, 62:9 | Cite as

An upper Paleogene shallowing-upward sequence in the southern Sandino Forearc Basin (NW Costa Rica): response to tectonic uplift

  • Goran Andjić
  • Claudia Baumgartner-Mora
  • Peter O. Baumgartner
Original Article


The Sandino Forearc Basin of western Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica (Central America) provides a Campanian to Pliocene sedimentary record. The study of the onshore part of the basin in northwestern Costa Rica reveals for the first time the occurrence of upper Paleogene shallow-marine siliciclastic and carbonate sequences. These sequences have remained undescribed so far and are grouped herein into two new lithostratigraphic units—the upper Eocene Junquillal Formation (Fm.) and the upper Oligocene Juanilla Fm. The upper Eocene Junquillal Fm. is characterized by storm-related, arenitic to conglomeratic deposits comprised in metric, massive amalgamated beds. The shallow shelfal environment of deposition is attested by the presence of hummocky and swaley cross-stratifications. The lithologies of the Junquillal Fm. were previously considered to be part of the underlying, deep-water turbiditic deposits of the Eocene Descartes Fm. The deposition of the Junquillal Fm. is indicative of tectonic uplift that forced regression, which affected the southeastern part of the Sandino Forearc Basin during the late Eocene. The upper Oligocene Juanilla Fm. unconformably overlies the Junquillal Fm. and occurs as a 25-m-thick, 700-m-wide outcrop on Isla Juanilla. It is composed essentially of nodular, coral framestones exhibiting massive, closely packed corals in growth position that are associated with coralline red algae and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). A late Oligocene age of the reef is attested by LBF assemblages occurring in two different facies. The Juanilla Fm. coral reef is a unique exposure, characterized by extensive constructed coral framework, and which has no equivalent in the Oligocene geological record of Central America. The reef grew on a short-lived, siliciclastic-poor tectonic high, which developed in relation to a lower Oligocene, basin-scale folding event in the Sandino Forearc Basin.


Coral reef Larger Benthic Foraminifera Tectonic uplift Eocene Oligocene Sandino Basin N-Costa Rica 



We are thankful to Thomas A. Stemann (University of West Indies, Jamaica) and Jörn Geister (Natural History Museum of Bern, Switzerland) for the determination of some coral taxa. We thank Katica Drobne (Ivan Rakovec Paleontological Institute, Slovenia) for her help with some LBF. We are grateful to Simonetta Monechi (University of Florence), who determined some nannofossils. Many thanks go to Roger Blanco and Maria Marta Chavarria of the Santa Rosa National Park administration (Costa Rica) for logistic support and for providing us the documentation for sample export. We are thankful to Anibal and Minor Lara for safe boat trips and to David Laurent for the help in the field. Comments of Antonino Briguglio were very useful. We thank one anonymous reviewer and the editor Axel Munnecke for their constructive comments and suggestions that helped to improve the manuscript. This research was supported by funds of the Swiss National Science Foundation project no. 200021-134873 and 200020-143894, and the Herbette Foundation at the University of Lausanne, granted to P.O. Baumgartner.


  1. Aguilar T (1999) Organismos de un arrecife fósil (Oligoceno Superior-Mioceno Inferior), del Caribe de Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 47:453–474Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar T, Cortés J (2001) Arrecifes coralinos del Oligoceno Superior-Mioceno Inferior, de Turrialba, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 49:203–213Google Scholar
  3. Aigner T (1982) Event-stratification in nummulite accumulations and in shell beds from the Eocene of Egypt. In: Einsele G, Seilacher A (eds) Cyclic and event stratification. Springer, Berlin, pp 248–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aigner T (1985) Biofabrics as dynamic indicators in nummulite accumulations. J Sediment Petrol 55(1):131–134Google Scholar
  5. Alvarado GE, Dengo C, Martens U, Bundschuh J, Aguilar T, Bonis SB (2007) Stratigraphy and geologic history. In: Bundschuh J, Alvarado GE (eds) Central America, geology, resources, hazards, vol 1. Taylor and Francis, pp 345–394Google Scholar
  6. Amann H (1993) Randmarine und terrestrische Ablagerungsräume des neogenen Inselbogensystems in Costa Rica (Mittelamerika), vol 4. Profil, Stuttgart, p 161Google Scholar
  7. Anthony KRN, Fabricius KE (2000) Shifting roles of heterotrophy and autotrophy in coral energetics under varying turbidity. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 252:221–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arni P (1963) L’évolution des Nummulitinae en tant que facteur de modification des dépôts littoraux. In: Colloque International de Micropaléontologie, Dakar, Mai 1963, vol 32. Mém BRGM, pp 7–20Google Scholar
  9. Astorga A (1987) El Cretácico Superior y el Paleógeno de la vertiente pacífica de Nicaragua meridional y Costa Rica septentrional: Origen, evolución y dinámica de las cuencas profundas relacionadas al margen convergente de Centroamérica. Tesis de Licenciatura (unpublished), Universidad de Costa Rica, p 250Google Scholar
  10. Astorga A (1988) Geodinámica de las cuencas del Cretácico Superior-Paleógeno de la región “forearc” del Sur de Nicaragua y Norte de Costa Rica. Rev Geol Am Central 9:1–40Google Scholar
  11. Auer WF (1942) Summary report of paleontology of Pacific coast area, Nicaragua. p 18Google Scholar
  12. Azéma J, Tournon J (1980) La péninsule de Santa Elena, Costa Rica: un massif ultrabasique charrié en marge pacifique de l’Amérique Centrale, Costa Rica. C R Acad Sci Paris 290:9–12Google Scholar
  13. Azéma J, Tournon J (1982) The Guatemalan margin, the Nicoya Complex and the origin of the Caribbean plate. In: Aubouin J, von Huene R et al. (eds) Initial reports DSDP, vol 67. Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), pp 739–745Google Scholar
  14. Azéma J, Glaçon G, Tournon J (1981) Nouvelles données sur le Paléocène à Foraminifères planctoniques de la bordure pacifique du Costa Rica. C R Somm Soc Géol France 3:85–88Google Scholar
  15. Baldermann A, Grathoff GH, Nickel C (2012) Micromilieu-controlled glauconitization in fecal pellets at Oker (central Germany). Clay Miner 47:513–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bally AW, Roberts DG, Sawyer D, Sinkewich A (2012) Cenozoic/Mesozoic and Paleozoic orogenic systems and their fold and thrust belts (FTBs). In: Roberts DG, Bally AW (eds) Regional geology and tectonics: Phanerozoic passive margins, cratonic basins and global tectonic maps, vol 1C. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1042–1059Google Scholar
  17. Bandini AN, Flores K, Baumgartner PO, Jackett SJ, Denyer P (2008) Late Cretaceous and Paleogene Radiolaria from the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica: a tectonostratigraphic application. Stratigraphy 5:3–21Google Scholar
  18. Bandini AN, Baumgartner PO, Flores K, Dumitrica P, Jackett SJ (2011) Early Jurassic to lower Late Cretaceous radiolarians from the Santa Rosa accretionary complex (northwestern Costa Rica). Ofioliti 36(1):1–35Google Scholar
  19. Barboza G, Astorga A, Bottazzi G, Barrientos J, Muñoz A, Darce M, Duarte M, Espinoza M (1993) Integrated petroleum evaluation report, Pacific margin, Sandino Basin, Nicaragua. INE, internal report, pp 11–195Google Scholar
  20. Baumgartner PO, Denyer P (2006) Evidence for middle Cretaceous accretion at Santa Elena Peninsula (Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex), Costa Rica. Geol Acta 4(1/2):179–191Google Scholar
  21. Baumgartner PO, Mora CR, Butterlin J, Sigal J, Glacon G, Azéma J, Bourgois J (1984) Sedimentación y paleogeografía del Cretácico y Cenozoico del litoral pacífico de Costa Rica. Rev Geol Am Central 1:57–136Google Scholar
  22. Baumgartner PO, Flores K, Bandini AN, Girault F, Cruz D (2008) Upper Triassic to Cretaceous radiolaria from Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica—the Mesquito composite oceanic terrane. Ofioliti 33:1–19Google Scholar
  23. Baumgartner-Mora C, Denyer P (2002) Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) limestone with Larger Foraminifera from Peña Bruja Rock (Santa Elena Peninsula). Rev Geol Am Central 26:85–89Google Scholar
  24. Baumgartner-Mora C, Baumgartner PO, Tschudin P (2008) Late Oligocene Larger Foraminifera from Nosara, Nicoya Península (Costa Rica) and Windward, Carriacou (Lesser Antilles), calibrated by 87Sr/86Sr isotope stratigraphy. Rev Geol Am Central 38:33–52Google Scholar
  25. Behforouzi E, Safari A (2011) Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of the Qom Formation in Chenar area (northwestern Kashan), Iran. Rev Mex Cienc Geol 28(3):555–565Google Scholar
  26. Berhorst A (2006) Die Struktur des aktiven Kontinentalhangs vor Nicaragua und Costa Rica: marin-seismische Steil- und Weitwinkelmessungen. Ph.D. thesis, Christian Albrechts Universität, Kiel, p 153Google Scholar
  27. Blow WH (1979) Danian to Oligocene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In: Brill EJ (ed) The Cainozoic Globissinida. A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and the stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). EJB, Leiden, ix, pp 573–1413Google Scholar
  28. Bosence DWJ (1991) Coralline algae: mineralization, taxonomy, and palaeoecology. In: Riding R (ed) Calcareous algae and stromatolites. Springer, Berlin, pp 98–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bosence DWJ (2005) A genetic classification of carbonate platforms based on their basinal and tectonic settings in the Cenozoic. Sediment Geol 175(1–4):49–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bosscher H, Schlager W (1992) Computer simulation of reef growth. Sedimentology 39:503–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bouma AH (1962) Sedimentology of some Flysch deposits: a graphic approach to facies interpretation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 168Google Scholar
  32. Braga JC, Martín JM (1988) Neogene coralline-algal growth-forms and their palaeoenvironments in the Almanzora River Valley (Almeria, S.E. Spain). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 67:285–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brasier MD (1995) Fossil indicators of nutrient levels. 2: evolution and extinction in relation to oligotrophy. In: Bosence DWJ, Allison PA (eds) Marine palaeoenvironmental analysis from fossils, vol 83. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper, pp 133–150Google Scholar
  34. Briguglio A, Hohenegger J (2009) Nummulitids hydrodynamics: an example using Nummulites globulus Leymerie. Boll Soc Paleontol I 48(2):105–111Google Scholar
  35. Briguglio A, Hohenegger J (2011) How to react to shallow-water hydrodynamics: the larger benthic foraminifera solution. Mar Micropaleontol 81:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Buchs DM, Arculus RJ, Baumgartner PO, Baumgartner-Mora C, Ulianov A (2010) Late Cretaceous arc development on the SW margin of the Caribbean plate: insights from the Golfito, Costa Rica, and Azuero, Panama, complexes. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi: 10.1029/2009GC002901 Google Scholar
  37. Budd AF (2000) Diversity and extinction in the Cenozoic history of Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs 19(1):25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Butterlin J (1962) A propos de l’Oligocène dans la région des Caraïbes. Bull Soc Géol France 4(3):390–393Google Scholar
  39. Butterlin J (1981) Claves para la determinacion de macroforaminiferos de Mexico y del Caribe, del Cretacico Superior al Mioceno Medio. Inst Mex Petr 29:1–51Google Scholar
  40. Caudri CMB (1975) Geology and paleontology of Soldado Rock, Trinidad (West Indies). Eclogae Geol Helv 68:533–589Google Scholar
  41. Caudri CMB (1996) The larger Foraminifera of Trinidad (West Indies). Eclogae Geol Helv 89:1137–1309Google Scholar
  42. Chafetz HS, Reid A (2000) Syndepositional shallow-water precipitation of glauconitic minerals. Sediment Geol 136(1–2):29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chapronière GCH (1975) Paleoecology of Oligo-Miocene larger foraminiferida, Australia. Alcheringa 1:37–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cheel RJ, Leckie DA (1993) Hummocky cross-stratification. In: Wright VP (ed) Sedimentology Review. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (UK), pp 103–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Clerc C (1998) Foraminifères planctoniques en sections de la couverture du terrain de Nicoya (Costa Rica), Crétacé supérieur-Paléogène. Travail de diplôme, Université de Genève, p 121Google Scholar
  46. Clifton HE (1988) Sedimentologic approaches to paleobathymetry, with applications to the Merced Formation of Central California. Palaios 3:507–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cole WS (1952) Eocene and Oligocene Larger Foraminifera from Panama Canal Zone and Vicinity, vol 244. US Geol Surv Prof Paper, p 41Google Scholar
  48. Cole WS (1961) Some nomenclatural and stratigraphic problems involving Larger Foraminifera. Contrib Cushman Found Foram Res 12(4):136–147Google Scholar
  49. Darce M, Duarte M (2002) Geologia de la Cuenca Sandino en costadentro, Nicaragua. Centro America, Instituto Nicaragüense de Energia, Managua, p 23Google Scholar
  50. Dengo G (1962) Estudio Geológico de la Región de Guanacaste,Costa Rica. Instituto Geográfico Nacional, San José-Costa Rica, p 112Google Scholar
  51. Dengo G (1985) Mid America: tectonic setting for the Pacific margin from southern Mexico to northwestern Columbia. In: Naim AEM, Stehli FG (eds) The Ocean basins and margins, vol 7. Plenum Press, New York, pp 123–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Denyer P, Alvarado GE (2007) Mapa Geológico de Costa Rica 1: 400,000. Librería Francesa S.AGoogle Scholar
  53. Di Marco G, Baumgartner PO, Chanell JET (1995) Late Cretaceous–early Tertiary paleomagnetic data and a revised tectonostratigraphic subdivision of Costa Rica and western Panama. In: Mann P (ed) Geologic and tectonic development of the Caribbean plate boundary in southern Central America, vol 295. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper, pp 1–27Google Scholar
  54. Díaz de Gamero ML (1977) Estratigrafía y Micropalentología del Oligoceno y Mioceno Inferior del Centro de la Cuenca de Falcón, Venezuela, vol 22. Geos, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, pp 2–50Google Scholar
  55. Dickinson WR (1995) Forearc basins. In: Busby CJ, Ingersoll RV (eds) Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins. Blackwell Science, pp 221–261Google Scholar
  56. Dickinson WR, Seely DR (1979) Structure and stratigraphy of forearc regions. AAPG Bull 63:2–31Google Scholar
  57. Dorobek SL (2008) Carbonate-platform facies in volcanic-arc settings: characteristics and controls on deposition and stratigraphic development. In: Draut AE, Clift PD, Scholl DW (eds) Formation and applications of the sedimentary record in Arc Collision Zones, vol 463. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper, pp 55–90Google Scholar
  58. Dorr JB (1933) New data on the correlation of the Lower Oligocene of South and Central America with that of southern Mexico. J Paleontol 7(4):432–438Google Scholar
  59. Dott RH, Bourgeois J (1982) Hummocky stratification: significance of its variable bedding sequences. Geol Soc Am Bull 93:663–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Duke WL (1985) Hummocky cross-stratification, tropical hurricane, and intense winter storms. Sedimentology 32:167–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dullo WC (2005) Coral growth and reef growth: a brief review. Facies 51:33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dumas S, Arnott RWC (2006) Origin of hummocky and swaley cross-stratification—the controlling influence of unidirectional current strength and aggradation rate. Geology 34(12):1073–1076. doi: 10.1130/G22930A.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Einsele G (2000) Sedimentary Basins. Evolution, facies, and sediment budget. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg GmbH, 2nd ed., p 792Google Scholar
  64. Elming SA, Widenfalk L, Rodriguez D (eds) (1998) Investigación geocientifica en Nicaragua 1981–1991. Universidad Tecnologica de Lulea, Suecia, p 340Google Scholar
  65. Escuder-Viruete J, Baumgartner PO (2014) Structural evolution and deformation kinematics of a subduction-related serpentinite-matrix mélange, Santa Elena Peninsula, northwest Costa Rica. J Struct Geol 66:356–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Escuder-Viruete J, Baumgartner PO, Castillo-Carrión M (2015) Compositional diversity in ophiolitic peridotites as result of a multi-process history: the Santa Elena ophiolite, northwest Costa Rica. Lithos 231:16–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fagerstrom JA (1988) A structural model for reef communities. Palaios 3:217–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Flores K (2009) Mesozoic Oceanic Terranes of Southern Central America—geology, geochemistry and geodynamics. Ph.D. thesis, Université de Lausanne, p 290Google Scholar
  69. Flores K, Denyer P, Aguilar T (2003a) Nueva propuesta estratigráfica: geología de las hojas Matambú y Talolinga, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Rev Geol Am Central 28:131–138Google Scholar
  70. Flores K, Denyer P, Aguilar T (2003b) Nueva propuesta estratigráfica: Geología de la hoja Abangares, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Rev Geol Am Central 29:127–136Google Scholar
  71. Folk RL (1965) Some aspects of recrystallization in ancient limestones. In: Pray LC, Murray RS (eds) Dolomitization and Limestone Diagenesis, vol 13. SEPM Spec Publ, pp 14–48. doi: 10.2110/pec.65.07.0014
  72. Fravega P, Piazza M, Stockar R, Vannucci G (1994) Oligocene coral and algal reef and related facies of Valzemola (Savona, NW Italy). Riv It Paleont Strat 100(3):423–456Google Scholar
  73. Frost SH, Langenheim RL (1974) Cenozoic reef biofacies. Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb, p 388Google Scholar
  74. Frost SH, Weiss MP (1979) Patch-reef communities and succession in the Oligocene of Antigua, West Indies. Geol Soc Am Bull 90:612–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Frost SH, Harbour JL, Beach DK, Realini MJ, Harris PM (1983) Oligocene reef tract development, southwestern Puerto Rico, vol IX. Sedimenta, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, p 107Google Scholar
  76. Funk J, Mann P, McIntosh K, Stephens J (2009) Cenozoic tectonics of the Nicaraguan depression, Nicaragua, and Median Trough, El Salvador, based on seismic-reflection profiling and remote-sensing data. Geol Soc Am Bull 121(11/12):1491–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gazel E, Denyer P, Baumgartner PO (2006) Magmatic and geotectonic significance of Santa Elena Peninsula, Costa Rica. Geol Acta 4(1–2):193–202Google Scholar
  78. Giunta G, Beccaluva L, Siena F (2006) Caribbean Plate margin evolution: constraints and current problems. Geol Acta 4(1–2):265–277Google Scholar
  79. Hallock P, Glenn EC (1986) Larger Foraminifera: a tool for paleoenvironmental analysis of Cenozoic Carbonate depositional facies. Palaios 1(1):55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hallock P, Schlager W (1986) Nutrient excess and the demise of coral reefs and carbonate platforms. Palaios 1(4):389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Haq BU, Al-Qahtani AM (2005) Phanerozoic cycles of sea-level change on the Arabian Platform. GeoArabia 10:127–160Google Scholar
  82. Haq BU, Hardenbol J, Vail PR (1987) Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic (250 million years ago to present). Science 235:1156–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Harrison JV (1953) The geology of the Santa Elena peninsula in Costa Rica, Central America. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Pacific Congress, vol 2. New Zealand, pp 102–104Google Scholar
  84. Hauff F, Hoernle K, van den Bogaard P, Alvarado G, Garbe Schoenberg D (2000) Age and geochemistry of basaltic complexes in western Costa Rica; contributions to the geotectonic evolution of Central America. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 1:1009. doi: 10.1029/1999GC000020 Google Scholar
  85. Hayes CW (1899) Physiography and geology of region adjacent to the Nicaragua canal route. Geol Soc Am Bull 10:285–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Heckel PH (1974) Carbonate buildups in the geologic record: a review. In: Laporte LF (ed) Reefs in Time and Space, vol 18. SEPM Spec Publ, pp 90–154Google Scholar
  87. Hedberg HD (ed) (1976) International Stratigraphic Guide: A Guide to Stratigraphic Classification, Terminology and Procedure. Wiley Interscience Publication, New York, 200 pGoogle Scholar
  88. Hjulström F (1935) Studies of the morphological activity of rivers as illustrated by the River Fyris. Bull Geol Inst Univ Uppsala 25:221–527Google Scholar
  89. Hodgson G (1998) Resumen de la geologia en el perfil geotransversal Nicaragüense—Estado del conocimiento 1984. In: Elming SA, Widenfalk L, Rodriguez D (eds) Investigación geocientifica en Nicaragua 1981–1991. Universidad Tecnologica de Lulea, Suecia, pp 41–51Google Scholar
  90. Hoffstetter R, Dengo G, Dixon CG, Meyer-Abich H, Weyl R, Woodring WP, Zoppis Bracci L (1956) In: Hoffstetter R (ed) Lexique Stratigraphique International, vol V(2a). CNRS, Paris, pp 171–224Google Scholar
  91. Hofmann HJ (1994) Grain-shape indices and isometric graphs. J Sediment Res 64(4a):916–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hottinger L (1997) Shallow benthic Foraminiferal assemblages as signals for depth of their deposition and their limitations. Bull Soc Géol France 168(4):491–505Google Scholar
  93. Huggett JM, Gale AS (1997) Petrology and palaeoenvironmental significance of glaucony in the Eocene succession at Whitecliff Bay, Hampshire Basin, UK. J Geol Soc 154:897–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Immenhauser A (2009) Estimating palaeo-water depth from the physical rock record. Earth-Sci Rev 96:107–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jaccard S, Münster M, Baumgartner PO, Baumgartner-Mora C, Denyer P (2001) Barra Honda (Upper Paleocene–Lower Eocene) and El Viejo (Campanian–Maastrichtian) carbonate platforms in the Tempisque area (Guanacaste, Costa Rica). Rev Geol Am Central 24:9–28Google Scholar
  96. James NP (1983) Reef environment. In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (eds) Carbonate depositional environments, vol 33. AAPG Memoir, pp 345–440Google Scholar
  97. Johnson KG, Jackson JB, Budd AF (2008) Caribbean reef development was independent of coral diversity over 28 million years. Science 319(5869):1521–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kelly JC, Webb JA (1999) The genesis of glaucony in the Oligo-Miocene Torquay Group, southeastern Australia: petrographic and geochemical evidence. Sediment Geol 125(1–2):99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kennedy DM, Woodroffe CD (2002) Fringing reef growth and morphology: a review. Earth-Sci Rev 57:255–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kolb W, Schmidt H (1991) Depositional sequences associated with equilibrium coastlines in the Neogene of south-western Nicaragua. In: Macdonald DIM (ed) Sedimentation, tectonics and eustasy: sea-level changes at active margins, vol 12. SEPM Spec Publ, pp 259–272Google Scholar
  101. Krawinkel H, Kolb W (1994) Sequential aspects of the El Fraile Formation (Nicaragua Through, SW Nicaragua). In: Seyfried H, Hellmann W (eds) Geology of an evolving Island arc: the isthmus of Southern Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Western Panamá, vol 7. Profil, Stuttgart, pp 325–333Google Scholar
  102. Krawinkel H, Seyfried H, Calvo C, Astorga A (2000) Origin and inversion of sedimentary basins in southern Central America. Z Angew Geol SH 1:71–77Google Scholar
  103. Kuang SJ (1971) Estudio geologico del Pacifico de Nicaragua. Division de Geologia, Catastro de Inventario de Recursos naturales 10:1–101Google Scholar
  104. Kugler HG (2001) Paleocene to Holocene formations. In: Bolli HM, Knappertsbusch M (eds) Treatise on the Geology of Trinidad (part 4). Museum of Natural History, Basel, p 309Google Scholar
  105. Lundberg N (1982) Evolution of the slope landward of the Middle America Trench, Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. In: Leggett JK (ed) Trench-forearc geology, vol 10. Geol Soc London Spec Publ, pp 131–147Google Scholar
  106. Matteucci R, Pignatti JS (1989) The taphonomy of Nummulites. Atti del Quarto Simposio di Ecologia e Paleoecologia delle Comunità Bentoniche, novembre 1988. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, pp 183–198Google Scholar
  107. McBirney A, Williams H (1965) Volcanic history of Nicaragua, vol 55. Univ Calif Publ Geol Sci, p 73Google Scholar
  108. McIntosh KD, Silver EA, Ahmed I, Berhorst A, Ranero CR, Kelly RK, Flueh ER (2007) The Nicaragua convergent margin. In: Dixon TH, Moore JC (eds) The seismogenic zone of subduction thrust faults, Part III. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 257–287Google Scholar
  109. Meschede M, Frisch W (1998) A plate tectonic model for the Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic history of the Caribbean plate. Tectonophysics 296:269–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Miller KG, Kominz MA, Browning JV, Wright JD, Mountain GS, Katz ME, Sugarman PJ, Cramer BS, Christie-Blick N, Pekar SF (2005) The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science 310:1293–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mitchell SF (2013) Stratigraphy of the White Limestone of Jamaica. Bull Soc Géol France 184(1–2):111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Molina E, Torres-Silva A, Coric S, Briguglio A (2016) Integrated biostratigraphy across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary at Noroña, Cuba, and the question of the extinction of orthophragminids. Newsl Stratigr 49(1):27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Monroe WH (1980) Geology of the Middle Tertiary formations of Puerto Rico, vol 953. US Geol Surv Prof Paper, p 93Google Scholar
  114. Montaggioni LF (2005) History of Indo-Pacific coral reef systems since the last glaciation: development patterns and controlling factors. Earth-Sci Rev 71:1–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Murphy MA, Salvador A (eds) (1999) International stratigraphic guide–an abridged edition. Episodes 22:255–271Google Scholar
  116. Muscatine L, Porter JW (1977) Reef corals: mutualistic symbioses adapted to nutrient-poor environments. Bioscience 27(7):454–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mutti E, Tinterri R, Muzzi Magalhaes P, Basta G (2007) Deep-water turbidites and their equally important shallower-water cousins. AAPG Search and Discovery Article #50057, p 7Google Scholar
  118. Myrow PM (1992) Bypass-zone tempestites facies and proximality trends for an ancient muddy shoreline and shelf. J Sediment Petrol 62(1):99–115Google Scholar
  119. Parsons Corporation Report (1972) The geology of western Nicaragua. Nicaragua Tax Improvement and Natural Resources Inventory Project, Managua, p 220Google Scholar
  120. Pearson PN, Olsson RK, Huber BT, Hemleben C, Berggren WA, Coxal HK (2006) Overview of Eocene planktonic foraminiferal taxonomy, paleoecology, phylogeny, and biostratigraphy. In: Pearson PN, Olsson RK, Huber BT, Hemleben C, Berggren WA (eds) Atlas of Eocene planktonic foraminifera, vol 41. Cushman Foundation Spec Publ, p 11–28Google Scholar
  121. Ranero C, von Huene R, Flueh E, Duarte M, Baca D, McIntosh K (2000) A cross section of the convergent Pacific margin of Nicaragua. Tectonics 19(2):335–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ranero C, von Huene R, Weinrebe W, Barckhausen U (2007) Convergent margin tectonics: a marine perspective. In: Bundschuh J, Alvarado GE (eds) Central America, geology, resources, hazards, vol 1. Taylor and Francis, pp 239–265Google Scholar
  123. Rasser MW, Riegl B (2002) Holocene coral reef rubble and its binding agents. Coral Reefs 21:57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. RECOPE-INE (1993) Integrated Petroleum Evaluation Report, Pacific Margin, Sandino Basin, NicaraguaGoogle Scholar
  125. Ricci Lucchi F (1995) Sedimentographica: a photographic atlas of sedimentary structures. Columbia University Press, New York, 2nd edn, p 255Google Scholar
  126. Rivier F (1983) Síntesis geológica y mapa geológica del area del Bajo Tempisque, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Inf Sem IGN 1:7–30Google Scholar
  127. Robinson E, Wright RM (1993) Jamaican Paleogene larger foraminifera. In: Wright RM, Robinson E (eds) Biostratigraphy of Jamaica, vol 182. Geol Soc Am Memoir, pp 283–345Google Scholar
  128. Rogers RD, Mann P, Emmet PA (2007) Tectonic terranes of the Chortis block based on integration of regional aeromagnetic and geologic data. In: Mann P (ed) Geologic and tectonic development of the Caribbean plate in northern Central America, vol 428. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper, pp 65–88. doi: 10.1130/2007.2428(04)
  129. Sallarès V, Meléndez A, Prada M, Ranero CR, McIntosh K, Grevemeyer I (2013) Overriding plate structure of the Nicaragua convergent margin: relationship to the seismogenic zone of the 1992 tsunami earthquake. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 14:3436–3461. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Saller AH, Reksalegora SW, Bassant P (2011) Sequence stratigraphy and growth of shelfal carbonates in a deltaic province, Kutai Basin, Offshore East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In: Morgan WA, George AD, Harris, PM, Kupecz JA, Sarg JF (eds) Cenozoic Carbonate Systems of Australasia, vol 96. SEPM Spec Publ, pp 147–174Google Scholar
  131. Santra M, Steel RJ, Olariu C, Sweet ML (2013) Stages of sedimentary prism development on a convergent margin—Eocene Tyee Forearc Basin, Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Global Planet Change 103:207–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sartorio D, Venturini S (1988) Southern Tethys biofacies. San Donato Milanese (Agip), p 235Google Scholar
  133. Saunders JB, Jung P, Biju-Duval B (1986) Neogene Paleontology in the Northern Dominican Republic: 1. Field surveys, lithology, environment, and age. Bull Am Paleontol 89(323):1–79Google Scholar
  134. Schmidt-Effing R (1974) El primer hallazgo de amonites en América Central Meridional y notas sobre facies cretácicas en dicha región. Inf Sem IGN 1:53–61Google Scholar
  135. Schmidt-Effing R (1979) Alter und Genese des Nicoya-Komplexes, einer ozeanischen Paläokruste (Oberjura bis Eozän) im südlichen Zentralamerika. Geol Rundsch 68:457–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schmidt-Effing R (1980) Radiolarien der Mittel-Kreide aus dem Santa Elena-Massiv von Costa Rica. Neues Jahrb Geol Paläontol 160(2):241–257Google Scholar
  137. Schuster F, Wielandt U (1999) Oligocene and Early Miocene coral faunas from Iran: palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography. Int J Earth Sci 88:571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Seddighi M, Briguglio A, Hohenegger H, Papazzoni CA (2015) New results on the hydrodynamic behaviour of fossil Nummulites tests from two nummulite banks from the Bartonian and Priabonian of northern Italy. Boll Soc Paleontol I 54(2):103–116Google Scholar
  139. Seyfried H, Sprechmann P (1985) Acerca de la formación del puente-istmo Centroamericano Meridional, con énfasis en el desarrollo acaecido desde Campanénse al Eoceno. Rev Geol Am Central 2:63–87Google Scholar
  140. Seyfried H, Astorga A, Ammann H, Calvo C, Kolb W, Schmidt H, Winsemann J (1991) Anatomy of an evolving island arc: tectonic and eustatic control in the south Central American fore-arc area. In: Macdonald DIM (ed) Sedimentation, Tectonics and Eustasy: Sea-Level Changes at Active Margins, vol 12. SEPM Spec Publ, pp 217–240Google Scholar
  141. Seyrafian A, Vasiri-Moghaddam H, Arzeni N, Taheri A (2011) Facies analysis of the Asmari Formation in central and north-central Zagros basin, southwest Iran: biostratigraphy, paleoecology and diagenesis. Rev Mex Cienc Geol 28(3):439–458Google Scholar
  142. Sprechmann P, Astorga A, Calvo C, Fernández A (1994) Stratigraphic chart of the sedimentary basins of Costa Rica, Central America. In: Seyfried H, Hellmann W (eds) Geology of an evolving Island arc: The isthmus of Southern Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Western Panamá, vol 7. Profil, Stuttgart, pp 427–433Google Scholar
  143. Stemann TA (2004) Reef corals of the White Limestone Group of Jamaica. Cainozoic Res 3(1–2):83–107Google Scholar
  144. Struss I, Brandes C, Blisniuk PM, Winsemann J (2007) Eocene deep-water channel-levee deposits, Nicaragua: Channel geometries and internal deformation patterns of six outcrops. In: Nilsen TH, Shew RD, Steffens GS, Studlick JRJ (ed) Atlas of deep-water outcrops, vol 56. AAPG Studies in Geology, CD-ROM, p 31Google Scholar
  145. Struss I, Artiles V, Cramer B, Winsemann J (2008) The petroleum system in the Sandino forearc basin, offshore western Nicaragua. J Pet Geol 31:221–244. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-5457.2008.00418.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tournon J (1984) Magmatismes du Mésozoique à l’actuel en Amérique Centrale: l’exemple du Costa Rica, des ophiolites aux andésites. Ph.D. thesis, University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, p 335Google Scholar
  147. Tournon J (1994) The Santa Elena Peninsula: an ophiolitic nappe and a sedimentary volcanic relative autochthonous. In: Seyfried H, Hellmann W (eds) Geology of an evolving Island arc: the isthmus of Southern Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Western Panamá, vol 7. Profil, Stuttgart, pp 87–96Google Scholar
  148. Tucker ME (1993) Carbonate diagenesis and sequence stratigraphy. In: Wright VP (ed) Sedimentology review. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 51–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vaughan TW (1918) Geological history of Central America and the West Indies during Cenozoic time. Geol Soc Am Bull 29:615–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Vaughan TW (1919) Fossil corals from Central America, Cuba, and Porto Rico with an account of the American Tertiary, Pleistocene, and recent coral reefs. USA Natl Mus Bull 103:189–524Google Scholar
  151. Vaughan TW, Cooke W, Condit DD, Ross CP, Woodring WP, Alkins FC (1921) Geological survey of the Dominican Republic, vol 1. USGS, Gibson Brothers Press, Washington D.C., p 268Google Scholar
  152. Walker RG, Duke WL, Leckie DA (1983) Hummocky stratification: significance of its variable bedding sequences: discussion. Geol Soc Am Bull 94:1245–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Walther CHE, Flueh ER, Ranero CR, Von Huene R, Strauch W (2000) Crustal structure across the Pacific margin of Nicaragua: evidence for ophiolitic basement and a shallow mantle sliver. Geophys J Int 141:759–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Weinberg RF (1992) Neotectonic development of western Nicaragua. Tectonics 11(5):1010–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Weiss MP (1994) Oligocene limestones of Antigua, West Indies: Neptune succeeds Vulcan. Caribb J Sci 30:1–29Google Scholar
  156. Weyl R (1980) Geology of Central America. Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin, p 371Google Scholar
  157. Williams RL (1972) The geology of western Nicaragua. Catastro-ManaguaGoogle Scholar
  158. Wilson TC (1942) Geology of Pacific Coast area, Nicaragua, summary report. Geological Survey of Nicaragua, ManaguaGoogle Scholar
  159. Wilson MEJ (2005) Equatorial delta-front patch reef development during the Neogene, Borneo. J Sediment Res 75(1):116–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wilson MEJ, Hall R (2010) Tectonic influences on SE Asian carbonates and their reservoir development. In: Morgan WA, George AD, Harris PM, Kupecz JA, Sarg JF (eds) Cenozoic carbonate systems of Australasia, vol 95. SEPM Spec Publ, pp 13–40Google Scholar
  161. Wilson MEJ, Lokier SJ (2002) Siliciclastic and volcaniclastic influences on equatorial carbonates; insights from the Neogene of Indonesia. Sedimentology 49(3):583–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Winsemann J (1992) Tiefwasser-Sedimentationsprozesse und -produkte in den Forearc-Becken des mittelamerikanischen Inselbogensystems: Eine sequenzstratigraphische Analyse, vol 2. Profil, Stuttgart, p 218Google Scholar
  163. Winsemann J, Seyfried H (1991) Response of deep-water fore-arc systems to sea-level changes, tectonic activity and volcaniclastic input in Central America. In: Macdonald DIM (ed) Sedimentation, tectonics and eustasy: sea-level changes at active margins, vol 12. SEPM Spec Publ, pp 273–292Google Scholar
  164. Wood R (1999) Reef evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 414Google Scholar
  165. Wood R (2011) General evolution of carbonate reefs. In: Hopley D (ed) Encyclopedia of modern coral reefs: structure, form and process. Springer, Amsterdam, pp 452–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Zaccarini F, Garuti G, Proenza JA, Campos L, Thalhammer OAR, Aiglsperger T, Lewis JF (2011) Chromite and platinum group elements mineralization in the Santa Elena Ultramafic Nappe (Costa Rica): geodynamic implications. Geol Acta 9(3/4):407–423Google Scholar
  167. Zoppis Bracci L, Del Giudice D (1958) Geologia de la costa del Pacifico de Nicaragua. Bol Serv Geol Nac Nicaragua 2:19–68Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goran Andjić
    • 1
  • Claudia Baumgartner-Mora
    • 1
  • Peter O. Baumgartner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Université de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations