Advertisement

Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift

, Volume 169, Issue 1–2, pp 3–11 | Cite as

68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT: the rising star of nuclear medicine in prostate cancer imaging?

  • Christian UprimnyEmail author
main topic

Summary

Ever since the introduction of 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen 11 positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT) a few years ago, it has rapidly achieved great success in the field of prostate cancer imaging. A large number of studies have been published to date, indicating a high potential of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in the work-up of prostate cancer patients, including primary diagnosis, staging and biochemical recurrence. The aim of this review is to present the most important data on this novel, highly promising imaging technique, and to formulate recommendations for possible applications of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in clinical routine.

Keywords

68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT Prostate cancer Indication Staging Biochemical recurrence 

Notes

Conflict of interest

C. Uprimny declares that he has no competing interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(2):87–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Torre LA, Siegel RL, Ward EM, Jemal A. Global cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends – an update. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25(1):16–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Briers E, Cumberbatch MG, De Santis M, et al. EAU-ESTRO-SIOG guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent. Eur Urol. 2016;71(4):618–29. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.08.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bubendorf L, Schöpfer A, Wagner U, Sauter G, Moch H, Willi N, Gasser TC, Mihatsch MJ. Metastatic patterns of prostate cancer: an autopsy study of 1,589 patients. Hum Pathol. 2000;31(5):578–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bubendorf L, Schöpfer A, Wagner U, Sauter G, Moch H, Willi N, Gasser TC, Mihatsch MJ. Metastatic patterns of prostate cancer: an autopsy study of 1,589 patients. Hum Pathol. 2000;31(5):578–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cornford P, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Briers E, De Santis M, Gross T, et al. EAU-ESTRO-SIOG guidelines on prostate cancer. Part II: treatment of relapsing, metastatic, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2016;71(4):630–42. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.08.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Even-Sapir E, Metser U, Mishani E, Lievshitz G, Lerman H, Leibovitch I. The detection of bone metastases in patients with high-risk prostate cancer: 99mTc-MDP Planar bone scintigraphy, single- and multi-field-of-view SPECT, 18F-fluoride PET, and 18F-fluoride PET/CT. J Nucl Med. 2006;47(2):287–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Poulsen MH, Petersen H, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Jakobsen JS, Gerke O, Karstof J, Steffansen SI, Walter S. Spine metastases in prostate cancer: comparison of technetium-99m-MDP whole-body bone scintigraphy, [(18) F]choline positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography (CT) and [(18) F]NaF PET/CT. BJU Int. 2014;114(6):818–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beheshti M, Langsteger W. PET imaging of prostate cancer using radiolabeled choline. PET Clin. 2009;4(2):173–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beheshti M, Haim S, Zakavi R, Steinmair M, Waldenberger P, Kunit P, Nader M, Langsteger W, Loidl W. Impact of 18F-choline PET/CT in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence: influence of androgen deprivation therapy and correlation with PSA kinetics. J Nucl Med. 2013;54(6):833–40. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.112.110148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fanti S, Minozzi S, Castellucci P, Balduzzi S, Herrmann K, Krause BJ, et al. PET/CT with (11)C-choline for evaluation of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence: meta-analysis and critical review of available data. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43(1):55–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Picchio M, Briganti A, Fanti S, Heidenreich A, Krause BJ, Messa C, et al. The role of choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of patients with prostate-specific antigen progression after radical treatment of prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2011;59(1):51–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ceci F, Herrmann K, Castellucci P, Graziani T, Bluemel C, Schiavina R, et al. Impact of 11 C-choline PET/CT on clinical decision making in recurrent prostate cancer: results from a retrospective two-centre trial. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014;41(12):2222–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Evangelista L, Briganti A, Fanti S, Joniau S, Reske S, Schiavina R, Stief C, Thalmann GN, Picchio M. New clinical indications for (18)F/(11)C-choline, new tracers for positron emission tomography and a promising hybrid device for prostate cancer staging: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol. 2016;70(1):161–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Evangelista L, Zattoni F, Karnes RJ, Novara G, Lowe V. Radiolabeled choline PET/CT before salvage lymphadenectomy dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nucl Med Commun. 2016;37(12):1223–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Evangelista L, Zattoni F, Guttilla A, Saladini G, Zattoni F, Colletti PM, Rubello D. Choline PET or PET/CT and biochemical relapse of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nucl Med. 2013;38(5):305–14. doi: 10.1097/rlu.0b013e3182867f3c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Castellucci P, Ceci F, Graziani T, Schiavina R, Brunocilla E, Mazzarotto R, Pettinato C, Celli M, Lodi F, Fanti S. Early biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy: Which prostate cancer patients may benefit from a restaging 11C-Choline PET/CT scan before salvage radiation therapy? J Nucl Med. 2014;55(9):1424–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghosh A, Heston WD. Tumor target prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and its regulation in prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2004;91(3):528–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sweat S, Pacelli A, Murphy GP, Bostwick DG. Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression is greatest in prostate adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases. Urology. 1998;52(4):637–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bostwick DG, Pacelli A, Blute M, Roche P, Murphy GP. Prostate specific membrane antigen expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma: a study of 184 cases. Urology. 1998;52(4):637–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silver DA, Pellicer I, Fair WR, Heston WD, Cordon-Cardo C. Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in normal and malignant human tissues. Clin Cancer Res. 1997;3(1):81–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chang SS, O’Keefe DS, Bacich DJ, Reuter VE, Heston WD, Gaudin PB. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is produced in tumor-associated neovasculature. Clin Cancer Res. 1999;5(10):2674–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chang SS, Gaudin PB, Reuter VE, O’Keefe DS, Bacich DJ, Heston WD. Prostate-specific membrane antigen: much more than a prostate cancer marker. Mol Urol. 1999;3(3):313–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Afshar-Oromieh A, Haberkorn U, Eder M, Eisenhut M, Zechmann CM. [68 Ga]Gallium-labelled PSMA ligand as superior PET tracer for the diagnosis of prostate cancer: comparison with 18 F-FECH. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39(6):1085–6. doi: 10.1007/s00259-012-2069-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Afshar-Oromieh A, Malcher A, Eder M, Eisenhut M, Linhart HG, Hadaschik BA, Holland-Letz T, Giesel FL, Kratochwil C, Haufe S, Haberkorn U, Zechmann CM. PET imaging with a [68Ga]gallium-labelled PSMA ligand for the diagnosis of prostate cancer: biodistribution in humans and first evaluation of tumour lesions. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013;40(4):486–95. doi: 10.1007/s00259-012-2298-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schäfer M, Bauder-Wüst U, Leotta K, Zoller F, Mier W, Haberkorn U, Eisenhut M, Eder M. A dimerized urea-based inhibitor of the prostate-specific membrane antigen for 68 Ga-PET imaging of prostate cancer. EJNMMI Res. 2012;2(1):23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eder M, Schäfer M, Bauder-Wüst U, Hull WE, Wängler C, Mier W, Haberkorn U, Eisenhut M. 68 ga-complex lipophilicity and the targeting property of a urea-based PSMA inhibitor for PET imaging. Bioconjug Chem. 2012;23(4):688–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Eder M, Neels O, Müller M, Bauder-Wüst U, Remde Y, Schäfer M, Hennrich U, Eisenhut M, Afshar-Oromieh A, Haberkorn U, Kopka K. Novel preclinical and radiopharmaceutical aspects of [68 Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC: a new PET tracer for imaging of prostate cancer. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2014;7(7):779–96.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Banerjee SR, Pullambhatla M, Byun Y, Nimmagadda S, Green G, Fox JJ, Horti A, Mease RC, Pomper MG. 68Ga-labeled inhibitors of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for imaging prostate cancer. J Med Chem. 2010;53(14):5333–41. doi: 10.1021/jm100623e.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Afshar-Oromieh A, Zechmann CM, Malcher A, et al. Comparison of PET imaging with a 68Ga-labelled PSMA ligand and 18F-choline-based PET/CT for the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014;41(1):11–20. doi: 10.1007/s00259-013-2525-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ceci F, Uprimny C, Nilica B, Geraldo L, Kendler D, Kroiss A, Bektic J, Horninger W, Lukas P, Decristoforo C, Castellucci P, Fanti S, Virgolini IJ. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for restaging recurrent prostate cancer: which factors are associated with PET/CT detection rate? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42(8):1284–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rauscher I, Maurer T, Fendler WP, Sommer WH, Schwaiger M, Eiber M. 68Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer: How we review and report. Cancer Imaging. 2016;16(1):14.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Freitag MT, Radtke JP, Hadaschik BA, Kopp-Schneider A, Eder M, Kopka K, Haberkorn U, Roethke M, Schlemmer HP, Afshar-Oromieh A. Comparison of hybrid 68Ga-PSMA PET/MRI and 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the evaluation of lymph node and bone metastases of prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43(1):70–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Giesel FL, Sterzing F, Schlemmer HP, Holland-Letz T, Mier W, Rius M, Afshar-Oromieh A, Kopka K, Debus J, Haberkorn U, Kratochwil C. Intra-individual comparison of 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT and multi-parametric MR for imaging of primary prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43(8):1400–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fütterer JJ, Briganti A, De Visschere P, Emberton M, Giannarini G, Kirkham A, Taneja SS, Thoeny H, Villeirs G, Villers A. Can clinically significant prostate cancer be detected with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging? A systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol. 2015;68(6):1045–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moore CM, Robertson NL, Arsanious N, Middleton T, Villers A, Klotz L, Taneja SS, Emberton M. Image-guided prostate biopsy using magnetic resonance imaging-derived targets: a systematic review. Eur Urol. 2013;63(1):125–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Maurer T, Gschwend JE, Rauscher I, Souvatzoglou M, Haller B, Weirich G, Wester HJ, Heck M, Kübler H, Beer AJ, Schwaiger M, Eiber M. Diagnostic efficacy of 68Gallium-PSMA positron emission tomography compared to conventional imaging for lymph node staging of 130 consecutive patients with intermediate to high risk prostate cancer. J Urol. 2016;195(5):1436–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sachpekidis C, Kopka K, Eder M, Hadaschik BA, Freitag MT, Pan L, Haberkorn U, Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss A. 68Ga-PSMA-11 dynamic PET/CT imaging in primary prostate cancer. Clin Nucl Med. 2016;41(11):e473–e9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eiber M, Maurer T, Souvatzoglou M, Beer AJ, Ruffani A, Haller B, Graner FP, Kübler H, Haberhorn U, Eisenhut M, Wester HJ, Gschwend JE, Schwaiger M. Evaluation of hybrid 68Ga-PSMA Ligand PET/CT in 248 patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. J Nucl Med. 2015;56(5):668–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rhee H, Thomas P, Shepherd B, Gustafson S, Vela I, Russell PJ, Nelson C, Chung E, Wood G, Malone G, Wood S, Heathcote P. Prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography may improve the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in localized prostate cancer. J Urol. 2016;196(4):1261–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hövels AM, Heesakkers RA, Adang EM, Jager GJ, Strum S, Hoogeveen YL, Severens JL, Barentsz JO. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Radiol. 2008;63:387–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Heck MM, Souvatzoglou M, Retz M, Nawroth R, Kübler H, Maurer T, Thalgott M, Gramer BM, Weirich G, Rondak IC, Rummeny EJ, Schwaiger M, Gschwend JE, Krause B, Eiber M. Prospective comparison of computed tomography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and [11C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography for preoperative lymph node staging in prostate cancer patients. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014;41(4):694–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Poulsen MH, Bouchelouche K, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Petersen H, Gerke O, Steffansen SI, Marcussen N, Svolgaard N, Vach W, Geertsen U, Walter S. [18 F]fluoromethylcholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for lymph node staging of prostate cancer: a prospective study of 210 patients. BJU Int. 2012;110(11):1666–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Beheshti M, Imamovic L, Broinger G, Vali R, Waldenberger P, Stoiber F, Nader M, Gruy B, Janetschek G, Langsteger W. 18 F choline PET/CT in the preoperative staging of prostate cancer in patients with intermediate or high risk of extracapsular disease: a prospective study of 130 patients. Radiology. 2010;254(3):925–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mannweiler S, Amersdorfer P, Trajanoski S, Terrett JA, King D, Mehes G. Heterogeneity of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in prostate carcinoma with distant metastasis. Pathol Oncol Res. 2009;15(2):167–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Afshar-Oromieh A, Avtzi E, Giesel FL, Holland-Letz T, Linhart HG, Eder M, et al. The diagnostic value of PET/CT imaging with the (68)Ga-labelled PSMA ligand HBED-CC in the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42(2):197–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schwenck J, Rempp H, Reischl G, Kruck S, Stenzl A, Nikolaou K, Pfannenberg C, la Fougère C. Comparison of 68 Ga-labelled PSMA-11 and 11 C-choline in the detection of prostate cancer metastases by PET/CT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;44(1):92–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Demirci E, Ocak M, Kabasakal L, Decristoforo C, Talat Z, Halaç M, Kanmaz B. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014;41(7):1461–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Verburg FA, Krohn T, Heinzel A, Mottaghy FM, Behrendt FF. First evidence of PSMA expression in differentiated thyroid cancer using [68Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42(10):1622–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schwenck J, Tabatabai G, Skardelly M, Reischl G, Beschorner R, Pichler B, la Fougère C. In vivo visualization of prostate-specific membrane antigen in glioblastoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42(1):170–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rischpler C, Maurer T, Schwaiger M, Eiber M. Intense PSMA-expression using 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in a paravertebral schwannoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43(1):193–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Giesel FL, Fiedler H, Stefanova M, Sterzing F, Rius M, Kopka K, Moltz JH, Afshar-Oromieh A, Choyke PL, Haberkorn U, Kratochwil C. PSMA PET/CT with Glu-urea-Lys-(Ahx)-[68Ga(HBED-CC)] versus 3D CT volumetric lymph node assessment in recurrent prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42(12):1794–800.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Budäus L, Leyh-Bannurah SR, Salomon G, Michl U, Heinzer H, Huland H, Graefen M, Steuber T, Rosenbaum C. Initial experience of 68ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging in high-risk prostate cancer patients prior to radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2016;69(3):393–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Derlin T, Eiber M, Schwaiger M, Bengel FM. Re: Lars Budäus, Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Georg Salomon, et al. Initial Experience of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT Imaging in High-risk Prostate Cancer Patients Prior to Radical Prostatectomy. Eur Urol 2016;69:393–6. Eur Urol. 2016;70(2):e37–e8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Herlemann A, Wenter V, Kretschmer A, Thierfelder KM, Bartenstein P, Faber C, Gildehaus FJ, Stief CG, Gratzke C, Fendler WP. 68 Ga-PSMA positron emission tomography/computed tomography provides accurate staging of lymph node regions prior to lymph node dissection in patients with prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2016;70(4):553–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    van Leeuwen PJ, Emmett L, Ho B, Delprado W, Ting F, Nguyen Q, Stricker PD. Prospective evaluation of 68Gallium-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography for preoperative lymph node staging in prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2017;119(2):209–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cornford P, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Briers E, De Santis M, Gross T, Henry AM, Joniau S, Lam TB, Mason MD, van der Poel HG, van der Kwast TH, Rouvière O, Wiegel T, Mottet N. EAU-ESTRO-SIOG guidelines on prostate cancer. Part II: treatment of relapsing, metastatic, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2016;71(4):630–42. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.08.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pfister D, Bolla M, Briganti A, Carroll P, Cozzarini C, Joniau S, van Poppel H, Roach M, Stephenson A, Wiegel T, Zelefsky MJ. Early salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2014;65:1034–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Beresford MJ, Gillatt D, Benson RJ, Ajithkumar T. A systematic review of the role of imaging before salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical recurrence. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2010;22(1):46–55.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Afshar-Oromieh A, Avtzi E, Giesel FL, Holland-Letz T, Linhart HG, Eder M, Eisenhut M, Boxler S, Hadaschik BA, Kratochwil C, Weichert W, Kopka K, Debus J, Haberkorn U. The diagnostic value of PET/CT imaging with the 68Ga-labelled PSMA ligand HBED-CC in the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42(2):197–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Morigi JJ, Stricker PD, van Leeuwen PJ, Tang R, Ho B, Nguyen Q, Hruby G, Fogarty G, Jagavkar R, Kneebone A, Hickey A, Fanti S, Tarlinton L, Emmett L. Prospective comparison of 18 F-Fluoromethylcholine versus 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT in prostate cancer patients who have rising PSA after curative treatment and are being considered for targeted therapy. J Nucl Med. 2015;56(8):1185–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    van Leeuwen PJ, Stricker P, Hruby G, Kneebone A, Ting F, Thompson B, Nguyen Q, Ho B, Emmett L. 68Ga-PSMA has a high detection rate of prostate cancer recurrence outside the prostatic fossa in patients being considered for salvage radiation treatment. BJU Int. 2016;117(5):732–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Verburg FA, Pfister D, Heidenreich A, Vogg A, Drude NI, Vöö S, Mottaghy FM, Behrendt FF. Extent of disease in recurrent prostate cancer determined by [68Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT in relation to PSA levels, PSA doubling time and Gleason score. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43(3):397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rauscher I, Maurer T, Beer AJ, Graner FP, Haller B, Weirich G, Doherty A, Gschwend JE, Schwaiger M, Eiber M. Value of 68Ga-PSMA HBED-CC PET for the assessment of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence: comparison with histopathology after salvage lymphadenectomy. J Nucl Med. 2016;57(11):1713–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Langsteger W, Rezaee A, Pirich C, Beheshti M. 18 F-naF-PET/CT and 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastases in prostate cancer. Semin Nucl Med. 2016;46(6):491–501. doi: 10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2016.07.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cook GJ, Azad G, Padhani AR. Bone imaging in prostate cancer: the evolving roles of nuclear medicine and radiology. Clin Transl Imaging. 2016;4(6):439–47.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Uprimny C, Kroiss A, Decristoforo C, Fritz J, von Guggenberg E, Kendler D, Scarpa L, di Santo G, Geraldo Roig L, Maffey-Steffan J, Horninger W, Virgolini IJ. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in primary staging of prostate cancer: PSA and Gleason score predict the intensity of tracer accumulation in the primary tumour. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;44(6):941–9. doi: 10.1007/s00259-017-3631-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bier G, Hoffmann V, Kloth C, Othmann AE, Eigentler T, et al. CT imaging of bone and bone marrow infiltration in malignant melanoma – challenges and limitations for clinical staging in comparison to 18FDG-PET/CT. Eur J Radiol. 2016;85(4):732–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Perera M, Papa N, Christidis D, Wetherell D, Hofman MS, Murphy DG, Bolton D, Lawrentschuk N. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictors of positive 68 Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography in advanced prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2016;70(6):926–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear MedicineMedical University InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations