalCatholic University of KoreaSuwonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s HospitalCatholic University of KoreaSeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations