Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift

, Volume 161, Issue 11–12, pp 282–288 | Cite as

Nutrition and diabetes mellitus: an overview of the current evidence

  • Sabine Dämon
  • Manuel Schätzer
  • Jürgen Höfler
  • Goran Tomasec
  • Friedrich Hoppichler


Overwhelming evidence exists supporting the benefit of lifestyle and nutritional interventions to prevent or delay type 2 and gestational diabetes and improve glycemic control and co-morbidities in patients of all sub-types of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, nutritional therapy is an indispensable and fundamental treatment component, which has to be based on evidence-based recommendations, adapted for dietary intake and medication, and periodically adapted according to diagnosis and individual course of illness. This overview is based on the currently valid evidence-based nutritional recommendations of the European and American Diabetes Associations for the management of diabetes mellitus. It describes the quality and quantity of beneficial macronutrient (carbohydrates, fat, and protein) and micronutrient intake, alcohol consumption, and food groups. Moreover, the evidence for supplements and functional foods is summarized and the role of body weight and different weight loss diets are discussed.


Nutrition Diabetes Nutritional therapy Dietary advice Evidence-based recommendations 

Ernährung und Diabetes mellitus: eine Übersicht zur derzeitigen Evidenzlage


Eine überwältigende Evidenz existiert, dass Ernährungs- und Lebensstilmaßnahmen zur Prävention oder Verzögerung eines Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 und eines Schwangerschaftsdiabetes beitragen und die glykämische Kontrolle sowie Komorbiditäten bei Patienten aller Sub-Typen des Diabetes mellitus verbessern. Die Ernährungstherapie ist daher ein unverzichtbarer und grundlegender Bestandteil der Behandlung, die sich an den Evidenz-basierten Empfehlungen orientieren und an die Nahrungsaufnahme und Medikation sowie laufend entsprechend der Diagnose und des individuellen Krankheitsverlaufes angepasst werden soll. Diese Übersicht basiert auf den derzeit gültigen, Evidenz-basierten Empfehlungen der europäischen und amerikanischen Diabetes Gesellschaften für das Management des Diabetes mellitus. Die Qualität und Menge einer vorteilhaften Aufnahme von Makronährstoffen (Kohlenhydrate, Fett, Protein) und Mikronährstoffen sowie Alkohol und Lebensmittelgruppen werden beschrieben. Darüber hinaus wird die Evidenz für Supplemente und funktionelle Lebensmittel zusammengefasst und die Rolle des Körpergewichts und unterschiedlicher Diäten zur Gewichtsreduktion diskutiert.


Ernährung Diabetes Ernährungstherapie Diätberatung Evidenz-basierte Empfehlungen 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabine Dämon
    • 1
  • Manuel Schätzer
    • 1
  • Jürgen Höfler
    • 1
    • 2
  • Goran Tomasec
    • 2
  • Friedrich Hoppichler
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.SIPCAN – Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and NutritionSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.Hospital Barmherzige BrüderSalzburgAustria

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