, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 131–153 | Cite as

Timing and progression of the end-Guadalupian crisis in the Fars province (Dalan Formation, Kuh-e Gakhum, Iran) constrained by foraminifers and other carbonate microfossils

  • Christophe KolodkaEmail author
  • Emmanuelle Vennin
  • Daniel Vachard
  • Vincent Trocme
  • Mohammad Hassan Goodarzi
Original Article


The Middle-to-Upper Permian in the Kuh-e Gakhum anticline (southeastern Iran) has rarely been studied due to its structural complexity and the difficult access. Rich Permian fusulinid assemblages varying in age from Wordian to Changhsingian were found in a thick carbonate succession corresponding to the Dalan Formation. Three new species of foraminifers are described and a new biostratigraphic framework including five biozones is proposed. One of these, described and defined for the first time in the Dalan Formation, is based on the presence of Praedunbarula simplicissima n. gen. n. sp. When compared to the fossil content of existing bioprovinces, the floro-faunal biota of the Dalan Formation shows an affinity with Central and Western Tethys. A mass extinction of fusulinids and small foraminifers (70%) occurred concomitantly with the onset of a relative sea-level fall. This event led to a change in the carbonate factories from biologically induced carbonate production to ooid-rich chemically induced precipitation. The morphology of the platform at the Guadalupian/Lopingian transition evolves from a bioclastic ramp to a shelf. This transition is also characterized by a major sequence boundary and morphological anomalies in foraminifers. Therefore, as the regression and the changes in floro-faunal contents have been observed at the Guadalupian/Lopingian boundary, the extinction event is considered as end-Guadalupian. It is followed by a Lopingian transgression yielding renewed foraminiferal assemblages.


End-Guadalupian crisis Foraminifers Dalan Formation Nar Member 



We gratefully thank GDF SUEZ Exploration-Production Department and the Exploration Directorate of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) for permission to publish this work, for funding of the study, and for granting access to facilities and materials. We are grateful to Raphaël Bourillot (EGID, Université de Bordeaux III) and Arnaud Brayard (Université de Bourgogne, Dijon) for constructive discussions during the drafting of the manuscript. The authors greatly thank Fumio Kobayashi for his hard work and very constructive review and the FACIES editor André Freiwald for helpful suggestions. We also thank Didier Quesne, Nicolas Rolland, Afshin Asghari, and Arsalan Bakhshi for their collaboration during the fieldtrips. This work is a contribution to the “Systèmes, Environnements et Dynamique Sédimentaires” team of the Biogéosciences Laboratory (UMR 5561) and for the FRE 3298 Géosystèmes of the University of Lille. We thank Carmela Chateau-Smith (Université de Bourgogne, Dijon) for checking our English and Philippe Blanc (Lithologie Bourgogne, Dijon) for the realization of thin-sections.


  1. Accordi B (1956) Calcareous algae from the Upper Permian of the Dolomites (Italy), with stratigraphy of the “Bellerophon-zone”. J Paleontol Soc India 1:75–84Google Scholar
  2. Ali JR, Thompson GM, Song XY, Wang YL (2002) Emeishan Basalts (SW China) and the ‘end-Guadalupian’ crisis: magnetobiostratigraphic constraints. J Geol Soc 159:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alsharhan AS, Nairn AEM (1995) Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Permian in the Arabian basin and adjacent areas: a critical review. In: Scholle PA, Peryt TM, Ulmer-Scholle DS (eds) The Permian of northern Pangea, vol 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 187–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altiner D (1978) Trois nouvelles espèces du genre Hemigordius (Foraminifère) du Permien supérieur de Turquie (Taurus oriental). Notes du Laboratoire de Paléontologie de l'Université de Genève 2:27–30 Google Scholar
  5. Altiner D, Özcan-Altiner S, Koçyigit A (2000) Late Permian foraminiferal biofacies belts in Turkey: palaeogeographic and tectonic implications. In: Bozkurt E, Winchester JA, Piper JDA (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area, vol 173. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 173, pp 83–96Google Scholar
  6. Anderson FW (1964) Aschemonella longicaudata sp. nov. from the Permian of Derbyshire, England. Geol Mag 101:44–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Angiolini L, Balini M, Garzanti E, Nicora A, Tintori A, Crasquin S, Muttoni G (2003) Permian climatic and paleogeographic changes in northern Gondwana: the Khuff Formation of Interior Oman. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 191:269–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baghbani D (1988) Shanita zone and its biostratigraphic significance in south and southwest Iran. In: Benthos’1986, Geneva, p 37Google Scholar
  9. Baghbani D (1993) The Permian sequence in the Abadeh region, central Iran. ESRI New Series 9 B:7–22Google Scholar
  10. Baghbani D (1997) Correlation charts of selected Permian strata from Iran. Permophiles 30:24–26Google Scholar
  11. Berberian M, King GCP (1981) Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Can J Earth Sci 18:210–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berczi-Makk A (1992) Midian (Upper Permian) Foraminifera from the large Mihalovits quarry at Nagyvisnyo (North-Hungary). Acta Geol Hung 35:27–38Google Scholar
  13. Beydoun ZR (1991) Arabian plate hydrocarbon, geology and potential—a plate tectonic approach. AAPG Stud Geol 33:77Google Scholar
  14. Bohrmann G, Abelmann A, Gersonde R, Hubberten H, Kuhn G (1994) Pure siliceous ooze, a diagenetic environment for early chert formation. Geology 22:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bond DGP, Wignall PB (2009) Latitudinal selectivity of foraminifer extinctions during the Late Guadalupian crisis. Paleobiology 35:465–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourillot R, Vennin E, Kolodka C, Rouchy JM, Caruso A, Durlet C, Chaix C, Rommevaux V (2009) The role of topography and erosion in the development and architecture of shallow-water coral bioherms (Tortonian-Messinian, Cabo de Gata, SE Spain). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 281:92–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bourillot R, Vennin E, Rouchy JM, Durlet C, Rommevaux V, Kolodka C, Knap F (2010) Structure and evolution of a Messinian mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform: the role of evaporites (Sorbas Basin, southeast Spain). Sedimentology 57:477–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bozorgnia F (1973) Paleozoic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of central and east Alborz Mountains, Iran, vol 4. National Iranian Oil Company, Geological Laboratories, TehranGoogle Scholar
  19. Brady HB (1876) A monograph of Carboniferous and Permian foraminifera (the genus Fusulina excepted). Palaeontol Soc, Lond, p 166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brayard A, Bucher H, Escarguel G, Fluteau F, Bourquin S, Galfetti T (2006) The Early Triassic ammonoid recovery: Paleoclimatic significance of diversity gradients. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 239:374–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brayard A, Escarguel G, Bucher H, Monnet C, Bruhwiler T, Goudemand N, Galfetti T, Guex J (2009) Good genes and good luck: ammonoid diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. Science 325:1118–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brönnimann P, Whittaker JE, Zaninetti L (1978) Shanita a new pillared miliolacean foraminifer from the Late Permian of Burma and Thailand. Riv Ital Paleontol Stratigr 84:63–92Google Scholar
  23. Kotlyar GV, Zakharov YD, Kropacheva GS, Pronina GP, Chediya IO, Burago, VI (1989) Pozdnepermskii etap evolyutsii organicheskogo mira, Midinskii yarus SSSR (Evolution of the latest Permian biota, Midian regional stage of the USSR). Leningrad “Nauka”, Leningradskoe Otdelennie, pp 1–177Google Scholar
  24. Burchette TP, Wright VP (1992) Carbonate ramp depositional systems. Sediment Geol 79:3–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bykova EV, Polenova EN (1955) Foraminifery i radiolyarii devona Volgo-Ural’skoy oblasti i tsental’nogo devonskogo polya i ikh znacheniye dlya stratigrafii, vol 87. Trudy VNIGRI 141 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Cavalier-Smith T (2002) The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:297–354Google Scholar
  27. Chediya IO, Bogolovskaya MF, Davydov VI, Dmitriev VY (1986) Fuzulinidy i ammonoidei v stratotipe Kubergandinskogo yarusa (Yugo-vostochnyy Pamir). Akad Nauk SSSR, Ezhegod Vses Paleont Obsch 29:28–53Google Scholar
  28. Chen S (1956) The Fusulinidae of South China. Palaeontologica Sinica 140:1–71Google Scholar
  29. Choi DR (1970) On some Permian fusulinids from Iwaizaki N.E. Japan. Hokkaido University. J Fac Sci 4:313–325Google Scholar
  30. Chuvashov BI, Anfimov AL (2007) On the taxonomy of the Paleozoic red algae of the family Ungdarellaceae. Paleontol J 41:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ciry R (1948) Un nouveau Fusulinidé permien: Dunbarula mathieui. Bull Scient de Bourgogne 11:103–110Google Scholar
  32. Courtillot V, Jaupart C, Manighetti I, Tapponier P, Besse J (1999) On causal links between flood basalts and continental breakup. Earth Planet Sci Lett 166:177–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. d’Orbigny A (1826) Tableau méthodique de la classe des Céphalopodes. Ann Sci Nat 7:245–314Google Scholar
  34. Dain LG (1953) Turneiellidy. In: Dain LG, Grozdilova LP (ed) Iskopaemye foraminifery SSSR: Turneiellidy e Arkhedistsidy, vol 74. Trudy VNIGRI, pp 7–63Google Scholar
  35. Deprat J (1915) Les Fusulinidés calcaires carbonifériens et permiens du Tonkin, du Laos et du Nord-Annam, vol 4. Etude des Fusulinidés de Chine et d’Indochine et classification des calcaires à Fusulinés. Serv. Geol. de l’Indochine, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  36. Douglass RC, Nestell MK (1974) The Permian fusulinid genus Pseudoreichelina from the Pequop Formation, Spruce Mountains, Elko County, Nevada. J Paleontol 48:1170–1173Google Scholar
  37. Ehrenberg CG (1843) Beobachtungen über die Verbreitung des jetzt wirkenden kleinsten organischen Lebens in Asien, Australien und Afrika und über die vorherrschende Bildung auch des Oolithkalkes der Juraformation aus kleinen polythalamischen Thieren. Bericht über die zu Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der königlichen preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, pp 160-167Google Scholar
  38. Eliott GF (1958) Fossil microproblematica from the Middle East. Micropaleontology 4:419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eliott GF (1968) Permian to Paleocene calcareous algae (Dasycadaceae) of the Middle East. Bull British Mus (Natural History) Geol Suppl 4:1–111Google Scholar
  40. Elliott GF (1955) The Permian calcareous alga Gymnocodium. Micropaleontology 1:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Endo R, Kanuma M (1954) Stratigraphical and paleontological studies of the later Paleozoic calcareous algae in Japan, VII. Geology of the Mino Mountain Land and southern part of Hida Plateau, with description of the algal remains found in those districts. Sci Rep Saitama Univ 1:177–205Google Scholar
  42. Erwin DH (1994) The Permo-Triassic extinction. Nature 367:231–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Flügel E (1966) Algen aus dem Perm der Karnischen Alpen. Carinthia II 25:3–76Google Scholar
  44. Flügel E (2004) Microfacies of carbonate rocks, analysis, interpretation and application. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 984 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Fursenko AV (1958) Osnovnye etapy razvitiya faun foraminifer v geologischskom prohlom. Trudy Instituta Geologicheskikh Nauk, Akademiya Nauk Beloruskoi SSR 1:10–29Google Scholar
  46. Gaetani M, Angiolini L, Ueno K, Nicora A, Stephenson M, Sciunnach D, Rettori R, Price GD, Sabouri J (2009) Pennsylvanian-Early Triassic stratigraphy in the Alborz Mountains (Iran). In: Brunet MF, Wilmsen M, Granath JW (ed) South Caspian to Central Iran Basins. Geol Soc Spec Publ Lond 312:79–128Google Scholar
  47. Gaillot J (2006) The Late Permian-Early Triassic Khuff Formation in the Middle East: sequence biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironments by means of calcareous algae and foraminifers. PhD Thesis, University of LilleGoogle Scholar
  48. Gaillot J, Vachard D (2007) The Khuff Formation (Middle East) and time-equivalents in Turkey and South China: biostratigraphy from Capitanian to Changhsingian times (Permian), new foraminiferal taxa, and palaeogeographical implications. Coloquios de Paleontología 57:37–223Google Scholar
  49. Galfetti T, Hochuli PA, Brayard A, Bucher H, Weissert H, Vigran JO (2007) Smithian-Spathian boundary event: evidence for global climatic change in the wake of the end-Permian biotic crisis. Geology 35:291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Galloway JJ, Harlton BH (1928) Some Pennsylvania Foraminifera of Oklahoma, with special reference to the genus Orobias. J Paleontol 2:338–357Google Scholar
  51. Geinitz HB, Gutbier A (1848) Die Versteinerungen des Zechsteingebirges und Rothliegenden. Arnold, DresdenGoogle Scholar
  52. Ghavidel-Syooki M, Winchester-Seeto T (2004) Chitinozoan biostratigraphy and palaeogeography of lower Silurian strata (Sarchahan Formation) in the Zagros Basin of southern Iran. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 29:161–182Google Scholar
  53. Gomez-Espinosa C, Vachard D, Buitrón-Sánchez B, Almazán-Vazquez E, Mendoza-Madera C (2008) Pennsylvanian fusulinids and calcareous algae from Sonora (Northwestern Mexico), and their biostratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications. Compte Rendu Palevol 7:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grozdilova LP (1956) Miliolidy verkhneartinskikh otlozhenii nizhnei Permi zapadnogo sklona Urala. Trudy VNIGRI 98:521–528Google Scholar
  55. Gubler J (1935) Les fusulinidés du Permien de l’Indochine, leur structure et leur classification, vol 11. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de FranceGoogle Scholar
  56. Guvenç T (1966) Présence d’algues calcaires dans le Permien des Taurus occidentaux (Turquie) description d’un nouveau genre et de quelques nouvelles espèces. Rev Micropaléontol 9:43–49Google Scholar
  57. Hallam A, Wignall PB (1997) Mass extinctions and their aftermath. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  58. Hallam A, Wignall PB (1999) Mass extinctions and sea-level changes. Earth Sci Rev 48:217–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Han JX (1980) Fusulinida. In: Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (ed) Palaeontological Atlas of Northeast China. Geol Publ House Beijing, vol 1, pp 18–95Google Scholar
  60. Han JX (1985) Early Permian of the Nahanhada range. Acta Paleontologica Sinica 24:680–687Google Scholar
  61. Homann W (1972) Unter- und tief-mittelpermische Kalkalgen aus dem Rattendorfer Schichten, dem Trogkofel Kalk und dem Treßdorfer Kalk der Karnischen Alpen (Österreich). Senckenb Lethaea 53:135–313Google Scholar
  62. Insalaco E, Virgone A, Courme B, Gaillot J, Kamali M, Moallemi A, Lotfpour M, Monibi S (2006) Upper Dalan Member and Kangan Formation between the Zagros Mountains and offshore Fars, Iran: depositional system, biostratigraphy and stratigraphic architecture. GeoArabia 11:75–176Google Scholar
  63. Isozaki Y, Kawahata H, Minoshima K (2007) The Capitanian (Permian) Kamura cooling event: the beginning of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition. Palaeoword 16:16–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. James NP (1997) The cool-water carbonate depositional realm. In: James NP, Clarke JAD (eds) Cool-water carbonates. SEPM Spec Publ 56, pp 1-20Google Scholar
  65. Jenny C, Guex J (2005) Pathological development in response to environmental stress in some latest Permian foraminifers: preliminary report. Bull Soc vaud Sc nat 89:171–184Google Scholar
  66. Jenny C, Stampfli G (2000) Permian palaeogeography of the Tethyan Realm. Permophiles 37:24–33Google Scholar
  67. Jenny C, Guex J, Stampfli G, Richoz S (2009) Micropaleontology of some Permian localities in the Tethyan realm-Inventory of foraminifers and calcareous algae, biostratigraphy and paleogeography. Mémoires de Géologie Lausanne 48:1–135Google Scholar
  68. Jenny-Deshusses C (1983) Paraglobivalvulina mira Reitlinger (foraminifère). Précisions morphologiques et application stratigraphique dans le Permien supérieur d’Iran. Rev Micropaléontol 25:265–272Google Scholar
  69. Jin YG, Zhu ZL, Mei SL (1994) The Maokouan-Lopingian boundary sequences in South China. Palaeoworld 4:138–152Google Scholar
  70. Johnson B (1981) Microfaunal biostratigraphy of the Dalan Formation (Permian) Zagros Basin, southwest Iran. In: Neale JW, Brasier MD (eds) Microfossils from Recent and Fossil Shelf Seas. British Micropalaeontological Society Series, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp 52–61Google Scholar
  71. Johnson HD, Baldwin CT (1997) Shallow clastic seas. In: Reading HG (ed) Sedimentary environments: processes, facies and stratigraphy, 3rd edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 233–280Google Scholar
  72. Kanmera K (1954) Fusulinids from the upper Permian Kuma formation, southern Kyushu, Japan with special reference to the fusulinid zone in the Upper Permian of Japan. Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Mem Ser D 4:1–38Google Scholar
  73. Karavaeva NI, Nestell GP (2007) Permian foraminifers of the Omolon Massif, northeastern Siberia, Russia. Micropaleontology 53:161–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karpinsky A (1909) Einige problematische Fossilien aus Japan. Verhandlungen russische mineralogische Gesellschaft St. Petersburg 2:257–272Google Scholar
  75. Kidder DL, Worsley TR (2004) Causes and consequences of extreme Permo-Triassic warming to globally equable climate and relation to the Permo-Triassic extinction and recovery. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 203:207–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kobayashi F (1986) Middle Permian foraminifers of the Gozenyama Formation, southern Kwanto Mountains, Japan. Bull Natl Sci Mus Ser C (Geol Paleontol) 12:131–163Google Scholar
  77. Kobayashi F (1988) Middle Permian foraminifers of the Omi Limestone, Central Japan. Bull Natl Sci Mus Ser C (Geol Paleontol) 14:1–35Google Scholar
  78. Kobayashi F (1997) Upper Permian foraminifers from the Iwai-Kanyo area, West Tokyo, Japan. J Foraminifer Res 27:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kobayashi F (1999) Tethyan uppermost Permian (Dzhulfian and Dorashamian) foraminiferal faunas and their paleogeographic and tectonics implications. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 150:279–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kobayashi F (2004) Late Permian foraminifers from the limestone block in the southern Chichibu Terrane of west Shikoku, SW Japan. J Paleontol 78:62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kobayashi F (2005) Permian foraminifers from the Itsukaichi-Ome area, West Tokyo, Japan. J Paleontol 79:413–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kobayashi F (2006a) Middle Permian foraminifers of the Izuru and Nabeyama formations in the Kuzu area, central Japan, part 2. Schubertellid and ozawainellid fusulinoideans, and non-fusulinoideans foraminifers. Paleontol Res 10:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kobayashi F (2006b) Middle Permian foraminifers of Kaize, southern part of the Saku Basin, Nagano prefecture, central Japan. Paleontol Res 10:179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kobayashi F (2007a) Foraminiferal fauna and lithofacies of Middle Permian limestone blocks in the middle course of Kuma River (Osakama), southern margin of the Chichibu Terrane in west Kyushu, Japan. Paleontol Res 11:337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kobayashi F (2007b) Late Middle Permian (Capitanian) foraminifers in the Mikata area, Hyogo, with special reference to plasticity deformation of their test and their paleobiogeographic affinity with South China—Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic foraminifers of Hyogo, Japan, Part 5. Paleontol Res 11:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kobayashi F (2007c) Moscovian to Capitanian foraminifers contained in limestone breccias of debris avalanche deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Ise Formation in Irino, NE of Tatsuno, Hyogo—Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic foraminifers of Hyogo, Japan, Part 8. Paleontol Res 12:1–15Google Scholar
  87. Kobayashi F, Ishii KI (2003) Paleobiogeographic analysis of Yahtashian to Midian fusulinacean faunas of the Surmaq Formation in the Abadeh region, central Iran. J Foraminifer Res 33:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kochansky-Dévidé V, Herak M (1960) On the Carboniferous and Permian Dasycladaceae of Yugoslavia. Geoloski Vjesnik 13:65–94Google Scholar
  89. Konert G, Afifi AM, Al-Hajiri SA, Droste HJ (2001) Paleozoic stratigraphy and hydrocarbon habitat of the Arabian Plate. GeoArabia 6:407–442Google Scholar
  90. Koop WJ, Stoneley A (1982) Subsidence history of the Middle East Zagros basin, Permian to recent. Roy Soc Lond Philos Trans 305:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kotlyar GV, Zakharov YD, Kochirkevich BV, Kropacheva GS, Rostovtscev KO, Chediya IO, Vuks GP, Guseva EA (1984) Pozdnepermskii etap evolyutsii organicheskogo mira, Dzhulfinskii i Dorashamskii yarusy SSSR (Evolution of the latest Permian biota, Dzhulfian and Dorashamian stages of the USSR). Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Dalnevostochnyi Nauchnyi Tsentr, Biologo-Pochvennyi Institut, pp 1–200Google Scholar
  92. Kotlyar G, Belyansky GC, Burago VI, Nikitina AP, Zakharov YD, Zhuralev AV (2006) South Primorye, Far East Russia-A key region for global Permian correlation. J Asian Earth Sci 26:280–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Köylüoglu M, Altiner D (1989) Micropaléontologie (foraminifères) et biostratigraphie du Permien supérieur de la région d’Hakkari (SE Turquie). Rev Paléobiol 8:467–503Google Scholar
  94. Lai XL, Wang W, Wignall PB, Bond DPG, Jiang HS, Ali JR, John EH, Sun YD (2008) Palaeoenvironemental change during the end-Guadalupian (Permian) mass extinction in Sichuan, China. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 269:78–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lange E (1925) Eine mittelpermische Fauna von Guguk Bulat (Padanger Oberland, Sumatra). Verhandelingen van het geologisch mijnbouwkunding Genootschap voor Nederland en Koloniën, geologisch serie 7:213–295Google Scholar
  96. Lee JS (1927) Fusulinidae of North China. Palaeontologica Sinica, Series B 4:1–172Google Scholar
  97. Leven EYa (2003) The Permian stratigraphy and fusulinids of the Tethys. Riv Ital Paleontol Stratigr 109:267–280Google Scholar
  98. Leven EYa, Bogoslovskaya MF (2006) The Roadian Stage of the Permian and problems of its global correlation. Stratigr Geol Correl 14:164–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Leven EYa, Gorgij NM (2008) Bolorian and Kubergandian Stages of the Permian in the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone of Iran. Stratigr Geol Correl 16:455–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Leven EYa, Korchagin OA (2001) Permian-Triassic biotic crisis and foraminifers. Stratigr Geol Correl 19:364–372Google Scholar
  101. Leven EYa, Okay AI (1996) Foraminifera from the exotic Permo-Carboniferous limestone blocks in the Karakaya complex, north western Turkey. Riv Ital Paleontol Stratigr 102:139–174Google Scholar
  102. Leven EYa, Ozkan R (2004) New Permian fusulinids from Turkey and some problems of their biogeography. Stratigr Geol Correl 12:333–346Google Scholar
  103. Leven EYa, Gaetani M, Schroeder S (2007) New findings of Permian fusulinids and corals from western Karakorum and E Hindu Kush (Pakistan). Riv Ital Paleontol Stratigr 113:151–166Google Scholar
  104. Lin JX (1978) Carboniferous and Permian Foraminiferida. In: Hubei Institute of Geological Sciences and Geological Bureaus of Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guandong, and Guangxi (eds) Paleontological atlas of Central South China micropaleontological volume. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp 10–43Google Scholar
  105. Lin JX (1984) Biostratigraphy of the Yangtze Gorge area, (3) Late Paleozoic era. Museum Changzhou, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, Geological Publishing House, pp 110–117Google Scholar
  106. Lipina OA (1949) Melkie foraminifery pogrebennykh massivov Bashkirii. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Trudy Instituta Geologicheskikh Nauk 105:198–235Google Scholar
  107. Loeblich AR, Tappan H (1964) Sarcodina, chiefly “Thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore RC (ed) Treatise of Invertebrate Paleontology, Part C, Protista 2, vol 1. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, pp 1–900Google Scholar
  108. Lokke DH (1964) Pennsylvanian occurrences of Komia? sp. in southwestern United States. J Paleontol 38:415–416Google Scholar
  109. Lys M (1994) Les Fusulinida d’Asie orientale décrits par J. Deprat: révision et mise en valeur de la collection-type. Cahiers de Micropaléontologie 9:1–57Google Scholar
  110. Lys M, Colchen M, Bassoullet JP, Marcoux J, Mascle G (1980) La biozone à Colaniella parva du Permien supérieur et sa microfaune dans le bloc calcaire exotique de Lamayuru, Himalaya du Ladakh. Rev Micropaléontol 23:76–108Google Scholar
  111. Lys M, Bouyx E, Boulin J (1990) La biozone à Cancellina (Permien moyen, Kubergandien) dans le versant méridional de l’Hindou Kouch (Afghanistan). Facies 23:37–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Malakhova NP (1965) Foraminifera from the Permian deposits of the eastern slope of the Urals. Akad Nauk SSSR, Ural Filial, Trudy Instit Geol 74:155–173Google Scholar
  113. Mamet B, Pinard S (1992) Note sur la taxonomie des petits foraminifères du Paléozoïque supérieur. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie 99:373–398Google Scholar
  114. Mamet BL, Stemmerik L (2000) Carboniferous algal microflora, Kap Jungersen and Foldedal Formations, Holm Land and Amdrup Land, eastern North Greenland. Geol Greenl Surv Bull 187:79–101Google Scholar
  115. Maslov VP (1929) Mikroskopicheskie vodorosli kamennougolnykh Donetskogo basseina (Microscopic algae from the Carboniferous limestones of the Donets Basin). Izvestii Geologicheskogo Komiteta 48:115–138Google Scholar
  116. Maslov VP (1956) Iskopaemye izvestkovye vodorosli SSSR Trudy Instituta Geologicheskikh Nauk. Akademiya Nauk SSSR 160:1–301Google Scholar
  117. Maxwell WD (1992) Permian and Early Triassic extinction of non-marine tetrapods. Palaeontology 35:571–583Google Scholar
  118. Mikhalevich VI (1980) Sistematika i evolyutsiya foraminifer v svete novykhh dannykh po ikh litologii i ultastrukture Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta. Akademiya Nauk SSSR 94:42–61Google Scholar
  119. Miklukho-Maklay AD (1953) K sistematike semeitsva Archaediscidae. Ezhegodnik Vsesoyuznogo Paleontologischeskogo Obshchestva (1948–1953) 14:127–131Google Scholar
  120. Miklukho-Maklay KV (1954) Foraminifery verkhnepermskikh otlozhenii severnogo Kavkaza. Trudy VSEGEI, Gosgeoltekhizdat 1:1–163Google Scholar
  121. Miklukho-Maklay AD (1963) Verkhniy Paleozoy Sredney Azii Izdateld Leningrad Univ, pp 1–328Google Scholar
  122. Molinaro M, Guezou JC, Leturmy P, Eshraghi SA, Frizon de Lamotte D (2004) The origin of changes in structural style across the Bandar Abbas syntaxis, SE Zagros (Iran). Mar Petrol Geol 21:735–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Montenat C, de Lapparent AF, Lys M, Termier H, Termier G, Vachard D (1977) La transgression permienne et son substrat éocambrien dans le Jebel Akhdar, montagnes d’Oman, Péninsule Arabique. Annales de la Société géologique du Nord 96:239–258Google Scholar
  124. Nestell GP, Nestell MK (2006) Middle Permian (Late Guadalupian) foraminifers from Dark Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Micropaleontology 52:1–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ogg JG, Ogg G, Gradstein FM (2008) The Concise Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  126. Ota A, Isozaki Y (2006) Fusuline biotic turnover across the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Middle-Upper Permian) boundary in mid-oceanic carbonate buildups: Biostratigraphy of accreted limestone in Japan. J Asian Earth Sci 26:353–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ozawa Y (1927) Stratigraphical studies of the Fusulina limestones of Akasaka, Province of Mino. Imp Univ Tokyo J 2:121–164Google Scholar
  128. Ozawa T, Nishiwaki N (1992) Permian Tethyan Biota and Sedimentary Facies of the Akasaka Limestone Group. Field Trip Guidebook of International Geological Congress, pp 189–195Google Scholar
  129. Pasini M (1985) Biostratigrafia con i foraminiferi del limite formazione a Bellerophon formazione di Werfen fra Recoaro e La Val Badia (Alpi Meridionali). Riv Ital Paleontol Stratigr 90:481–510Google Scholar
  130. Pia J (1920) Siphoneae verticillatae vom Karbon bis zur Kreide. Abhandlungen der zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 11:1–163Google Scholar
  131. Pia J (1937) Die wichtigsten Kalkalgen des Jungpaläozoikums und ihre geologische Bedeutung. Compte Rendu du 2e Congrès Avancement Etudes de Stratigraphie du Carbonifère, Heerlen, 1935 2:765–856Google Scholar
  132. Pronina-Nestell GP, Nestell MK (2001) Late Changhsingian foraminifers of the northwestern Caucasus. Micropaleontology 47:205–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Raup DM (1979) Size of the Permo-Triassic bottleneck and its evolutionary implications. Science 206:217–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rauzer-Chernousova DM, Fursenko AV (1959) Osnovy Paleontologii, Obshchaya chast Prosteyshie. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Dalnevostochnyi Nauchnyi Tsentr, Biologo-Pochvennyi Institut, pp 1–368Google Scholar
  135. Rauzer-Chernousova DM, Bensh FP, Vdovenko MV, Gibshman NB, Leven EY, Lipina OA, Reitlinger EA, Solovieva MN, Chediya IO (1996) Spravochnik po sistematike foraminifer Paleozoya; Endothyroidy, Fuzulinoidy. Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk, Geologicheskii Institut, Moskva “Nauka”, pp 1–207Google Scholar
  136. Reichel M (1945) Sur un Miliolidé nouveau du Permien de l’île de Chypre. Verhandlungen der Naturfoschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 56:521–530Google Scholar
  137. Reichel M (1946) Sur quelques foraminifères nouveaux du Permien méditerranéen. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 38:524–560Google Scholar
  138. Reitlinger EA (1950) Foraminifery srednekamennougolnykh otlozhenii tsentralnoi chasti Russkoi platformy (isklyuchaya semeistvo Fusulinidae). Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Trudy Instituta Geologicheskikh Nauk, 126. Geologichevskaya seriya 47:1–126Google Scholar
  139. Reitlinger EA (1965) Razvitie foraminifer v pozdnepermskuyu i rannetriasovuyu epokhi na territorii Zakavkazya. Voprosy Mikropaleontologii 9:45–70Google Scholar
  140. Retallack GJ, Veevers JJ, Morante R (1996) Global coal gap between Permian–Triassic extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants. Geol Soc Am Bull 108:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ricou LE (1974) L’étude géologique de la région de Neyriz (Zagros iranien) et l’évolution structurale des Zagnides. PhD Thesis, Université de Paris-sud, OrsayGoogle Scholar
  142. Ritter SM, Morris TH (1997) Oldest and lowest latitudinal occurrence of Palaeoaplysina; Middle Pennsylvanian Ely Limestone, Burbank Hills, Utah. Palaios 12:397–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ross CA, Ross JRP (1985) Late Paleozoic depositional sequences are synchronous and world wide. Geology 13:194–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Schubert RJ (1909) Zur Geologie des österreichischen Velebit. Jahrbuch der geologischen Reichanstalt 58:345–386Google Scholar
  145. Sellier De Civrieux JM, Dessauvagie TFJ (1965) Reclassification de quelques Nodosariidae, particulièrement du Permien au Lias. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü Yayinlarindan (MTA) 124:1–178Google Scholar
  146. Sepehr M, Cosgrove JW (2004) Structural framework of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran. Mar Petrol Geol 21:829–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Setudehnia A (1978) The Mesozoic sequence south-west Iran and adjacent areas. J Petrol Geol 1:3–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sharland PR, Archer R, Casey DM, Davies RB, Hall SH, Heward AP, Horbury AD, Simmon MD (2001) Arabian Plate sequence stratigraphy. GeoArabia Special Publication, vol 2. Oriental Press, ManamaGoogle Scholar
  149. Sheng JC (1955) Some fusulinids from Changhsing Limestone. Acta Paleontologica Sinica 3:287–308Google Scholar
  150. Sheng JC (1958) Some fusulinids from the Maokou Limestone of Chinghai Province, northwestern China. Acta Paleontologica Sinica 6:268–291Google Scholar
  151. Sheng JC (1992) Development of fusuline foraminifers in China. In: Studies in benthic foraminifera, proceedings of the fourth symposium on Benthic Foraminifera Benthos’90, Sendaï, Japan. Tokai University Press, pp 11–22Google Scholar
  152. Sherkati S, Letouzey J (2004) Variation of structural style and basin evolution in the central Zagros (Izeh zone and Dezful Embayment), Iran. Mar Petrol Geol 21:535–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Skinner JW (1931) Primitive fusulinids of the Mid-Continent region. J Paleontol 5:253–259Google Scholar
  154. Skinner JW (1969) Permian foraminifera from Turkey. Univ Kansas Paleontol Contrib Pap 36:1–14Google Scholar
  155. Skinner JW, Wilde GL (1966) Permian fusulinids from Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Univ Kansas Paleontol Contrib Pap 4:1–64Google Scholar
  156. Spandel E (1898) Die Foraminiferen des deutschen Zechsteins und ein zweifelhaftes mikroskopisches Fossil ebendaher. Verlags-Inst. “General Anzeiger”Google Scholar
  157. Stampfli GM, Borel GD (2004) The TRANSMED transects in space and time: constraints on the paleotectonic evolution of the Mediterranean domain. In: Cavazza W, Roure F, Spakman W, Stampfli GM, Ziegler P (eds) The TRANSMED Atlas: the Mediterranean region from crust to mantle. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 53–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Stanley SM, Yang XN (1994) A double mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. Science 266:1340–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Stöcklin J (1968) Structural history and tectonics of Iran: a review. AAPG Bull 52:1229–1258Google Scholar
  160. Szabo F, Kheradpir A (1978) Permian and Triassic stratigraphy, Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran. J Petrol Geol 1:57–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Taraz H, Golshani F, Nakazawa K, Shimizu D, Bando Y, Ishii KI, Murata M, Okimura Y, Sakagami S, Nakamura K, Tokuoka T (Iranian-Japanese Research Group) (1981) The Permian and the Lower Triassic systems in Abadeh region, central Iran, Series Geology Mineralogy 47. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science. Kyoto UniversityGoogle Scholar
  162. Thompson ML, Wheeler H, Danner WR (1950) Middle and Upper Permian fusulinids of Washington and British Columbia. Cushman Lab Foram Res Contrib 1:46–63Google Scholar
  163. Tien ND (1979) Etude micropaléontologique (Foraminifères) de matériaux du Permien du Cambodge. Thèse de 3ème Cycle, Université de Paris Sud, OrsayGoogle Scholar
  164. Tucker ME, Wright VP (1990) Carbonate sedimentology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 496 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Ueno K (1992a) Permian foraminifers from the Takakurayama Group of the southern Abukuma Mountains, northeast Japan. Trans Proc Paleontol Japan 168:1265–1295Google Scholar
  166. Ueno K (1992b) Permian aberrant Fusulinaceans from the Akiyoshi Limestone Group, southwest Japan. Sci Rep Inst Geosci Univ Tsukuba B 13:1–13Google Scholar
  167. Ueno K (2003) The Permian fusulinoidean faunas of the Sibumasu and Baoshan blocks: their implications for the paleogeographic and paleoclimatologic reconstruction of the Cimmerian Continent Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology. Palaeoecology 193:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ueno K, Sakagami S (1993) Middle Permian foraminifers from Ban Nam Suai Tha Sa-At, Changwat Loei, northeast Thailand. Trans Proc Paleontol Soc Jpn 172:277–291Google Scholar
  169. Vachard D (1980) Téthys et Gondwana au Paléozoïque supérieur; les données afghanes : biostratigraphie, micropaléontologie, paléogéographie, vol 2. Documents et Travaux IGALGoogle Scholar
  170. Vachard D (1991) Parathuramminides et moravamminides (Microproblematica) de l’Emsien supérieur de la Formation Moniello (Cordillères Cantabriques, Espagne). Rev Paléobiol 10:255–299Google Scholar
  171. Vachard D, Beckary S (1991) Algues et foraminifères bachkiriens des coal balls de la Mine Rosario (Truebano, Léon, Espagne). Rev Paléobiol 10:315–357Google Scholar
  172. Vachard D, Montenat C (1981) Biostratigraphie, micropaléontologie et paléogéographie du Permien de la région de Tezak (Montagnes Centrales d’Afghanistan). Palaeontographica B 178:1–88Google Scholar
  173. Vachard D, Clift P, Decrouez D (1993) Une association à Pseudodunbarula (fusulinoïde) du Permien supérieur (Djoulfien) remaniée dans le Jurassique d’Argolide (Péloponèse, Grèce). Rev Paléobiol 12:217–242Google Scholar
  174. Vachard D, Hauser M, Martini R, Zaninetti L, Matter A, Peters T (2002) Middle Permian (Midian) foraminiferal assemblages from the Batain Plain (Eastern Oman): their significance to Neotethyan paleogeography. J Foraminifer Res 32:155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vachard D, Gaillot J, Vaslet D, Le Nindre YM (2005) Foraminifers and algae from the Khuff Formation (Late Middle Permian-Early Triassic) of central Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 10:137–186Google Scholar
  176. Vaslet D, Le Nindre YM, Vachard D, Broutin J, Crasquin-Soleau S, Berthelin M, Gaillot J, Halaward M, Al-Husseini M (2005) The Permian-Triassic Khuff Formation of central Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 10:77–134Google Scholar
  177. Vaziri SH, Yao A, Kuwahara K (2005) Lithofacies and microbiofacies (foraminifers and radiolarians) of the Permian Sequence in the Shalamzar area, Central Alborz, North Iran. J Geosci 48:39–69Google Scholar
  178. Vennin E (1997) Architecture sédimentaire des Bioconstructions permo-carbonifères de l’Oural Méridional (Russie), vol 27. Société Géologique du NordGoogle Scholar
  179. Vennin E (2007) Artinskian bryozoan-phylloid algal-Shamovella bioherms, Russia. In: Vennin E, Aretz M, Boulvain F, Munnecke A (eds) Facies from Palaeozoic reefs and bioaccumulations, vol 195. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, pp 299–301Google Scholar
  180. Vennin E, Rouchy JM, Chaix C, Blanc-Valleron MM, Caruso A, Rommevaux V (2004) Paleoecological constraints on reef-coral morphologies in the Tortonian-Early Messinian of the Lorca Basin, SE Spain. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 213:163–185Google Scholar
  181. Wang JH, Tang Y (1986) Fusulinids from Chihsia Formation of Legwu district in Tonglu County, Zhejiang. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 1986-01Google Scholar
  182. Wang XD, Sugiyama T (2000) Diversity and extinction patterns of Permian coral faunas of China. Lethaia 33:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wang W, Kano A, Okumura T, Ma Y, Matsumoto R, Matsuda N, Ueno K, Chen X, Kakuwa Y, Hosein M, Gharaie M, Ilkhchi MR (2007) Isotopic chemostratigraphy of the microbialite-bearing Permian-Triassic boundary section in the Zagros Mountains, Iran. Chem Geol 244:708–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Weidlich O (2002) Permian reefs re-examined: extrinsic control mechanisms of gradual and abrupt changes during 40 my of reef evolution. Geobios 35 Mémoire Spécial 24:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Weidlich O, Bernecker M (2003) Supersequence and composite sequence carbonate platform growth: Permian and Triassic outcrop data of the Arabian platform and Neo-Tethys. Sediment Geol 160:87–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Weidlich O, Bernecker M (2007) Differential severity of Permian-Triassic environmental changes on Tethyan shallow-water carbonate platforms. Glob Planet Change 55:209–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wignall PB (2001) Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions. Earth Sci Rev 53:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Wignall PB, Védrine S, Bond DPG, Wang W, Lai XL, Ali JR, Jiang HD (2009) Facies analysis and sea-level change at the Guadalupian-Lopingian Global Stratotype (Laibin, South China), and its bearing on the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. J Geol Soc 166:655–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wilde GL (2001) End Permian; end fusulinaceans. In: Hills LV, Henderson CM, Bamber EW (eds) Carboniferous and Permian of the world, vol 19. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, Calgary, pp 616–629Google Scholar
  190. Yang XN, Liu JR, Zhu LM, Shi GJ (2004) Extinction processes and patterns of Middle Permian fusulinaceans in southwest China. Lethaia 37:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Yang XN, Liu JR, Zhu LM, Shi GJ (2005) Early Permian bioevent in the fusulinacean fauna of South China. Lethaia 38:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Zadorozhnyi VM (1987) Foraminifery i biostratigrafiya devona Zapadno-Sibirskoi plity i ieio skeadchatogo obramleniya. Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geofiiki 680:1–126Google Scholar
  193. Zamanzadeh SM, Amini A, Rahimpour-Bonab H (2009) Eogenetic dolomite cementation in Lower Permian reservoir sandstones southern Zagros, Iran. Geol J 4:501–525Google Scholar
  194. Zaninetti L, Bronnimann P, Huber H, Moshtaghian A (1978) Microfacies et microfaunes du Permien au Jurassique au Kuh-e Gahkum, Sud-Zagros, Iran. Rivista Italiana Paleontologia 84:865–896Google Scholar
  195. Ziegler MA (2001) Late Permian to Holocene paleofacies evolution of the Arabian Plate and its hydrocarbon occurrences. GeoArabia 6:445–504Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christophe Kolodka
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Emmanuelle Vennin
    • 1
  • Daniel Vachard
    • 3
  • Vincent Trocme
    • 2
  • Mohammad Hassan Goodarzi
    • 4
  1. 1.UMR CNRS 5561 BiogéosciencesUniversité de BourgogneDijonFrance
  2. 2.Direction Exploration ProductionGDF SUEZParis La Défense CédexFrance
  3. 3.Géosystèmes, FRE 3298Université de Lille 1Villeneuve d’AscqFrance
  4. 4.Exploration DirectorateNational Iranian Oil CompanyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations