Advertisement

Facies

, Volume 51, Issue 1–4, pp 501–515 | Cite as

Biologic response to environmental stress in tropical reefs: Lessons from modern Polynesian coralgal atolls and Middle Permian sponge and Shamovella-microbe reefs (Capitan Limestone USA)

  • J. A. FagerstromEmail author
  • O. Weidlich
Original Paper

Abstract

Despite prejudices that comparisons of paleoecological patterns in modern and fossil reef communities are of doubtful validity, we compare the biologic response of living coralgal reefs in French Polynesia to environmental stress with an exceptionally well exposed Middle Permian sponge reef and Shamovella-microbial reef of the Capitan Limestone in New Mexico. In the western Tuamotu Archipelago, reef margins are characterized by depth-related changes of biodiversity. The subtidal basic reefbuilding community contains the highest diversity (23 coral and 6 calcareous algal species). With decreasing water depth and increasing environmental stress, diversity reaches a minimum of five taxa on the reef flat. The Capitan consists of two reef stages. Reefbuilders of the lowermost exposed part of Stage 1 formed a cement-rich sponge reef with 42 taxa (28 sponge species). Decreasing water depth along the reef face is accompanied by loss of five taxa, variations in the gross morphology of sponges and changes in framework architecture. Stage 2, dominated by Shamovella obscura, one bryozoan species and microbes, is sandwiched between two unconformities suggesting much shallower water and higher environmental stress. Despite differences in shelf profile and taxonomy, both the modern and Permian reefbuilders respond to increasing environmental stress with diversity impoverishment and dominance of binders.

Keywords

Warm-water Coralgal reefs Sponge reefs Environmental stress Biotic response Holocene Permian 

Notes

Acknowledgments

It gives Fagerstrom great pleasure to acknowledge the generous logistical support provided by B Salvat, R Galzin (EPHE, Perpignan), F Rougerie (ORSTOM de Tahiti), C Payri (Université du Pacifique, Tahiti) and J-P Rochette (EVAAM station, Takapoto) during fieldwork at Takapoto, Tikihau and Moorea during 1987–1993. We are deeply appreciative for discussions on the outcrop and in correspondence with JK Rigby (Brigham Young University) and B Senowbari-Daryan (University of Erlangen, Germany) regarding the functional morphology of Gigantospongia discoforma and to M Bernecker (University of Erlangen) for help in reef outcrop mapping at Bat Cave Draw. We also thank Y Chamberlain (Portsmouth Univ., UK) for identification of the encrusting algae collected by Fagerstrom at Takapoto and Tikihau, D Keats (University of the Western Cape, Bellville, S. Africa) for suggestions in understanding the manner of algal growth and their ecologic significance and G Faure (Montpellier, France) for help in identifying corals. The work of Weidlich has been kindly supported by the German Research Foundation (projects We1804/2 and We1804/8). We also thank JK Rigby, M Bernecker, GF Camoin and L Montaggioni for helpful suggestions

References

  1. Adjeroud M, Planes S, Delesalle B (2000) Coral and fish communities in a disturbed environment: Papeete Harbor, Tahiti. Atoll Res Bull 484:1–10Google Scholar
  2. Bouchon C (1983) Les peuplements de scleractiniaires de l′atoll de Takapoto (Polynesie Francaise). J Soc Oceanist 77:35–42Google Scholar
  3. Brown BE (1990) Coral bleaching. Coral Reefs 8:153–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown BE (1997a) Disturbances to reefs in recent times. In: Birkeland C (ed) Life and death of coral reefs. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 354–379Google Scholar
  5. Brown BE (1997b) Coral reef bleaching: causes and consequences. Coral Reefs 16(Suppl):S129–S138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown BE, Howard LS (1985) Assessing the effects of “stress” on reef corals. Adv Mar Biol 22:1–63Google Scholar
  7. Buddemeier RW, Kinzie III RA (1998) Reef science: asking all the wrong questions in all the wrong places? Reef Encounter 23:29–34Google Scholar
  8. Cabioch G, Camoin GF, Montaggioni LF (1999) Postglacial growth history of a French Polynesian barrier reef. Sedimentology 46:985–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chevalier JP, Denizot M (1979) Les organismes constructeurs de l'atoll de Takapoto. J Soc Oceanist 62:31–34Google Scholar
  10. Camoin GF, Montaggioni LF (1994) High energy coralgal-stromatolite frameworks from Holocene reefs (Tahiti, French Polynesia). Sedimentology 41:655–676Google Scholar
  11. Chevalier JP, Denizot M, Richard M, Salvat B, Sournia A, Vasseur P (1979) Geomorphologie de l′atoll de Takapoto. J Soc Oceanist 62:9–18Google Scholar
  12. Camoin GF, Gautret P, Montaggioni LF, Cabioch G (1999) Nature and environmental significance of microbialites in Quaternary reefs: the Tahiti paradox. Sediment Geol 126:271–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Camoin GF, Ebren P, Eisenhauer A, Bard E, Faure G (2001) A 300 000-yr. coral reef record of sea level changes, Mururoa atoll (Tuamotu archipelago, French Polynesia). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 175:325–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Connell JH (1997) Disturbance and recovery of coral assemblages. Coral Reefs 16 (Suppl):S101–S113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davies PJ, Marshall JF (1985) Halimeda bioherms-low energy reefs, northern Great Barrier Reef Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Congr 5:1–7Google Scholar
  16. Dethier MN (1994) The ecology of intertidal algal crusts: variation within a functional group. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 177:37–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doty MS, Morrison JPE (1954) Interrelationships of the organisms on Raroia aside from man. Atoll Res Bull 35:1–61Google Scholar
  18. Emery KO, Tracey JI, Ladd HS (1954) Geology of Bikini and nearby atolls. Prof Pap US Geol Survey 260-AGoogle Scholar
  19. Fagerstrom JA (1987) The evolution of reef communities. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Fagerstrom JA, Bradshaw MA (2002) Early Devonian reefs at Reefton, New Zealand: guilds, origin and paleogeographic significance. Lethaia 35:35–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fagerstrom JA, Weidlich O (1999a) Origin of the Upper Capitan-Massive limestone (Permian), Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico-Texas: Is it a reef? Geol Soc Am Bull 111:159–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fagerstrom JA, Weidlich O (1999b) Strengths and weaknesses of the reef guild concept and quantitative data: application to the Upper Capitan-Massive community (Permian), Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico-Texas. Facies 40:131–156Google Scholar
  23. Fagerstrom JA, West RR, Kershaw S, Cossey P (2000) Spatial competition among clonal organisms in extant and selected Paleozoic reef communities. Facies 42:1–24Google Scholar
  24. Faure G, Laboute P (1984) Formations recifales, 1: Definition des unites recifales et distribution des principaux perplements de scleractiniaires. Notes Doc Oceanogr, ORSTOM Tahiti 22:108–136Google Scholar
  25. Forsythe GTW, Wood R, Dickson JAD (2002) Mass spawning in ancient reef communities: Evidence from Late Paleozoic phylloid algae. Palaios 17:615–621Google Scholar
  26. Freile D, Millimann JD, Hillis L (1995) Leeward bank margin Halimeda meadows and draperies and their sedimentary importance on the western Bahamas slope. Coral Reefs 14:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gabrie C, Salvat B (1985) General features of French Polynesian islands and their coral reefs. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Congr 1:1–15Google Scholar
  28. Glynn PW, Veron JEN, Wellington GM (1996) Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography. Coral Reefs 15:71–99Google Scholar
  29. Grotzinger JP, Knoll AH (1995) Anomalous carbonate precipitates: Is the Precambrian the key to the Permian? Palaios 10:578–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Guilcher A (1988) Coral reef geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  31. Hallock P (2001) Coral reefs, carbonate sediments, nutrients, and global change. In: Stanley Jr GD (ed) The history and sedimentology of ancient reef systems. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 387–427Google Scholar
  32. Harmelin-Vivien ML (1985) Tikihau Atoll, Archipel des Tuamotus. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Congr 1:211–266Google Scholar
  33. Harmelin-Vivien ML (1994) The effect of storms and cyclones on coral reefs: a review. J Coast Res Spec Issue 12:211–231Google Scholar
  34. Harwood GM, Kendall AC (1999) Reef margin collapse, gully formation and filling within the Permian Capitan reef: Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, USA. Sedimentology 46:443–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Intes A, Caillet B (1994) Environment and biota of the Tikihau Atoll (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia. Atoll Res Bull 451:1–34Google Scholar
  36. Johnson JH (1961) Limestone-building algae and algal limestones. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 297 ppGoogle Scholar
  37. Kerans C, Tinker SW (1999) Extrinsic stratigraphic controls on development of the Capitan reef complex. SEPM Spec Publ 65:15–36Google Scholar
  38. Kiessling W (2001) Paleoclimatic significance of Phanerozoic reefs. Geology 29:751–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kirkland BL, Dickson JAD, Wood RA, Land LS (1998) Microbialite and microstratigraphy: encrustations in the middle and upper Capitan Formation, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, USA. J Sediment Res 68:956–969Google Scholar
  40. Kirkland BL, Longacre SA, Stoudt EL (1999) The dynamic Capitan Reef: An image of an ancient reef and suggestions for future research. SEPM Spec Publ 65:161–173Google Scholar
  41. Kleypas JA, Buddemeier RW, Gattuso JP (2001) The future of coral reefs in an age of global change. Int J Earth Sci 90:426–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krainer K, Flügel E, Vachard D, Joachimski MM (2003) A close look at Late Carboniferous algal mounds: Schulterkofel, Carnic Alps, Austria. Facies 49:325–350Google Scholar
  43. Kuhlmann DHH, Chevalier JP (1986) Les coraux (Scleractinaires et Hydrocoralliaires) de l′atoll de Takapoto, Isles Tuamotu: aspects ecologiques. Mar Ecol 7:75–104Google Scholar
  44. Lambeck K (1981) Flexure of the ocean lithosphere from island uplift, bathymetry and geoid height observations: the Society Islands. Geophys J Res Astr Soc 67:91–114Google Scholar
  45. Lambeck K, Chappell J (2001) Sea level change through the last glacial cycle. Science 292:679–686CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Longley AJ (1999) Differential compaction and its effects on the outer shelf of the Permian Capitan Reef Complex, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. SEPM Spec Publ 65:85–105Google Scholar
  47. Macintyre IG (1997) Reevaluating the role of crustose coralline algae in the construction of coral reefs. Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Symp 1:725–730Google Scholar
  48. McLean RF, Woodroffe CD (1995) Coral atolls. In: Carter RW, Woodroffe CD (eds) Coastal evolution-Late Quaternary shoreline morphodynamics. Cambridge University Press, pp 69–300Google Scholar
  49. Montaggioni LF, Camoin GF (1993) Stromatolites associated with coralgal communities in Holocene high-energy reefs. Geology 21:149–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Montaggioni L, Camoin GF (1997) Geology of Makatea island (Tuamoto Archipelago). Dev Sedimentology 54:453–473Google Scholar
  51. Newell ND (1956) Geologic reconnaissance of Rarioa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. Am Mus Nat Hist Bull 269:311–372Google Scholar
  52. Newell ND, Rigby JK, Fischer AG, Whiteman AJ, Hickox JE, Bradley JS (1953) The Permian reef complex of the Guadalupe Mountains region, Texas and New Mexico. WH Freeman Co, San Francisco, 236 ppGoogle Scholar
  53. Noé S (1996) Late-stage evolution of the Permian reef complex: Shelf margin and outer-shelf development of the Tansill Formation (Late Permian), Northern Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, USA. Göttinger Arb Geol Paläont SB 2:317–324Google Scholar
  54. Nunn PD (1993) Role of Porolithon algal-ridge growth in the development of the windward coast of Tongatapu Island, Tonga, South Pacific. Earth Surf Proc Land 18:427–439Google Scholar
  55. Paine RT (1984) Ecological determinism in the competition for space. Ecology 65:1339–1348Google Scholar
  56. Paul VJ, van Alstyne KL (1988) Chemical defense and chemical variation in some tropical Pacific species of Halimeda (Halimedaceae; Chlorophyta). Coral Reefs 6:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Payri CE (1995) Production carbonatée de quelques algues calcifiées sur un récif corallien de Polynésie française. Bull Soc Geol France 166:77–84Google Scholar
  58. Perrin C, Bosence D, Rosen B (1995) Quantitative approaches to palaeozonation and palaeobathymetry of corals and coralline algae in Cenozoic reefs. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 83:181–229Google Scholar
  59. Read JF (1985) Carbonate platform facies models. AAPG Bull 69:1–21Google Scholar
  60. Richmond RH (1993) Coral reefs: present problems and future concerns resulting from anthropogenic disturbance. Am Zool 33:524–536Google Scholar
  61. Rigby JK, Senowbari-Daryan B (1996) Gigantospongia, new genus, the largest known Permian sponge, Capitan Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. J Paleont 70:347–355Google Scholar
  62. Rigby JK, Senowbari-Daryan B, Liu H (1998) Sponges of the Permian Upper Capitan Limestone Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas. Brigham Young Univ Geol Stud 43:19–117Google Scholar
  63. Roberts HH, Ahron P, Phipps CV (1988) Morphology and sedimentology of Halimeda bioherms from the eastern Java Sea (Indonesia). Coral Reefs 6:161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosen BF (1982) The tropical high diversity enigma - the corals'-eye view. In: Forney PL (ed) The evolving biosphere. Cambridge University Press, pp 103–129Google Scholar
  65. Rougerie F, Wauthy B (1993) The endo-upwelling concept: from geothermal convection to reef construction. Coral Reefs 12:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rougerie F, Fagerstrom JA, Andrie C (1992) Geothermal endo-upwelling: a solution to the reef nutrient paradox. Cont Shelf Res 12:785–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Salvat B, Richard G (1985) Takapoto Atoll, Tuamoto Archipelago. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Congr 1:323–377Google Scholar
  68. Samankassou E (1997) Paleontological response to sea-level change: distribution of fauna and flora in cyclothems from the Lower Pseudoschwagerina Limestone (Latest Carboniferous, Carnic Alps, Austria). Geobios 30:785–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Samankassou E, West RR (2002) Construction versus accumulation in phylloid algal mounds: an example of a small constructed mound in the Pennsylvanian of Kansas, USA. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 185:379–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Senowbari-Daryan B, Rigby JK (1996) Brachiopod mounds not sponge reef, Permian Capitan-Tansill Formations, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. J Paleont 70:697–701Google Scholar
  71. Smith SV, Buddemeier RW (1992) Global change and coral reef ecosystems. Ann Rev Ecol System 2:89–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Soreghan GS, Giles KA (1999) Facies character and stratal responses to accomodation in Pennsylvanian bioherms, western Orogrande Basin, New Mexico. J Sediment Res 69:893–908Google Scholar
  73. Sprachta S, Camoin GF, Golubic S, Le Campion T (2001) Microbialites in a modern lagoonal environment: nature and distribution, Tikehau atoll (French Polynesia). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 175:103–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Steneck RS, Macintyre IG, Reid RP (1997) A unique algal ridge system in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Coral Reefs 16:16–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tinker SW (1998) Shelf-to-basin facies distributions and sequence stratigraphy of a steep-rimmed carbonate margin: Capitan depositional system, McKittrick Canyon, New Mexico and Texas. J Sediment Res 68:1146–1174Google Scholar
  76. Wahlman GP (2002) Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian (Bashkirian – Kungurian) mounds and reefs. SEPM Spec Publ 72:271–338Google Scholar
  77. Weidlich O, Fagerstrom JA (1998) Evolution of the Upper Capitan-Massive (Permian), Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Brigham Young University Geol Stud 43:167–187Google Scholar
  78. Weidlich O, Fagerstrom JA (1999) Influence of sea-level changes on development, community structure, and quantitative composition of the Upper Capitan Massive (Permian), Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico. SEPM Spec Publ 65:139–160Google Scholar
  79. Wood R (1999) Reef evolution. Oxford Univ Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  80. Wood R, Dickson JAD, Kirkland BL (1996) New observations on the ecology of the Permian Capitan reef, Texas and New Mexico. Palaeontology 39:733–762Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecole Pratique des Hautes EtudesUMR 8046 EPHE-CNRS, Universite de PerpignanPerpignan, CedexFrance
  2. 2.Department of Geology, Royal HollowayUniversity of LondonEghamUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.Ann ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations