Advertisement

Landslides

pp 1–20 | Cite as

A combined method for modeling the triggering and propagation of debris flows

  • Moonhyun Hong
  • Sangseom JeongEmail author
  • Jaehong Kim
Original Paper
  • 118 Downloads

Abstract

This study describes a combined method for rainfall-induced debris flow initiations (landslides) and propagations including a series of numerical analyses. In this study, the debris is assumed as a mixture of soils and water which is physically non-Newtonian fluid. The emphasis is placed on applying the effect of the combination of rainfall-induced landslides and debris flows to the numerical analysis. An analysis of rainfall-induced landslides is conducted to identify the thickness and location of the initial volume of debris flow. The movement of debris flow is subsequently simulated considering entrainments affected by the initial wetting condition (wetting front) estimated from the rainfall-infiltration analysis. The proposed method can simulate a sequential process from the initiation of the debris flows to the deposition based on the prediction of slope failure by rainfall, fluid dynamics based on Navier–Stokes equation, and the analysis of entrainments by considering the effect of the weight of debris and the wetting condition of soil beds. Based on the numerical results of this study, the proposed method could be applied to the analysis of regional-scale landslides and debris flows.

Keywords

Rainfall-induced landslide Debris flow Combined analysis Wetting front Navier–Stokes equation Non-Newtonian fluid Geographical information system (GIS) 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2018R1A6A1A08025348).

References

  1. Betsuyaku T, Munakata M, Yamaguchi E, Ohe S, Hizawa N, Sukoh N et al (1994) Establishing diagnosis of pulmonary malignant lymphoma by gene rearrangement analysis of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149(2):526–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bouchut F, Westdickenberg M (2004) Gravity driven shallow water models for arbitrary topography. Commun Math Sci 2(3):359–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bru G, Fernández-Merodo JA, García-Davalillo JC, Herrera G, Fernández J (2018) Site scale modeling of slow-moving landslides, a 3D viscoplastic finite element modeling approach. Landslides 15(2):257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christen M, Kowalski J, Bartelt P (2010) RAMMS: Numerical simulation of dense snow avalanches in three-dimensional terrain. Cold Reg Sci Technol 63(1-2):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fredlund DG, Morgenstern NR, Widger RA (1978) The shear strength of unsaturated soils. Can Geotech J 15(3):313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hungr O (1995) A model for the runout analysis of rapid flow slides, debris flows, and avalanches. Can Geotech J 32(4):610–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Iverson RM, Denlinger RP (2001) Flow of variably fluidized granular masses across three-dimensional terrain: 1. Coulomb mixture theory. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 106(B1):537–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jakob M, Friele P (2010) Frequency and magnitude of debris flows on Cheekye River, British Columbia. Geomorphology 114(3):382–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jakob M, Hungr O, Jakob DM (2005) Debris-flow hazards and related phenomena, 739th edn. Springer, Berlin.  https://doi.org/10.1007/b138657 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jeong S, Kim Y, Lee JK, Kim J (2015) The 27 July 2011 debris flows at Umyeonsan, Seoul, Korea. Landslides 12(4):799–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim H, Lee SW, Yune CY, Kim G (2014) Volume estimation of small scale debris flows based on observations of topographic changes using airborne LiDAR DEMs. J Mt Sci 11(3):578–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim J, Kim Y, Jeong S, Hong M (2017) Rainfall-induced landslides by deficit field matric suction in unsaturated soil slopes. Environ Earth Sci 76(23):808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koo RCH, Kwan JSH, Ng CWW, Lam C, Choi CE, Song D, Pun WK (2017) Velocity attenuation of debris flows and a new momentum-based load model for rigid barriers. Landslides 14(2):617–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Legros F (2002) The mobility of long-runout landslides. Eng Geol 63(3-4):301–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McDougall SD, Hungr O (2003) Objectives for the development of an integrated three-dimensional continuum model for the analysis of landslide runout. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction and Assessment, Davos. Millpress, Rotterdam, Netherlands 481-490.Google Scholar
  16. Medina V, Hürlimann M, Bateman A (2008) Application of FLATModel, a 2D finite volume code, to debris flows in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Landslides 5(1):127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mein RG, Larson CL (1973) Modeling infiltration during a steady rain. Water Resour Res 9(2):384–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Morgenstern NR (1978) Mobile soil and rock flows. Lecture given at the fifth Southeast Asian Conference on soil engineering, Bangkok, July 1977. Geotech Eng 9(2):123–141Google Scholar
  19. Nilaweera NS, Nutalaya P (1999) Role of tree roots in slope stabilisation. Bull Eng Geol Environ 57(4):337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. O’Brien JS, Julien PY, Fullerton WT (1993) Two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation. J Hydraul Eng 119(2):244–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pastor M, Quecedo M, González E, Herreros MI, Merodo JF, Mira P (2004) Simple approximation to bottom friction for Bingham fluid depth integrated models. J Hydraul Eng 130(2):149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pastor M, Blanc T, Haddad B, Petrone S, Morles MS, Drempetic V, Issler D, Crosta GB, Cascini L, Sorbino G, Cuomo S (2014) Application of a SPH depth-integrated model to landslide run-out analysis. Landslides 11(5):793–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pierce JL, Meyer GA, Jull AT (2004) Fire-induced erosion and millennial-scale climate change in northern ponderosa pine forests. Nature 432(7013):87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pudasaini SP, Hutter K (2003) Rapid shear flows of dry granular masses down curved and twisted channels. J Fluid Mech 495:193–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rahman MA, Konagai K (2017) Substantiation of debris flow velocity from super-elevation: a numerical approach. Landslides 14(2):633–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rickenmann D (1999) Empirical relationships for debris flows. Nat Hazards 19(1):47–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rickenmann D, Laigle DMBW, McArdell BW, Hübl J (2006) Comparison of 2D debris-flow simulation models with field events. Comput Geosci 10(2):241–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Savage SB, Hutter K (1989) The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. J Fluid Mech 199:177–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Scheidegger AE (1973) On the prediction of the reach and velocity of catastrophic landslides. Rock Mech Rock Eng 5(4):231–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scheidl C, Rickenmann D (2010) Empirical prediction of debris-flow mobility and deposition on fans. Earth Surf Proc Landforms: The Journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group 35(2):157–173.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1897 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stoffel M, Beniston M (2006) On the incidence of debris flows from the early Little Ice Age to a future greenhouse climate: a case study from the Swiss Alps. Geophys Res Lett 33(16)Google Scholar
  32. Takahashi T (1991) Debris flows, IAHR Monograph Series, Disaster Prevention Research institute. Kyoto University 83-99.Google Scholar
  33. Takahashi T (2014) Debris flow: mechanics, prediction and countermeasures. CRC.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b16647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Takahashi T, Tsujimoto H (1984) Numerical simulation of flooding and deposition of a debris flow. DPRI Ann 27B-2:467–485Google Scholar
  35. Takahashi T, Nakagawa H, Harada T, Yamashiki Y (1992) Routing debris flows with particle segregation. J Hydraul Eng 118(11):1490–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Voellmy A (1964) On the destructive force of avalanches. Alta Avalanche Study Center.Google Scholar
  37. Wu W, Sidle RC (1995) A distributed slope stability model for steep forested basins. Water Resour Res 31(8):2097–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringYonsei UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringDongshin UniversityNajuRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations