Facies

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 39–44 | Cite as

Digital image treatment applied to ichnological analysis of marine core sediments

  • Javier Dorador
  • Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar
  • IODP Expedition 339 Scientists
Original Article

Abstract

Characterization of trace fossils in marine core sediments is, most times, difficult due to the weak differentiation between biogenic structures and the host sediment, especially in pelagic and hemipelagic facies. This problem is accentuated where a high degree of bioturbation is associated with composite ichnofabrics. Simple methods are presented here based on modifications to image features such as contrast, brightness, vibrance, saturation, exposure, lightness, and color balance using the software Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA) to enhance visibility and thus allow for a better identification of the trace fossils. Adjustments involving brightness, levels and vibrance generally give better results. This approach was applied to marine cores of pelagic and hemipelagic sediments obtained from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339, Site U1385. Enhancing the digital images facilitates ichnological analysis through improving the visibility of weakly observed trace fossils, and in some cases revealing traces not detected previously.

Keywords

Ichnological analysis Digital images treatment Marine core deposits Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 Site U1385 

References

  1. Bouma AH (1964) Notes on X-ray interpretation of marine sediments. Mar Geol 2:278–309. doi:10.1016/0025-3227(64)90045-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bromley RG (1996) Trace fossils. Biology, taphonomy and applications. Chapman & Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buatois LA, Mángano G (2011) Ichnology. Organism–substrate interactions in space and time. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davey E, Wigand C, Johnson R et al (2011) Use of computed tomography imaging for quantifying coarse roots, rhizomes, peat and particle densities in marsh soils. Ecol Appl 21:2156–2171. doi:10.1890/10-2037.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dufour SC, Desrosiers G, Long B et al (2005) A new method for three-dimensional visualization and quantification of biogenic structures in aquatic sediments using axial tomodensitometry. Limnol Oceanogr-Meth 3:372–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gerard JRF, Bromley RG (2008) Ichnofabrics in clastic sediments: applications to sedimentological core studies. Jean R.F. Gerard, MadridGoogle Scholar
  7. Gingras MK, MacMillan B, Balcom BJ (2002a) Visualizing the internal physical characteristics of carbonate sediments with magnetic resonance imaging and petrography. Bull Can Petrol Geol 50:363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gingras MK, MacMillan B, Balcom BJ et al (2002b) Using magnetic resonance imaging and petrographic techniques to understand the textural attributes and porosity distribution in Macaronichnus-burrowed sandstone. J Sediment Res 72:552–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grimm KA, Lange CB, Gill AS (1996) Biological forcing of hemipelagic sedimentary laminae: evidence from ODP site 893, Santa Barbara Basin, California. J Sediment Res 66:613–624Google Scholar
  10. Honeycutt CE, Plotnick R (2008) Image analysis techniques and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) for calculating bioturbation indices and characterizing biogenic sedimentary structures. Comput Geosci 34:1461–1472. doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Howard JD (1968) X-ray radiography for examination of burrowing in sediments by marine invertebrate organisms. Sedimentology 11:249–258. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1968.tb00855.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Joschko M, Graff O, Muller PC et al (1991) A non-destructive method for the morphological assessment of earthworm burrow systems in three dimensions by X-ray computed tomography. Biol Fert Soils 11:88–92. doi:10.1016/0016-7061(93)90111-W CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Knaust D (2012) Methodology and techniques. In: Trace fossils as indicators of sedimentary environments. Developments in sedimentology, vol 64. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 245–271Google Scholar
  14. Knaust D, Bromley RG (2012) Trace fossils as indicators of sedimentary environments. Developments in sedimentology, vol 64. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  15. Löwemark L (2003) Automatic image analysis of X-ray radiographs: a new method for ichnofabric evaluation. Deep-Sea Res PT I 50:815–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Löwemark L, Schäfer P (2003) Ethological implications from a detailed X-ray radiograph and 14C study of the modern deep-sea Zoophycos. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl 192:101–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Löwemark L, Werner F (2001) Dating errors in high-resolution stratigraphy: a detailed X-ray radiograph and AMS-14C study of Zoophycos burrows. Mar Geol 17:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Magwood JPA, Ekdale AA (1994) Computer-aided analysis of visually complex ichnofabrics in deep-sea sediments. Palaios 9:102–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McIlroy D (2004) The application of ichnology to palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphical analysis. Geological Society Special Publication, vol 228. The Geological Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Pemberton SG, Spila M, Pulham AJ et al (2001). Ichnology & sedimentology of shallow to marginal marine systems: Ben Nevis & Avalon reservoirs, Jeanne d'Arc Basin. Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes, vol 15. Newfoundland, p 343Google Scholar
  21. Platt BF, Hasiotis ST, Hirmas DR (2010) Use of low-cost multistripe laser triangulation (MLT) scanning technology for three-dimensional, quantitative paleoichnological and neoichnological studies. J Sediment Res 80:590–610. doi:10.2110/jsr.2010.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Qi Y, Wang M, Liu Y (2008) Computer-aided analysis and quantitative study of complex ichnofabrics. In: Proceedings of information technology and environmental system sciences, ITESS, vol 3, pp 544–547Google Scholar
  23. Rosenberg R, Gremare A, Duchene JC et al (2007) Application of computer-aided tomography to visualize and quantify biogenic structures in marine sediments. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 363:171–182. doi:10.3354/meps07463 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Expedition 339 Scientists (2013a) Expedition 339 summary. Stow, D.A.V., Hernández-Molina, F.J., Alvarez Zarikian, C.A. and the Expedition ScientistsGoogle Scholar
  25. Expedition 339 Scientists (2013b) Site U1385. Stow, D.A.V., Hernández-Molina, F.J., Alvarez Zarikian, C.A. and the Expedition ScientistsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Dorador
    • 1
  • Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar
    • 1
  • IODP Expedition 339 Scientists
  1. 1.Departamento de Estratigrafía y PaleontologíaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations