Facies

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 91–110 | Cite as

Sponges and corals from the Middle Eocene (Bartonian) marly formations of the Pamplona Basin (Navarre, western Pyrenees): taphonomy, taxonomy, and paleoenvironments

  • Humberto Astibia
  • Javier Elorza
  • Andrzej Pisera
  • German Álvarez-Pérez
  • Aitor Payros
  • Silvia Ortiz
Original Article

Abstract

Sponges and corals from the Bartonian marly formations of the Pamplona Basin (South Pyrenean area, Navarre) are described for the first time. The fossiliferous levels correspond respectively to flood-influenced delta-front (Ardanatz Sandstone) and restricted outer-platform (Ilundain Marls Fm.) environments. The fossil sponges exhibit diagenetic fragmentation, but they are often complete specimens. The skeleton appears partially or totally replaced by calcite and/or in some cases large crystals of celestite. Celestite forms relatively early during diagenesis in a dysoxic environment. Neomorphic fibrous quartzine-lutecine spherulites are also present. Hexactinellids and lithistids occur, but the former predominate. The associations include the species Laocoetis samueli, Guettardiscyphia thiolati and/or Pleuroguettardia iberica, cf. Rhizocheton robustus, and two lithistids indet. Corals are present only in the Ardanatz Sandstone. The fossil skeletons are composed of large neomorphic sparry calcite crystals. The assigned species are Stylocoenia taurinensis, Astrocoenia octopartita, Ceratotrochus bodellei, Placosmiliopsis bilobatus, and Desmophyllum castellolense. The sponge and coral taxa are similar to those previously described from other contemporaneous geological formations of the Pyrenean realm. The Pamplona Basin assemblages appear less diverse than those of the Bartonian of the eastern South Pyrenean area, more similar to that of the Eocene of Biarritz (Aquitanian Basin). This lower diversity is not due to a lower-resolution sampling but to taphonomic bias and/or paleoecological differences. The dominance of hexactinellids, erect morphologies, and sedimentological and micropaleontological data show that the sponge communities lived in deep shelfal waters. The corals, mainly associated with levels with high terrigenous content, seem reworked from shallower and more proximal environments.

Keywords

Sponges Corals Marls Bartonian Pamplona Basin Western Pyrenees 

References

  1. Abad (2001) Paleotaxodonta y Pteriomorphia del Eoceno del Margen Sur de la Depresión Catalana. Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 803 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Ábalos B, Elorza J (2011) Latest Cretaceous cone-in-cone structures and soft-sediment deformation (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, north Spain): a record of deep-marine paleoseismicity? GSA Bull 123:427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alameda J, Blas I, Cabra P, Del Valle de Lersundi J, García A, Martínez A, Ramírez del Pozo J, Solé J (1993) Cartografía Geológica de Navarra, escala 1:25.000, Hoja 141-II, Pamplona. Gobierno de Navarra, Departamento de Obras Públicas, Transportes y ComunicacionesGoogle Scholar
  4. Altuna A, Álvarez-Pérez G, Busquets P, Etayo V (2003) Five new species of Bartonian (Eocene) corals: Jaca Basin, Pyrenees, Spain. In: Hubmann B, Piller WE (eds) Fossil corals and sponges. Proceedings of 9th international symposium on fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Österr Akad Wiss Schriftenreihe Erdwiss Wien, pp 435–453Google Scholar
  5. Álvarez G, Busquets P, Taberner C, Urquiola MM (1994) Facies architecture and coral distribution in a mid Eocene reef tract, South Pyrenean Foreland Basin (NE Spain). Cour Forsch-Inst Senckenberg 172:249–260Google Scholar
  6. Álvarez-Pérez G (1993) Cnidaria fóssils de la Conca d’Igualada. Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 270 pGoogle Scholar
  7. Álvarez-Pérez G (1997) New Eocene coral species from Igualada (Barcelona, NE of Spain). Bol Real Soc Esp Hist Nat 91:297–304Google Scholar
  8. Álvarez-Pérez G (2009) Actualització de les espècies coral.lines de l’Eocè de les conques sudpirinenques. Batalleria 14:5–10Google Scholar
  9. Astibia H, Murelaga X, Payros A, Pereda X, Tosquella J (1999) Tortugas y sirenios fósiles en el Eoceno marino de Navarra y Cuenca de Jaca. Geogaceta 25:15–18Google Scholar
  10. Astibia H, Payros A, Pereda Suberbiola X, Elorza J, Berreteaga A, Etxebarria N, Badiola A, Tosquella J (2005) Sedimentology and taphonomy of sirenian remains from the Middle Eocene of the Pamplona Basin (Navarre, western Pyrenees). Facies 50:463–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Astibia H, Pereda Suberbiola X, Bardet N, Payros A, Berreteaga A, Badiola A (2006) Nuevos fósiles de sirenios en el Eoceno medio de la Cuenca de Pamplona (Navarra). Rev Espan Paleont 21:79–91Google Scholar
  12. Baker PA, Bloomer SH (1988) The origin of celestite in deep-sea carbonate sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52:335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnolas A, Payros A, Samso JM, Serra-Kiel J, Tosquella J (2004) La Cuenca surpirenaica desde el Ilerdiense medio al Priaboniense. In: Vera JA (ed) Geología de España. Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Sociedad Geológica de España, Madrid, pp 313–320Google Scholar
  14. Barta-Calmus S (1973) Révisions de collections de madréporaires provenant du nummulitique du Sud-Est de la France, de l’Italie et de la Yougoslavie septentrionales. Thèse de doctorat d’Etat, Université de Paris, vol 6, pp 1–695Google Scholar
  15. Boussac J (1911) Études stratigraphiques et paléontologiques sur le nummulitique de Biarritz. Annales Hébert, Annls Stratigr Paléont Lab Géol Fac Sci Univ Paris vol, 5, pp 1–95Google Scholar
  16. Boyce AJ, Fallick AE, Hamilton PJ, Elorza J (1990) Diagenesis of celestite in quartz geodes from the Basque-Cantabric basin, Northern Spain: evidence from sulfur and strontium isotopes. Chem Geol 84:354–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brimaud C, Vachard D (1985) Indications paléoécologiques fournies par les spongiaires du Miocène supérieur d’Espagne. Bull Mus Natl Hist Nat C7:3–11Google Scholar
  18. Busquets P, Álvarez G, Solé de Porta N, Urquiola MM (1994) Low sedimentation rate in aphotic shelves with Dendrophyllia and sponges-Bartonian of the easternmost sector of the Ebro Basin. Cour Forsch-Inst Senckenberg 172:265–273Google Scholar
  19. Calzada S, Astibia H (1996) Sobre Plicatula pamplonensis Carez: revisión. Bull Soc Hist Nat Toulouse 132:65–69Google Scholar
  20. Carez L (1881) Étude des terrains crétacés et tertiaires du Nord de l’Espagne. Savy Edit, ParisGoogle Scholar
  21. Catullo TA (1856) Dei terreni di sediment superiore delle Venezie e dei fossili bryozoari, antozoari e spongiari. PadovaGoogle Scholar
  22. Charbonnier S, Vannier J, Gaillard C, Bourseau JP, Hantzpergue P (2007) The La Voulte Lagerstätte (Callovian): evidence for a deep water setting from sponge and crinoid communities. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 250:216–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Costa E, Garcés M, López-Blanco M, Serra-Kiel J, Bernaola G, Cabrera L, Beamud E (2012) The Bartonian-Priabonian marine record of the eastern South Pyrenean foreland basin (NE Spain): A new calibration of the larger foraminifers and calcareous nannofossil biozonation. Geol Acta. doi:10.1344/105.000001779
  24. d’Achiardi A (1866) Coralli fossili del terreno nummulitico dell’Alpi Venete. Mem Soc Italiana Sci Nat Milano Part 1, 2(4):1–53Google Scholar
  25. d’Achiardi A (1868) Coralli fossili del terreno nummulitico dell’Alpi Venete. Mem Soc Italiana Sci Nat Milano Part 2, 4(1):1–31Google Scholar
  26. d’Achiardi A (1875) Coralli Eocenici del Friuli. Atti Soc Tosc Sci Nat 1:1–102Google Scholar
  27. d’Archiac AM (1846) Description des fossiles recueillis par M. Thorent dans les couches à nummulites des environs de Bayonne. Mém Soc géol France 2e sér 2:189–217Google Scholar
  28. d’Archiac AM (1850) Description des fossiles du groupe nummulitique recueillis par M.S.-P. Pratt et M.J. Delbos aux environs de Bayonne et de Dax. Mém Soc géol France 2e sér 3:397–456Google Scholar
  29. de Bouillé R (1876) Paléontologie de Biarritz et de quelques autres localités des Basses-Pyrenées. Imprimerie et Lithographie Veronese, PauGoogle Scholar
  30. de Buffrénil V, Astibia H, Pereda Suberbiola X, Berreteaga A, Bardet N (2008) Variation in bone histology of Middle Eocene sirenians from western Europe. Geodiversitas 30:425–432Google Scholar
  31. Deshayes GP (1864) Description des animaux sans vertèbres découverts dans le Basin of Paris pour servir de supplément à la description des coquilles fossiles des environs of Paris comprenant une revue générale de toutes les espèces actuellement connues, 2. Baillière et fils, ParisGoogle Scholar
  32. Dickson JAD (1965) A modified technique for carbonates in thin section. Nature 205:587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fernández López S (1990) El significado de la autoctonía/aloctonía tafonómica. In: Fernández López S (ed) Comunicaciones Reunión Tafonomía y Fosilización. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, pp 115–124Google Scholar
  34. Fernández López S (1991) Taphonomic concepts for a theoretical biochronology. Rev Espan Paleont 6:37–49Google Scholar
  35. Jones RW, Charnock MA (1985) “Morphogroups” of agglutinating foraminifera. Their life positions and feeding habits and potential applicability in (paleo)ecological studies. Rev Paléobiol 4:311–320Google Scholar
  36. Li Q, McGwran B, Boersma A (1995) Early Palaeocene Parvularugoglobigerina and late Eocene Praetenuitella: does evolutionary convergence imply similar habitat? J Micropalaeont 14:119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Malumián N, Jannou G, Náñez C (2009) Serial planktonic foraminifera from the Paleogene of the Tierra del Fuego Island, South America. J Foram Res 39:316–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Matteucci R, Russo A (2005) The Middle Eocene siliceous sponges from Val di Chiampo (Lessini Mountains, northern Italy). Ann Univ Studi Ferrara, Museol Scient Natur vol spec, pp 51–62Google Scholar
  39. Michelin H (1840–1847) Iconographie zoophytologique. Description par localités et terrains des polipiers fossiles de France et pays environnants. P Bertand, Libraire de la Soc géol France, Paris, 1:1–348Google Scholar
  40. Moret L (1924) Contribution à l’étude des spongiaires siliceux du Miocènede l’Algérie. Mém Soc géol France 1:1–27Google Scholar
  41. Moret L (1925) Sur quelques spongiaires de Catalogne (Argovien, Sénonien, Eocène). Bull Soc cie nat Barcelona “Club Muntanyenc” 9:1–11Google Scholar
  42. Murray JW (2006) Ecology and applications of benthic foraminifera. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Murray JW, Alve E, Jones BW (2011) A new look at modern agglutinated benthic foraminiferal morphogroups: their value in palaeoecological interpretation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 309:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mutti E, Tinterri R, di Biase D, Fava L, Mavilla N, Angella S, Calabrese L (2000) Delta-front facies associations of ancient flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic systems. Rev Soc Geol España 13:165–190Google Scholar
  45. Mutti E, Tinterri R, Benevelli G, di Biase D, Cavanna G (2003) Deltaic, mixed and turbidite sedimentation of ancient foreland basins. Mar Petrol Geol 20:733–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oppenheim P (1901) Über einige Alttertiäre Faunen der österreichsich-ungarischen Monarchie. Beitr Paläont Geol Österr-Ungarn Orient 13:1–227Google Scholar
  47. Oppenheim P (1912) Neue Beiträge zur Eozänfauna Bosniens. Beitr Paläont Geol Österr-Ungarn Orient 25:87–149Google Scholar
  48. Osasco E (1902) Contribuzione allo studio dei coralli cenozoici del Veneto. Palaeontograph Italiana Mem paleont 8:99–120Google Scholar
  49. Pacaud JM, Le Renard J (1995) Révision des Mollusques paléogènes du Bassin de Paris. IV: liste systématique actualisée. Cossmanniana 3:151–187Google Scholar
  50. Pisera A, Busquets P (2002) Eocene siliceous sponges from the Ebro Basin (Catalonia, Spain). Geobios 35:321–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pisera A, Levi C (2002) “Lithistid” Demospongiae. In: Hooper JNA, Van Soest RWM (eds) Systema Porifera. Kluwer Academics/Plenum Press, New York, pp 299–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pisera A, Cachão M, Marques de Silva C, Marques de Silva C (2006) Siliceous sponge spicules from the Miocene Mem Moniz marls (Portugal) and their environmental significance. Riv Italiana Paleont Stratigr 112:287–299Google Scholar
  53. Plaziat JC (1981) Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene paleogeographic evolution of southwest Europe. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 36:263–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pomel A (1872) Paléontologie de la province d’Oran, 5. Spongiaires. 256 pGoogle Scholar
  55. Puigdefàbregas C (1975) La sedimentación molásica de la cuenca de Jaca. Pirineos 104:1–118Google Scholar
  56. Pujalte V, Baceta JI, Payros A (2002) Tertiary: western Pyrenees and Basque-Cantabrian region In: Gibbons W, Moreno T (eds) The geology of Spain. Geol Soc. London, pp 293–301Google Scholar
  57. Ramos-Guerrero E, Busquets P, Álvarez G, Vilaplana M (1989–1990) Fauna coralina de las plataformas mixtas del Paleógeno de las Baleares. Boll Soc Hist Natur Balears 33:9–24Google Scholar
  58. Reig JM (1988) Tres nuevos géneros y varias especies de Madreporarios fósiles procedentes del Eoceno del Nordeste de España. Published by the author, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  59. Reig JM (1990) Madreporarios Eocénicos de Castellolí y de la Sierra de Malvals. Published by the author, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  60. Reuss AE (1847) Die fossilen Polyparien des Wiener Tertiärbeckens. Naturwiss Abhandl 2:1–109Google Scholar
  61. Rouault A (1850) Description des fossiles du terrain éocène des environs de Pau. Mém Soc géol France 2e sér 3:457–507Google Scholar
  62. Ruiz de Gaona M (1947) El Bartoniense de la Cuenca de Pamplona. Not Com Inst Geol Min España 17:155–165Google Scholar
  63. Ruiz de Gaona M, Colom G (1950) Estudios sobre las sinecias de los foraminíferos eocénicos de la vertiente meridional del Pirineo (Cataluña-Vizcaya). Estud Geol 12:293–434Google Scholar
  64. Russo A (1979) Studio monografico sui Coralli dell’Eocene di Possagno (Treviso, Italia). Atti Mem Accad Naz Sci Lett Arti Modena 21:1–87Google Scholar
  65. Serra-Kiel J, Hottinger L, Caus E, Drobne K, Ferrández C, Jauhri AK, Less G, Pavlovec R, Pignatti J, Samsó JM, Schaub H, Sirel E, Strougo A, Tambareau Y, Tosquella J, Zakrevskaya E (1998) Larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Tethyan Paleocene and Eocene. Bull Soc géol France 169:281–299Google Scholar
  66. Serra-Kiel J, Mató E, Saula E, Travé A, Ferràndez-Cañadell C, Busquets P, Samsó MJ, Tosquella J, Barnolas A, Àlvarez-Pérez G, Franquès J, Romero J (2003) An inventory of the marine and transitional Middle/Upper Eocene deposits of the Southeastern Pyrenean Foreland Basin (NE Spain). Geol Acta 1:201–229Google Scholar
  67. Solé Sabarís LL (1942) Fauna coralina del Eoceno catalán. Mem Real Acad Cie Art Barcelona 26:259–440Google Scholar
  68. Tabachnik KR (1991) Adaptation of the hexactinellid sponges to deep-sea life. In: Reitner J, Keupp H (eds) Fossil and recent sponges. Springer, Berlin, pp 378–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Taberner C, Marshall JD, Hendry JP, Pierre C, Thirlwall MF (2002) Celestite formation, bacterial sulphate reduction and carbonate cementation of Eocene reefs and basinal sediments (Igualada, NE Spain). Sedimentology 49:171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vacelet J (1988) Indication de profondeur données par les Spongiaires dans les milieux benthiques actuels. Géol Méditerr 15:13–26Google Scholar
  71. West I (2002) Barton and Highcliffe, Eocene strata: geology of the south coast of England. http://www.soton.ac.uk/~imw/barton.htm (School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Southampton University, U.K. Version U.04.02.02)
  72. Zlatarski V (1963) Sur Stylocoenia taurinensis (Michelin), madréporaire du tertiaire méditerranéen. Ann Univ Sofia 56:61–71Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Humberto Astibia
    • 1
  • Javier Elorza
    • 2
  • Andrzej Pisera
    • 4
  • German Álvarez-Pérez
    • 3
  • Aitor Payros
    • 1
  • Silvia Ortiz
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencia y TecnologíaUniversidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU)BilbaoBasque Country
  2. 2.Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y TecnologíaUniversidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU)BilbaoBasque Country
  3. 3.Departament d’Estratigrafia, Paleontologia i Geociències MarinesUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaCatalonia
  4. 4.Institute of PaleobiologyPolish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations