International Economics and Economic Policy

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 727–742 | Cite as

Sociological challenges for Egypt’s development: 1981–2013

  • Dina M. Yousri
  • Christian RichterEmail author
Original Paper


This paper examines the extent to which women’s education, fertility rate, corruption and urbanization affects long-term economic growth in Egypt. We are particularly interested in the impact of female education and fertility rate on economic growth, but we also examine the relationship between economic growth and corruption. The results suggest that investments in female education can reduce fertility rate with a small but significant immediate effect. As the fertility rate increases real GDP growth decreases with a lag of 2 years. The immediate effect of greater female education on real GDP is negative but overall it has a positive impact when lags are taken into account. Interestingly, the immediate effect of urbanization on real GDP growth was negative and turned to be positive on the long run. Finally, corruption was found to have a negative impact on GDP growth in Egypt over our studied time period.


Female education Fertility rate Economic growth Urbanization Corruption 

JEL classification

B54 C22 O18 O11 O47 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economics, Faculty of Management TechnologyGerman University in CairoNew Cairo CityEgypt

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