Advertisement

International Economics and Economic Policy

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 293–351 | Cite as

Innovations, growth and participation in advanced economies - a review of major concepts and findings

  • T. Gries
  • R. Grundmann
  • I. Palnau
  • M. Redlin
Original Paper

Abstract

Technical change is a major driving force for economic growth and development, thus technological change and innovations could be a powerful process that opens up opportunities to increase social welfare and benefits for societies. Whether opportunities turn into real benefits and allow for broad participation depends on a number of factors. In this contribution we focus on three questions. First, what are the drivers of and the gains from technological change? Second, is there broad participation in the gains from technological change? Third, what mechanisms generate asymmetric participation or even non-participation? Reviewing the literature, we obtain two sets of answers, one set for developed countries (DCs) and one for less developed countries (LDCs). For DCs, technology is still the driving force for aggregate progress. Innovations are driven by a combination of private and public R&D investments and the diffusion of innovations is spurred by innovative competition. Due to various reasons - such as technical bias, educational attainment, new firm concepts, globalization and outsourcing, disempowerment of labor unions, decreasing labor share in aggregate income, or agglomeration effects - we identify major differences in participation in gains across different groups. Further, technology that originated in DCs is transferred to LDCs. We identify the channels of technological transfer that allow LDCs to potentially participate in the benefits. Here, the development of the modern sector with links to international value chains plays a major role. However, global diffusion of technology and its gains are very diverse. Reasons for this diverse participation in gains include power structures in global value chains combined with an excess supply of labor and the malfunctioning of local governments and institutions in LDCs.

Keywords

Technological change Global technological transfer Structural transformation Development Participation 

JEL classification

F15 F16 I24 J31 O14 O15 O33 

References

  1. Abraham F, Konings J, Vanormelingen S (2009) The effect of globalization on union bargaining and price-cost margins of firms. Rev World Econ 145(1):13–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acemoglu D (1998) Why do new technologies complement skills? Directed technical change and wage inequality. Q J Econ 113(4):1055–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acemoglu D (2002) Directed technical change. Rev Econ Stud 69(4):781–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Acemoglu D (2007) Equilibrium bias of technology. Econometrica 75(5):1371–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Acemoglu D, Autor D (2011) Chapter 12 - Skills, tasks and technologies: implications for employment and earnings. In: Card D, Ashenfelter O (eds) Handbook of labor economics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1043–1171Google Scholar
  6. Acemoglu D, Autor D (2012) What does human capital do?: A review of Goldin and Katz’s the race between education and technology. J Econ Lit 50(2):426–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Acemoglu D, Aghion P, Violante GL (2001) Deunionization, technical change and inequality. In: Carnegie-Rochester conference series on public policy, vol 55, no 1. North-Holland, pp 229–264Google Scholar
  8. Acemoglu D, Gancia G, Zilibotti F (2015) Offshoring and directed technical change. Am Econ J Macroecon 7(3):84–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Açıkgöz ÖT, Kaymak B (2014) The rising skill premium and deunionization. J Monet Econ 63:37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Acs ZJ, Audretsch DB (1988) Innovation in large and small firms: an empirical analysis. Am Econ Rev 678–690Google Scholar
  11. Acs ZJ, Morck R, Shaver JM, Yeung B (1997) The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises: a policy perspective. Small Bus Econ 9(1):7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aghion P, Griffith R (2008) Competition and growth: reconciling theory and evidence. Zeuthen Lectures. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Aghion P, Howitt P (1992) A model of growth through creative destruction. Econometrica 60(2):323–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aghion P, Howitt P (1998) Endogenous growth theory. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Aghion P, Howitt P (2007) Capital, innovation, and growth accounting. Oxf Rev Econ Policy 23(1):79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Aghion P, Harris C, Howitt P, Vickers J (2001) Competition, imitation and growth with step-by-step innovation. Rev Econ Stud 68(3):467–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Aghion P, Bloom N, Blundell R, Griffith R, Howitt P (2005) Competition and innovation: an inverted-U relationship. Q J Econ 120:701–728Google Scholar
  18. Aghion P, Blundell R, Griffith R, Howitt P, Prantl S (2009) The effects of entry on incumbent innovation and productivity. Rev Econ Stat 91(1):20–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Aghion P, Howitt P, Prantl S (2013) Patent rights, product market reforms, and innovation. J Econ Growth 1–40Google Scholar
  20. Aghion P, Van Reenen J, Zingales L (2013b) Innovation and institutional ownership. Am Econ Rev 103(1):277–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Aghion P, Akcigit U, Bergeaud A, Blundell R, Hémous D (2015) Innovation and top income inequality. Harvard University, mimeoGoogle Scholar
  22. Aghion P, Cai J, Dewatripont M, Du L, Harrison A, Legros P (2015b) Industrial policy and competition. Am Econ J Macroecon 7(4):1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ahn S (2002) Competition, innovation and productivity growth: a review of theory and evidence. OECD Economics Working Paper No. 317Google Scholar
  24. Ahuja G, Lampert CM (2001) Entrepreneurship in the large corporation: a longitudinal study of how established firms create break-through inventions. Strateg Manag J 22:521–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Alderson AS, Nielsen F (2002) Globalization and the great U-turn: income inequality trends in 16 OECD countries. Am J Sociol 107(5):1244–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Alvaredo F, Atkinson AB, Piketty T, Saez E (2014) The World Top Incomes Database. Retrieved from http://topincomes.g-mond.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/. Accessed 15/12/2014
  27. Amiti M, Davis DR (2012) Trade, firms, and wages: theory and evidence. Rev Econ Stud 79(1):1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Antonelli C, Quatraro F (2014) The effects of biased technological changes on total factor productivity: a rejoinder and new empirical evidence. J Technol Transf 39(2):281–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Antràs P, Helpman E (2004) Global sourcing. J Polit Econ 112(3):552–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Arellano M, Bover O (1995) Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models. J Econ 68(1):29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Aschhoff B, Sofka W (2009) Innovation on demand—can public procurement drive market success of innovations? Res Policy 38(8):1235–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Atkinson AB (2009) Factor shares: the principal problem of political economy? Oxf Rev Econ Policy 25(1):3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Audretsch DB, Feldman MP (1996) R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. Am Econ Rev 86(3):630–640Google Scholar
  34. Audretsch DB, Welfens PJ (eds) (2013) The new economy and economic growth in Europe and the US. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  35. Autor DH, Dorn D (2013) The growth of Low-skill service jobs and the polarization of the US labor market. Am Econ Rev 103(5):1553–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Autor DH, Katz LF, Krueger AB (1998) Computing inequality: have computers changed the labor market? Q J Econ 113(4):1169–1213Google Scholar
  37. Autor DH, Levy F, Murnane RJ (2003) The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration. Q J Econ 118(4):1279–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Autor DH, Katz LF, Kearney MS (2006) The polarization of the U.S. labor market. Am Econ Rev 96(2):189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Autor DH, Katz LF, Kearney MS (2008) Trends in US wage inequality: revising the revisionists. Rev Econ Stat 90(2):300–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bailey A, Irz X, Balcombe K (2004) Measuring productivity growth when technological change is biased—a new index and an application to UK agriculture: current issues in the economics of agriculture, food, and resources: reshaping agriculture’s contributions to society. Agric Econ 31(2–3):285–295Google Scholar
  41. Baldwin RE, Forslid R (2000a) Trade liberalization and endogenous growth: a Q-theory approach. J Int Econ 50:497–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Baldwin RE, Forslid R (2000b) The core-periphery model and endogenous growth: stabilizing and destabilizing integration. Economica 67:307–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Baldwin RE, Martin P (2004) Agglomeration and regional growth. Handb Reg Urban Econ 4:2671–2711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Balsmeier B, Buchwald A (2015) Who promotes more innovations? Inside versus outside hired CEOs. Ind Corp Chang 24(5):1013–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Barrell R, Pain N (1997) Foreign direct investment, technological change, and economic growth within Europe. Econ J 107(445):1770–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Barro RJ, Sala–i–Martin X (1995) Economic growth. The MIT Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Bastos P, Kreickemeier U (2009) Unions, competition and international trade in general equilibrium. J Int Econ 79(2):238–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Baumgarten D (2013) Exporters and the rise in wage inequality: evidence from German linked employer–employee data. J Int Econ 90(1):201–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Becker SO, Ekholm K, Muendler M-A (2013) Offshoring and the onshore composition of tasks and skills. J Int Econ 90(1):91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Benhabib J, Spiegel MM (1994) The role of human capital in economic development evidence from aggregate cross-country data. J Monet Econ 34(2):143–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Benhabib J, Spiegel MM (2005) Human capital and technology diffusion. Handb Econ Growth 1(A):935–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bernard AB, Jensen JB, Redding SJ, Schott PK (2007) Firms in international trade. J Econ Perspect 21(3):105–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Björklund A, Roine J, Waldenström D (2012) Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity? J Public Econ 96(5):474–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Bjørnskov C, Dreher A, Fischer JAV, Schnellenbach J, Gehring K (2013) Inequality and happiness: when perceived social mobility andeconomic reality do not match. J Econ Behav Organ 91:75–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Black D, Henderson V (1999) A theory of urban growth. J Polit Econ 107(2):252–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Blanchard OJ, Nordhaus WD, Phelps ES (1997) The medium run. Brook Pap Econ Act 1997(2):89–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Blundell R, Bond S (1998) Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models. J Econ 87(1):115–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Bøler EA, Moxnes A, Ulltveit-Moe KH (2015) R&D, international sourcing, and the joint impact on firm performance. Am Econ Rev 105(12):3704–3739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Borjas GJ, Ramey VA (1995) Foreign competition, market power, and wage inequality. Q J Econ 110(4):1075–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Boulhol H, Dobbelaere S, Maioli S (2011) Imports as product and labour market discipline. Br J Ind Relat 49(2):331–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Bresnahan T, Greenstein S (1997) Technical progress and coinvention in computing and in the uses of computers. Brook Pap Econ Act, Microecon 1–83Google Scholar
  62. Bresnahan TF, Brynjolfsson E, Hitt LM (2002) Information technology, workplace organization, and the demand for skilled labor: firm-level evidence. Q J Econ 117(1):339–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Brock E, Dobbelaere S (2006) Has international trade affected workers’ bargaining power? Rev World Econ 142(2):233–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Brusoni S, Prencipe A, Pavitt K (2001) Knowledge specialization, organizational coupling, and the boundaries of the firm: why do firms know more than they make? Adm Sci Q 46(4):597–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Brynjolfsson E (1993) The productivity paradox of information technology. Commun ACM 36(12):66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Burgess S, Briggs A (2010) School assignment, school choice and social mobility. Econ Educ Rev 29(4):639–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cantwell J, Santangelo GD (1999) The frontier of international technology networks: sourcing abroad the most highly tacit capabilities. Inf Econ Policy 11(1):101–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Capaldo A (2007) Network structure and innovation: the leveraging of a dual network as a distinctive relational capability. Strateg Manag J 28(6):585–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Capozza DR, Helsley RW (1989) The fundamentals of land prices and urban growth. J Urban Econ 26(3):295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Card D, Lemieux T (2001) Can falling supply explain the rising return to college for younger men? a cohort-based analysis. Q J Econ 116(2):705–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Carkovic MV, Levine R (2005) Does foreign direct investment accelerate economic growth? In: Moran TH, Graham EM, Blomström M (eds) Does foreign direct investment promote development? Peterson Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  72. Carr DL, Markusen JR, Maskus KE (2001) Estimating the knowledge-capital model of the multinational enterprise. Am Econ Rev 91(3):693–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Caselli F (2005) Chapter 9 Accounting for cross-country income differences. In: Aghion P, Durlauf SN (eds) Handbook of economic growth. Elsevier, pp 679–741Google Scholar
  74. Chetty R, Hendren N, Kline P, Saez E, Turner N (2014) Is the United States still a land of opportunity? Recent trends in intergenerational mobility. Am Econ Rev, Am Econ Assoc 104(5): 141–47Google Scholar
  75. Child J (1973) Predicting and understanding organization structure. Adm Sci Q 18(2):168–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Chu AC, Cozzi G, Furukawa Y (2016) Unions, innovation and cross-country wage inequality. J Econ Dyn Control 64:104–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Coase RH (1937) The nature of the firm. Economica 4(16):386–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Coe DT, Helpman E (1995) International R&D spillovers. Eur Econ Rev 39(5):859–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Cohen WM (2010) Fifty years of empirical studies of innovative activity and performance. Handb Econ Innov 1:129–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Cohen W, Levinthal D (1989) Innovation and learning: the two faces of R&D. Econ J 99:569–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Cohen WM, Levinthal DA (1990) Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Adm Sci Q 35(1):128–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Colwell PF, Munneke HJ (1997) The structure of urban land prices. J Urban Econ 41(3):321–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Corak M (2013) Income inequality, equality of opportunity, and intergenera-tional mobility. J Econ Perspect 79–109Google Scholar
  84. Corak M, Lindquist MJ, Mazumder B (2014) A comparison of upward and downward intergenerational mobility in Canada, Sweden and the United States. Labour Econ 30:185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Crifo P (2008) Skill supply and biased technical change. Labour Econ 15(5):812–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Crinò R (2009) Offshoring, multinationals and labour market: a review of the empirical literature. J Econ Surv 23(2):197–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Cutler DM, Katz LF (1992) Rising inequality? Changes in the distribution of income and consumption in the 1980’s. Am Econ Rev 82(2):546–551Google Scholar
  88. Czarnitzki D, Kraft K (2004) Management control and innovative activity. Rev Ind Organ 24(1):1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Damanpour F (1996) Organizational complexity and innovation: developing and testing multiple contingency models. Manag Sci 42(5):693–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Davis DR, Harrigan J (2011) Good jobs, bad jobs, and trade liberalization. J Int Econ 84(1):26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Davis J, Edgar T, Porter J, Bernaden J, Sarli M (2012) Smart manufacturing, manufacturing intelligence and demand-dynamic performance. Comput Chem Eng 47:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Demsetz H (1988) The theory of the firm revisited. J Law Econ Org 141–161Google Scholar
  93. Desai MC, Foley CF, Hines Jr JR (2005) Foreign direct investment and the domestic capital stock. Am Econ Rev 95(2):33–38Google Scholar
  94. Desai MA, Foley CF, Hines JR (2009) Domestic effects of the foreign activities of US multinationals. Am Econ J Econ Pol 1(1):181–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Dew-Becker I, Gordon RJ (2005) Where did the productivity growth go? Inflation Dynamics and the Distribution of Income. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 11842Google Scholar
  96. Diamond P, McFadden D, Rodriguez M (1978) Measurement of the elasticity of factor substitution and bias of technical change. In Fuss MA, McFadden D (eds) Contributions to economic analysis, vol 111. Production economics. A dual approach to theory and applications. North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam (etc.), Oxford, pp 125–147Google Scholar
  97. Dibiaggio L (2007) Design complexity, vertical disintegration and knowledge organization in the semiconductor industry. Ind Corp Chang 16(2):239–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Dinopoulos E, Thompson P (1998) Schumpeterian growth without scale effects. J Econ Growth 3(4):313–335Google Scholar
  99. Dollar D, Kraay A (2003) Institutions, trade, and growth. J Monet Econ 50(1):133–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Dollar D, Kraay A (2004) Trade, growth, and poverty. Econ J 114(493):F22–F49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Domeij D, Flodén M (2006) The labor-supply elasticity and borrowing constraints: why estimates are biased. Rev Econ Dyn 9(2):242–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Doms M, Dunne T, Troske KR (1997) Workers, wages and technology. Q J Econ 112:253–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Dosi G (1997) Opportunities, incentives and the collective patterns of technological change. Econ J 107(444):1530–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Dowrick S, Golley J (2004) Trade openness and growth: who benefits? Oxf Rev Econ Policy 20(1):38–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Dreher A (2006) Does globalization affect growth? Evidence from a new Index of Globalization. Appl Econ 38(10):1091–1110. Updated March 5, 2015 available at: http://globalization.kof.ethz.ch/. Accessed: 19 Jan 2016
  106. Dreher A, Gaston N (2007) Has globalisation really had no effect on unions? Kyklos 60(2):165–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Dribe M, Helgertz J, Van de Putte B (2015) Did social mobility increase during the industrialization process? A micro-level study of a transforming community in southern Sweden 1828–1968. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 41:25–39Google Scholar
  108. Dumont M, Rayp G, Willemé P (2006) Does internationalization affect union bargaining power? An empirical study for five EU countries. Oxf Econ Pap 58(1):77–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Dumont M, Rayp G, Willemé P (2012) The bargaining position of low-skilled and high-skilled workers in a globalising world. Labour Econ 19(3):312–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Dustmann C, Ludsteck J, Schönberg U (2009) Revisiting the German wage structure. Q J Econ 124(2):843–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Dutz MA, Hayri A (2000) Does more intense competition lead to higher growth? (vol 2249). World Bank PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  112. Eaton J, Eckstein Z (1997) Cities and growth: theory and evidence from France and Japan. Reg Sci Urban Econ 27(4):443–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Eaton J, Kortum S (1996) Trade in ideas patenting and productivity in the OECD. J Int Econ 40(3):251–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Eaton J, Kortum S (2001) Technology, trade, and growth: a unified framework. Eur Econ Rev 45:742–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Eaton J, Kortum S (2002) Technology, geography, and trade. Econometrica 70(5):1741–1779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Eckel C, Egger H (2009) Wage bargaining and multinational firms. J Int Econ 77(2):206–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Edler J, Georghiou L (2007) Public procurement and innovation—resurrecting the demand side. Res Policy 36(7):949–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Edquist C, Zabala-Iturriagagoitia JM (2012) Public procurement for innovation as mission-oriented innovation policy. Res Policy 41(10):1757–1769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Egger H, Etzel D (2012) The impact of trade on employment, welfare, and income distribution in unionized general oligopolistic equilibrium. Eur Econ Rev 56(6):1119–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Egger H, Etzel D (2014) Union wage-setting and international trade with footloose capital. Reg Sci Urban Econ 48:56–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Egger H, Kreickemeier U (2009) Redistributing gains from globalisation. Scand J Econ 111(4):765–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Egger H, Kreickemeier U (2012) Fairness, trade, and inequality. J Int Econ 86(2):184–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Egger H, Egger P, Kreickemeier U (2013) Trade, wages, and profits. Eur Econ Rev 64:332–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Fagerberg J (2000) Technological progress, structural change and productivity growth: a comparative study. Struct Chang Econ Dyn 11(4):393–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Falk M (2006) What drives business Research and Development (R&D) intensity across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries? Appl Econ 38(5):533–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Fama EF, Jensen MC (1983) Separation of ownership and control. J Law Econ 26(2):301–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Färe R, Grosskopf S, Norris M, Zhang Z (1994) Productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency change in industrialized countries. Am Econ Rev 84(1):66–83Google Scholar
  128. Farrell D (2005) Offshoring: value creation through economic change. J Manag Stud 42(3):675–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Fed Dallas (2015a) International House Price Database. Available Online: http://www.dallasfed.org/institute/houseprice/. Accessed 22 Jan 2015
  130. Fed St. Louis (2015b) Residential Property Prices for Canada. Available Online: http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/QCAN628BIS. Accessed 22 Jan 2015
  131. Fed St. Louis (2015c) Residential Property Prices for the United Kingdom. Available Online: http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/QGBN628BIS. Accessed 22 Jan 2015
  132. Fed St. Louis (2015d) Residential Property Prices for the Japan. Available Online: http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/QJPN628BIS. Accessed 22 Jan 2015
  133. Feenstra RC (1998) Integration of trade and disintegration of production in the global economy. J Econ Perspect 12(4):31–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Feenstra RC, Hanson GH (2003) Global production sharing and rising inequality: a survey of trade and wages. In Choi EK (ed) Blackwell handbooks in economics. Handbook of international trade. Malden, Mass. [u.a.]: BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  135. Felbermayr G, Prat J, Schmerer H-J (2011) Globalization and labor market outcomes: wage bargaining, search frictions, and firm heterogeneity. J Econ Theory 146(1):39–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Felipe J, McCombie J (2001) Biased technical change, growth accounting, and the conundrum of the east Asian miracle. J Comp Econ 29(3):542–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ferrier GD, Reyes JA, Zhu Z (2015) Technology diffusion on the international trade network. J Public Econ. ISSN 1467-9779 (in press)Google Scholar
  138. Frankel JA, Romer D (1999) Does trade cause growth? Am Econ Rev 89(3):379–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Freeman C (1994) The economics of technical change. Camb J Econ 18(5):463–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Fujita M, Thisse J (2002) Economics of agglomeration. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Furman JL, Porter ME, Stern S (2002) The determinants of national innovative capacity. Res Policy 31(6):899–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Garicano L, Rossi-Hansberg E (2004) Inequality and the organization of knowledge. Am Econ Rev 94(2):197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Garicano L, Rossi-Hansberg E (2006) Organization and inequality in a knowledge economy. Q J Econ 121(4):1383–1435Google Scholar
  144. Garicano L, Rossi-Hansberg E (2014) Knowledge-based hierarchies: using organizations to understand the economy. NBER Working Paper No. 20607, pp 1–44Google Scholar
  145. Ghemawat P (2003) Semiglobalization and international business strategy. J Int Bus Stud 34(2):138–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Glaeser EL (ed) (2010) Agglomeration economics. University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  147. Goldin C, Katz LF (1996) Technology, skill, and the wage structure: insights from the past. Am Econ Rev 86(2):252–257Google Scholar
  148. Goldin CD, Katz LF (2008) The race between education and technology. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  149. Goldin C, Katz L (2009) The race between education and technology: the evolution of U.S. educational wage differentials, 1890 to 2005. NBER Working Paper No. 1298Google Scholar
  150. Gong G, Keller W (2003) Convergence and polarization in global income levels: a review of recent results on the role of international technology diffusion. Res Policy 32(6):1055–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Goos M, Manning A (2007) Lousy and lovely jobs: the rising polarization of work in Britain. Rev Econ Stat 89(1):118–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Goos M, Manning A, Salomons A (2009) Job polarization in Europe. Am Econ Rev 99(2):58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Goos M, Manning A, Salomons A (2014) Explaining Job polarization: routine-biased technological change and offshoring. Am Econ Rev 104(8):2509–2526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Granstrand O, Sjölander S (1990) Managing innovation in multi-technology corporations. Res Policy 19(1):35–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Grant RM (1996) Toward a knowledge‐based theory of the firm. Strateg Manag J 17(S2):109–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Gregg P, Manning A (1997) Skill-biassed change, unemployment and wage inequality. Eur Econ Rev 41(6):1173–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Gries T, Naudé W (2008) Trade and endogenous formation of regions in a developing country. Rev Dev Econ 12(2):248–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Griffith R, Redding S, Van Reenen J (2004) Mapping the two faces of R&D: productivity growth in a panel of OECD industries. Rev Econ Stat 86(4):883–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Griliches Z (1994) Productivity, R&D, and the data constraint. Am Econ Rev 84(1):1–23Google Scholar
  160. Griliches Z (1996) The discovery of the residual: a historical note. J Econ Lit 34(3):1324–1330Google Scholar
  161. Grossman GM, Helpman E (1991a) Innovation and growth in the global economy. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  162. Grossman GM, Helpman E (1991b) Trade, knowledge spillovers, and growth. Eur Econ Rev 35(2):517–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Grossman GM, Rossi-Hansberg E (2008) Trading tasks: a simple theory of offshoring. Am Econ Rev 98(5):1978–1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Guadalupe M, Kuzmina O, Thomas C (2012) Innovation and foreign ownership. Am Econ Rev 102(7):3594–3627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Gyourko J, Mayer C, Sinai T (2010) Dispersion in house price and income growth across markets: facts and theories. In: Agglomeration Economics. University of Chicago Press, pp 67–104Google Scholar
  166. Hall RE, Jones CI (1999) Why do some countries produce so much more output per worker than others? Q J Econ 114(1):83–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Halpern L, Koren M, Szeidl A (2015) Imported inputs and productivity. Am Econ Rev 105(12):3660–3703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Hamermesh DS (1999) Changing inequality in markets for workplace amenities. Q J Econ 114(4):1085–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Hanushek EA, Woessmann L (2008) The role of cognitive skills in economic development. J Econ Lit 46(3):607–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Harrison A, McMillan M (2011) Offshoring jobs: multinationals and US manufacturing employment. Rev Econ Stat 93(3):857–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Helfat CE, Peteraf MA (2003) The dynamic resource‐based view: capability lifecycles. Strateg Manag J 24(10):997–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Helpman E (1992) Endogenous macroeconomic growth theory. Eur Econ Rev 36(2):237–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Helpman E, Itskhoki O (2010) Labour market rigidities, trade and unemployment. Rev Econ Stud 77(3):1100–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Helpman E, Itskhoki O, Redding S (2010) Inequality and unemployment in a global economy. Econometrica 78(4):1239–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Henderson RM, Clark KB (1990) Architectural innovation: the reconfiguration of existing product technologies and the failure of established firms. Adm Sci Q 35:9–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Herzer D (2008) The long-run relationship between outward FDI and domestic output: evidence from panel data. Econ Lett 100(1):146–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Herzer D (2010) Outward FDI and economic growth. J Econ Stud 37(5):476–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Herzer D (2012) Outward FDI, total factor productivity and domestic output: evidence from Germany. Int Econ J 26(1):155–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Heydebrand WV (1989) New organizational forms. Work Occup 16(3):323–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Hobday M (1998) Product complexity, innovation and industrial organisation. Res Policy 26(6):689–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Hsieh C-T (2002) What explains the industrial revolution in east Asia? Evidence from the factor markets. Am Econ Rev 92(3):502–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Iansiti M, Khanna T (1995) Technological evolution, system architecture and the obsolescence of firm capabilities. Ind Corp Chang 4(2):333–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Jaffe AB, Trajtenberg M (1999) International knowledge flows: evidence from patent citations. Econ Innov New Technol 8(1-2):105–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Jaumotte F, Lall S, Papageorgiou C (2013) Rising income inequality: technology, or trade and financial globalization? IMF Econ Rev 61(2):271–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Jinji N, Zhang X (2015) International knowledge flows and productivity: intra- vs. inter-industry spillovers. Int Econ J 29(3):451–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Jones C (1995) R&D-based models of economic growth. J Polit Econ 103:759–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Jones C (1999) Growth: with or without scale effects? Am Econ Rev 89(2):139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Jones CI (2005) The shape of production functions and the direction of technical change. Q J Econ 120(2):517–549Google Scholar
  189. Judzik D, Sala H (2013) Productivity, deunionization and trade: wage effects and labour share implications. Int Labour Rev 152(2):205–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Juhn C, Murphy KM, Pierce B (1993) Wage inequality and the rise in returns to skill. J Polit Econ 101(3):410–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Kagermann H, Wahlster W, Helbig J (2013) Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0. Technical report, acatech—National Academy of Science and Engineering. Retrieved from http://www.acatech.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Baumstruktur_nach_Website/Acatech/root/de/Material_fuer_Sonderseiten/Industrie_4.0/Final_report__Industrie_4.0_accessible. pdf. Accessed 22/01/15
  192. Kali R, Méndez F, Reyes J (2007) Trade structure and economic growth. J Int Trade Econ Dev 16(2):245–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Karabarbounis L, Neiman B (2014) The global decline of the labor share. Q J Econ 129(1):61–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Kattel R, Lember V (2010) Public procurement as an industrial policy tool: an option for developing countries. J Public Procure 10(3):368–404Google Scholar
  195. Katz LF, Autor DH (1999) Chapter 26 - Changes in the wage structure and earnings inequality. In: Ashenfelter OC, Card D (ed) Handbook of labor economics. Elsevier, pp 1463–1555Google Scholar
  196. Katz LF, Murphy KM (1992) Changes in relative wages, 1963–1987: supply and demand factors. Q J Econ 107(1):35–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Keller W (2000) Do trade patterns and technology flows affect productivity growth?. World Bank Econ Rev 17–47Google Scholar
  198. Keller W (2001) International Technology Diffusion (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 8573)Google Scholar
  199. Keller W (2002a) Geographic localization of international technology diffusion. Am Econ Rev 92(1):120–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Keller W (2002b) Trade and the transmission of technology. J Econ Growth 7(1):5–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Keller W (2004) International technology diffusion. J Econ Lit 42(3):752–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Klein MW, Moser C, Urban DM (2010) The contribution of trade to wage inequality: the role of skill, gender, and nationality (NBER Working Paper No. 15985)Google Scholar
  203. Klenow PJ, Rodríguez-Clare A (1997) Economic growth: a review essay. J Monet Econ 40(3):597–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Kohler W, Smolka M (2014) Global sourcing and firm selection. Econ Lett 124(3):411–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Komlos J (2014) Has creative destruction become more destructive? NBER Working paper no. w20379. National Bureau of Economic ResearchGoogle Scholar
  206. Kondo H (2004) Multiple growth and urbanization patterns in an endogenous growth model with spatial agglomeration. J Dev Econ 75(1):167–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Kortum SS (1997) Research, patenting, and technological change. Econometrica 65(6):1389–1419Google Scholar
  208. Krueger AB (1993) How computers have changed the wage structure: evidence from microdata, 1984–1989. Q J Econ 108(1):33–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Krueger A (2012) The rise and consequences of inequality. Presentation made to the Center for American Progress, January 12th. Available at http://www.americanprogress.org/events/2012/01/12/17181/the-rise-andconsequences-of-inequality
  210. Krugman PR (1991) Geography and trade. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  211. Krugman PR (2008) Trade and wages, reconsidered. Brook Pap Econ Act 2008:103–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Krugman PR, Venables A (1995) Globalization and the inequality of nations. Q J Econ 110:857–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Kumar S, Russell RR (2002) Technological change, technological catch-up, and capital deepening: relative contributions to growth and convergence. Am Econ Rev 92(3):527–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Lawrence RZ (2015) Recent declines in labor’s share in US income: a preliminary neoclassical account (NBER Working Paper No. 21296)Google Scholar
  215. Lazonick W, Mazzucato M (2013) The risk-reward nexus in the innovation-inequality relationship: who takes the risks? Who gets the rewards? Ind Corp Chang 22(4):1093–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Lember V, Kalvet T, Kattel R (2011) Urban competitiveness and public procurement for innovation. Urban Stud 48(7):1373–1395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Lemieux T (2006) Increasing residual wage inequality: composition effects, noisy data, or rising demand for skill? Am Econ Rev 96(3):461–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Lemieux T (2008) The changing nature of wage inequality. J Popul Econ 21(1):21–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Li X, Liu X (2005) Foreign direct investment and economic growth: an increasingly endogenous relationship. World Dev 33(3):393–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Liagre P, Van Gyes G (2012) The Belgian Case: an outlier in union density and membership. Industrial Relations in Europe (IREC) Conference PaperGoogle Scholar
  221. Machin S, van Reenen J (1998) Technology and changes in skill structure: evidence from seven OECD countries. Q J Econ 113(4):1215–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Madsen JB (2007) Technology spillover through trade and TFP convergence: 135 years of evidence for the OECD countries. J Int Econ 72(2):464–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Manso G (2011) Motivating innovation. J Financ 66(5):1823–1860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Martin P, Ottaviano GIP (2001) Growth and agglomeration. Int Econ Rev 42(4):947–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Mazzucato M (2014) The entrepreneurial state: Debunking public vs. private sector myths, vol 1. Anthem PressGoogle Scholar
  226. Melitz MJ (2003) The impact of trade on intra-industry reallocations and aggregate industry productivity. Econometrica 71(6):1695–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Michaels G, Natraj A, van Reenen J (2014) Has ICT polarized skill demand? Evidence from eleven countries over twenty-five years. Rev Econ Stat 96(1):60–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Miller R, Hobday M, Leroux-Demers T, Olleros X (1995) Innovation in complex systems industries: the case of flight simulation. Ind Corp Chang 4(2):363–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Mitra D, Ranjan P (2010) Offshoring and unemployment: the role of search frictions labor mobility. J Int Econ 81(2):219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Morton SM (1995) Emerging organizational forms: work and organization in the 21st century. Eur Manag J 13(4):339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Mudambi R, Venzin M (2010) The strategic nexus of offshoring and outsourcing decisions. J Manag Stud 47(8):1510–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Murgai R (2001) The green revolution and the productivity paradox: evidence from the Indian Punjab: increasing efficiency in production, research, markets and environmental management. Selected and edited papers presented during the XXIV Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists. Agric Econ 25(2–3):199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Navaretti GB, Castellani D (2004) Does investing abroad affect performance at home? Comparing Italian multinational and national enterprises. In CEPR Working Paper, No. 4284Google Scholar
  234. Nelson RR, Pack H (1999) The Asian miracle and modern growth theory. Econ J 109(457):416–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Nelson RR, Phelps ES (1966) Investment in humans, technological diffusion, and economic growth. Am Econ Rev 56(1/2):69–75Google Scholar
  236. Nickell SJ (1996) Competition and corporate performance. J Polit Econ 724–746Google Scholar
  237. Nikolaev B, Burns A (2014) Intergenerational mobility and subjective well-being—evidence from the general social survey. J Behav Exp Econ 53:82–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Nunn N, Trefler D (2013) Incomplete contracts and the boundaries of the multinational firm. J Econ Behav Organ 94:330–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. O’Donnell SW (2000) Managing foreign subsidiaries: agents of headquarters, or an interdependent network? Strateg Manag J 21(5):525–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. OECD (2011) Divided we stand: why inequality keeps rising. Paris: OECD Publishing.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264119536-en. Earnings data at: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/9/59/39606921.xls
  241. OECD (2015a) Education at a glance 2014. Statlink:  10.1787/888933283558
  242. OECD (2015b) OECD Main Economic Indicators (MEI). Available Online: http://www.oecd.org/std/oecdmaineconomicindicatorsmei.htm. Accessed 22 Jan 2015
  243. OECD (2015c) OECD Patent Database. Updated Aug 2014. Available at: http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=PATS_IPC. Accessed 7 Jan 2015
  244. OECD (2015d) OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015; Innovation for growth and society. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  245. Ohnsorge F, Trefler D (2007) Sorting it out: international trade with heterogeneous workers. J Polit Econ 115(5):868–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Oldenski L (2012) The task composition of offshoring by US multinationals. Int Econ 131:5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Oliveira Martins J, Scarpetta S, Pilat D (1996) Mark-up ratios in manufacturing industries: estimates for 14 OECD Countries (OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 162)Google Scholar
  248. Patel P (1995) Localised production of technology for global markets. Camb J Econ 19:141–153Google Scholar
  249. Patel P, Pavitt K (1991) Large firms in the production of the world’s technology: an important case of “non-globalisation”. J Int Bus Stud 22(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Peretto PF (1998) Technological change and population growth. J Econ Growth 3(4):283–311Google Scholar
  251. Perks H, Moxey S (2011) Market-facing innovation networks: how lead firms partition tasks, share resources and develop capabilities. Ind Mark Manag 40(8):1224–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Peteraf MA (1993) The cornerstones of competitive advantage: a resource-based view. Strateg Manag J 14(3):179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Pierce B (2001) Compensation inequality. Q J Econ 116(4):1493–1525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Piketty T (2014) Capital in the 21th Century. Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  255. Plewis I, Bartley M (2014) Intra-generational social mobility and educational qualifications. Res Social Stratification Mobil 36:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Powell JJ, Solga H (2011) Why are higher education participation rates in Germany so low?: Institutional barriers to higher education expansion. J Educ Work 24(1-2):49–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Prendergast C (1999) The provision of incentives in firms. J Econ Lit 37(1):7–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Quinn JB (1992) The intelligent enterprise a new paradigm. Executive 6(4):48–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Ram R, Zhang KH (2002) Foreign direct investment and economic growth: evidence from cross‐country data for the 1990s. Econ Dev Cult Chang 51(1):205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Riley R, Young G (2007) Skill heterogeneity and equilibrium unemployment. Oxf Econ Pap 59(4):702–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Rodriguez F, Rodrik D (2001) Trade policy and economic growth: a skeptic’s guide to the cross-national evidence. In: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, vol 15. MIT Press, pp 261–338Google Scholar
  262. Rognlie M (2015) Deciphering the fall and rise in the net capital share. Brook Pap Econ Act 6(1)Google Scholar
  263. Romer PM (1990) Endogenous technological change. J Polit Econ 98(5) II: 71–102Google Scholar
  264. Roodman D (2009) A note on the theme of too many instruments. Oxf Bull Econ Stat 71(1):135–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Roser M, Cuaresma JC (2016) Why is income inequality increasing in the developed world? Rev Income Wealth 62(1):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Sachs JD, Warner A (1995) Economic reform and the process of global integration. Brook Pap Econ Act 26(1):1–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Santangelo GD (2001) The impact of the information and communications technology revolution on the internationalisation of corporate technology. Int Bus Rev 10(6):701–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Segerstrom PS (1998) Endogenous growth without scale effects. Am Econ Rev 88(5):1290–1310Google Scholar
  269. Shiller R (2015) US Home Prices 1890-Present. Available Online: http://www.econ.yale.edu/~shiller/data.htm. Accessed 22 Jan 2015
  270. Sichel DE (1997) The computer revolution- an economic perspective. Brookings Institution PressGoogle Scholar
  271. Sirmon DG, Hitt MA (2003) Managing resources: linking unique resources, management, and wealth creation in family firms. Enterp Theory Pract 27(4):339–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Sirmon DG, Hitt MA, Ireland RD (2007) Managing firm resources in dynamic environments to create value: looking inside the black box. Acad Manag Rev 32(1):273–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Slaughter MJ (1998) International trade and labour-market outcomes: results, questions, and policy options. Econ J 108(450):1452–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Solow RM (1957) Technical change and the aggregate production function. Rev Econ Stat 39(3):312–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Spitz-Oener A (2006) Technical change, job tasks, and rising educational demands: looking outside the wage structure. J Labor Econ 24(2):235–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Suedekum J (2006) Agglomeration and regional costs of living. J Reg Sci 46(3):529–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Tabacco GA (2015) Does competition spur innovation? Evidence from labor productivity data for the banking industry. Econ Lett 132:45–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Tabuchi T (1998) Urban agglomeration and dispersion: a synthesis of Alonso and Krugman. J Urban Econ 44(3):333–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Takeishi A (2002) Knowledge partitioning in the interfirm division of labor: the case of automotive product development. Organ Sci 13(3):321–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Teece DJ (1998) Capturing value from knowledge assets. Calif Manag Rev 40(3):55–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Tinbergen J (1974) Substitution of graduate by other labour. Kyklos 27(2):217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Tinbergen J (1975) Income distribution. North-Holland Publishing Company BV, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  283. Urbanic RJ, ElMaraghy W (2006) Modeling of manufacturing process complexity. In: ElMaraghy H, ElMaraghy W (eds) Springer series in advanced manufacturing. Advances in Design. Springer, London, pp 425–436Google Scholar
  284. Utterback JM (1971) The process of technological innovation within the firm. Acad Manag J 14(1):75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. von Hippel EA (2005) Democratizing Innovation.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=712763
  286. Vallizadeh E, Muysken J, Ziesemer T (2015) Offshoring of medium-skill jobs, polarization, and productivity effect: Implications for wages and low-skill unemployment (IAB-Discussion Paper No. 7/2015)Google Scholar
  287. Van Reenen J (2011) Wage inequality, technology and trade: 21st century evidence. Labour Econ 18(6):730–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Verschelde M, Dumont M, Merlevede B, Rayp G (2014) A constrained nonparametric regression analysis of factor-biased technical change and TFP growth at the firm-level (NBB Working Paper Series No. 266)Google Scholar
  289. Visser J (2006) Union membership statistics in 24 countries. Mon Labor Rev 129:38–49Google Scholar
  290. Wacziarg R, Welch KH (2008) Trade liberalization and growth: New evidence. World Bank Econ Rev 22(2):187–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Wagner J (2007) Exports and productivity: a survey of the evidence from firm-level data. World Econ 30(1):60–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Walz U (1996) Long-run effects of regional policy in an economic union. Ann Reg Sci 30(2):165–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Wang Q, van Tunzelmann N (2000) Complexity and the Functions of the Firm: Breadth and Depth. Res Policy 29(7–8):805–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Wang Q, Yang Z, Liu H (2011) Impact of urban economic openness on real estate prices: evidence from thirty-five cities in China. China Econ Rev 22(1):42–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Welfens PJ (ed) (2009) Innovations in macroeconomics. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  296. Welfens PJ, Addison JT, Audretsch DB, Gries T, Grupp H (1999) Globalization, economic growth and innovation dynamics. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  297. Wernerfelt B (1984) A resource-based view of the firm. Strateg Manag J 5(2):171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Williamson OE (1975) Markets and hierarchies, analysis and antitrust implications: a study in the economics of internal organization. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  299. Williamson OE (1985) The economic institutions of capitalism: firms, markets, relational contracting. Free Press; Collier Macmillan, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  300. Williamson OE (1989) Transaction cost economics. Handb Ind Organ 1:135–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Williamson OE (2002) The theory of the firm as governance structure: from choice to contract. J Econ Perspect 16(3):171–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Wood A (1995) How trade hurt unskilled workers. J Econ Perspect 9(3):57–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Wood A (1998) Globalisation and the rise in labour market inequalities. Econ J 108(450):1463–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Wright GC (2014) Revisiting the employment impact of offshoring. Eur Econ Rev 66:63–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Yanikkaya H (2003) Trade openness and economic growth: a cross-country empirical investigation. J Dev Econ 72(1):57–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Yeaple SR (2005) A simple model of firm heterogeneity, international trade, and wages. J Int Econ 65(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Young A (1995) The tyranny of numbers: confronting the statistical realities of the east Asian growth experience. Q J Econ 110(3):641–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Young A (1998) Growth without scale effects. J Polit Econ 106(1):41–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Zhang KH (2001) Does foreign direct investment promote economic growth? Evidence from East Asia and Latin America. Contemp Econ Policy 19(2):175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Growth and Business Cycle TheoryUniversity of PaderbornPaderbornGermany

Personalised recommendations