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Facies

, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp 275–300 | Cite as

Origin and paleoecology of Middle Jurassic hiatus concretions from Poland

  • Michał Zatoń
  • Sylwia Machocka
  • Mark A. Wilson
  • Leszek Marynowski
  • Paul D. Taylor
Original Article

Abstract

Bored and encrusted carbonate concretions, termed hiatus concretions, coming from the Middle Jurassic (Upper Bajocian and Bathonian) siliciclastics of the Polish Jura, south-central Poland, have been subjected to detailed paleoecological investigation for the first time. The concretions possess variable morphology and bear distinct traces of bioerosion and encrustation as a result of exhumation on the sea floor during intervals of low sedimentation and/or erosion. The borings are dominated by Gastrochaenolites and Entobia. Epilithozoans, represented by at least 26 taxa, are dominated by sabellid/serpulid worm tubes and bryozoans, while sponges and corals are minor. No relationship between the concretion size and the number of encrusters has been found, suggesting that concretion size was not the primary factor controlling diversity. Stable isotope analyses and the presence of crustacean scratch marks and Rhizocorallium traces on many of the hiatus concretions indicate that they formed just below the sediment–water interface, within the sulfate reduction zone. Moreover, crustacean activities may have been a prelude to their origin, as shapes of many concretions closely resemble thalassinoidean burrow systems. It is also possible that crustacean activity around the concretions promoted their exhumation by loosening the surrounding soft sediment. The presence of borings and encrusters on different concretion surfaces, as well as truncated borings and a number of abraded epilithozoans, indicate that after the concretions were exhumed they were repeatedly overturned and moved on the sea floor, probably due to episodic storm-related bottom currents in shallow subtidal environment.

Keywords

Concretions Encrusters Borers Disturbance Jurassic Poland 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Michał Zatoń would like to thank the Paleontological Society for the PalSIRP Sepkoski Grant 2005 that enabled to start this project. This work has also been supported by the MNISW grant: N N307 2379 33 (for Leszek Marynowski). Mark A. Wilson thanks the Luce Fund at The College of Wooster for partial support of this research. David Rodland and Chris Schneider are greatly acknowledged for their constructive comments and many useful remarks that improved the manuscript. Stanisław and Rafał Zatoń, Tomasz Borszcz, and Tomasz Krzykawski are thanked for their help and logistic support during our field works. The article benefited from the reviews of Matías Reolid and Olev Vinn, whose useful remarks and constructive comments greatly improved its final version. André Freiwald, the journal editor, is thanked for final editing of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michał Zatoń
    • 1
  • Sylwia Machocka
    • 1
  • Mark A. Wilson
    • 2
  • Leszek Marynowski
    • 1
  • Paul D. Taylor
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Earth SciencesUniversity of SilesiaSosnowiecPoland
  2. 2.Department of GeologyThe College of WoosterWoosterUSA
  3. 3.Department of PalaeontologyNatural History MuseumLondonUK

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