Advertisement

Landslides

, Volume 16, Issue 12, pp 2335–2352 | Cite as

Early identification of river blocking induced by tributary debris flow based on dimensionless volume index

  • Kun-Ting Chen
  • Xiao-Qing Chen
  • Zhi-Pan NiuEmail author
  • Xiao-Jun Guo
Original Paper
  • 194 Downloads

Abstract

River-blocking events induced by tributary debris flows occur frequently in mountainous areas. If a dam formed by a river-blocking debris flow were damaged, a massive outburst flood could induce downstream hazards. Therefore, early identification of areas potentially at risk of river blocking is essential for hazard mitigation, particularly in extensive mountainous areas. This study proposed a dimensionless volume index (DVI) to evaluate river-blocking formation by considering the relationship between the deposition volume of a tributary debris flow in a river and the minimum river-blocking volume. The values of both parameters can be established based on the theory of debris flow run-out distance, deposition width, and deposition thickness with consideration of the effects of drag force, hydrostatic force, and buoyancy. The efficacy of the proposed method was demonstrated through two case studies of mainstream blocking/nonblocking by tributary debris flow events in Taiwan during Typhoon Morakot. The results indicated that early identification of river blocking could be achieved using the DVI based on a pre-established database of potential debris flow hazard areas, including local site information, rainfall intensities at potential debris flow hazard areas under varying recurrence periods, and mainstream discharge at varying recurrence periods.

Keywords

River blocking Debris flow Debris flow dam Dimensionless volume index 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (Grant No.2018YFC1505004; Grant No. 2017YFC1502504); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41661144028); the CAS “Light of West China” Program; and the Foundation for Young Scientist of Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS (Grant No. SDS-QN-1912).

References

  1. An HP, Chen SC, Chan HC, Hsu Y (2013) Dimension and frequency of bar formation in a braided river. Int J Sediment Res 28:358–367.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6279(13)60046-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bagnold RA (1954) Experiments on a gravity-free dispersion of large solid spheres in a Newtonian fluid under shear. Proc Roy Soc London, A 225(1160):49–63.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1954.0186 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Canuti P, Casagli N, Ermini L (1998) Inventory of landslide dams in the northern Apennine as a model for induced flood hazard forecasting. In: Andah K (ed) Managing hydro-geological disasters in a vulnerable environment for sustainable development CNR-GNDCI publication 1900. CNR-GNDCI-UNESCO (IHP), Perugia, pp 189–202Google Scholar
  4. Casagli N, Ermini L, Rosati G (2003) Determining grain size distribution of the material composing landslide dams in the northern Apennines: sampling and processing methods. Eng Geol 69:83–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-7952(02)00249-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Central Geological Survey (2013) The demarcation of the potential sites of debris flow in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Research report of Central Geological Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei, Taiwan. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Chen CY, Wang Q (2017) Debris flow-induced topographic changes: effects of recurrent debris flow initiation. Environ Monit Assess 189:449.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6169-y
  7. Chen KT, Chen XQ, Hu GS, Kuo YS, Huang YR, Shieh CL (2019) Dimensionless assessment method of landslide dam formation caused by tributary debris flow events. Geofluids 2019(7083058):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7083058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen KT, Kuo YS, Shieh CL (2014) Rapid geometry analysis for earthquake-induced and rainfall-induced landslide dams in Taiwan. J Mt Sci 11(2):360–370.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2664-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen KT, Lin CH, Chen XQ, Hu GS, Guo XJ, Shieh CL (2018) An assessment method for debris flow dam formation in Taiwan. Earth Sci Res J 22(1):37–43.  https://doi.org/10.15446/esrj.v22n1.62389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen SC, Lin TW, Chen CY (2015) Modeling of natural dam failure modes and downstream riverbed morphological changes with different dam materials in a flume test. Eng Geol 188:148–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.01.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen SC, Wu CH, Chao YC, Shih PY (2013) Long-term impact of extra sediment on notches and incised meanders in the Hoshe River, Taiwan. J Mt Sci 10(5):716–723.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2620-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen YS, Kuo YS, Lai WC, Tsai YJ, Lee SP, Chen KT, Shieh CL (2011) Reflection of Typhoon Morakot—the challenge of compound disaster simulation. J Mt Sci 8(4):571–581.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-011-2132-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng ZL, Dang C, Liu JJ, Gong YW (2007) Experiments of debris flow damming in Southeast Tibet. Earth Sci Front 14(6):181–185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-5791(08)60010-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa JE, Schuster RL (1988) The formation and failure of natural dams. Geol Soc Am Bull 100:1054–1068.  https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1054:TFAFON>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cui P, He YP, Chen J (2006) Debris flow sediment transportation and its effects on rivers in mountain area. J Mt Sci 24(5):539–549 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  16. Dal Sasso SF, Sole A, Pascale S, Sdao F, Bateman Pinzòn A, Medina V (2014) Assessment methodology for the prediction of landslide dam hazard. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 14:557–567.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-557-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dang C, Cui P, Cheng ZL (2009) The formation and failure of debris flow-dams, background, key factors and model tests: case studies from China. Environ Geol 57(8):1901–1910.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1479-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Blasio FV, Engvik L, Harbitz CB, Elverhøi A (2004) Hydroplaning and submarine debris flows. J Geophys Res 109:C01002.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JC001714 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Carvalho RF, Antunes do Carmo JS (2007) Landslides into reservoirs and their impacts on banks. Environ Fluid Mech 7(6):481–493.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10652-007-9039-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dong JJ, Lai PJ, Chang CP, Yang SH, Yeh KC, Liao JJ, Pan YW (2014) Deriving landslide dam geometry from remote sensing images for the rapid assessment of critical parameters related to dam-breach hazards. Landslides 11:93–105.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-012-0375-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dong JJ, Li YS, Kuo CY, Sung RT, Li MH, Lee CT, Chen CC, Lee WR (2011a) The formation and breach of a short-lived landslide dam at Hsiaolin village, Taiwan—part I: post-event reconstruction of dam geometry. Eng Geol 123:40–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dong JJ, Tung YH, Chen CC, Liao JJ, Pan YW (2009) Discriminant analysis of the geomorphic characteristics and stability of landslide dams. Geomorphology 110(3–4):162–171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dong JJ, Tung YH, Chen CC, Liao JJ, Pan YW (2011b) Logistic regression model for predicting the failure probability of a landslide dam. Eng Geol 117:52–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Du C, Yao LK, Shakya S, Li LG, Sun XD (2014) Damming of large river by debris flow: dynamic process and particle composition. J Mt Sci 11(3):634–643.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-012-2568-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ermini L, Casagli N (2003) Prediction of the behaviour of landslide dams using a geomorphological dimensionless index. Earth Surf Proc Land 28:31–47.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.424 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fan XM, Rossiter DG, Westen CJV, Xu Q, Görüm T (2014) Empirical prediction of coseismic landslide dam formation. Earth Surf Proc Land 39(14):1913–1926.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3585 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hsu SM, Chiou LB, Lin GF, Chao CH, Wen HY, Ku CY (2010) Applications of simulation technique on debris-flow hazard zone delineation: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:535–545.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-535-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hu KH, Wei FQ, Li Y, Cui P (2004) Characteristics of debris-flow surge. J Mt Sci 22(6):707–712 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  29. Ilstad T, De Blasio FV, Elverhøi A, Harbitz CB, Engvik L, Longva O, Marr JG (2004) On the frontal dynamics and morphology of submarine debris flows. Mar Geol 213:481–497.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2004.10.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jan CD, Hsu YC, Wang JS, Huang WS (2011) Debris flows and landslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. Proceedings of 5th international conference on debris-flow hazards mitigation: mechanics, prediction and assessment, Padua, Italy, 675–683.  https://doi.org/10.4408/IJEGE.2011-03.B-074
  31. Jiang XG, Huang JH, Wei YW, Niu ZP, Chen FH, Zou ZY, Zhu ZY (2018) The influence of materials on the breaching process of natural dams. Landslides 15:243–255.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-017-0877-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuang SF (1995) Study on behaviors and deposit processes of debris flow at the confluence. J Sediment Res 1:1–15 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  33. Liu JF, You Y, Chen XQ, Chen XZ (2015) Mitigation planning based on the prediction of river blocking by a typical large-scale debris flow in the Wenchuan earthquake area. Landslides 13:1231–1242.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-015-0615-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu JF, You Y, Chen XQ, Liu JK, Chen XZ (2014) Characteristics and hazard prediction of large-scale debris flow of Xiaojia Gully in Yingxiu Town, Sichuan Province, China. Eng Geol 180:55–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nakagawa H, Tsujimoto T (1975) Study on mechanism of motion of individual sediment particles. Proc Jpn Soc Civil Eng 244:71–80 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ni HY, Lu XJ (2005) Intermittent debris flow and its activity rule. Res Soil Water Conserv 12(6):242–244 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  37. Ni HY, Zheng WM, Song Z, Xu W (2014) Catastrophic debris flows triggered by a 4 July 2013 rainfall in Shimian, SW China: formation mechanism, disaster characteristics and the lessons learned. Landslides 11(5):909–921.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-014-0514-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Peng M, Zhang LM (2012) Breaching parameters of landslide dams. Landslides 9(1):13–31.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-011-0271-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rickenmann D (1999) Empirical relationships for debris flows. Nat Hazards 19(1):47–77.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008064220727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shrestha BB, Nakagawa H (2016) Hazard assessment of the formation and failure of the Sunkoshi landslide dam in Nepal. Nat Hazards 82(3):2029–2049.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2283-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Soil and Water Conservation Bureau (2017) Soil and water conservation manual. Soil and Water Conservation Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Nantou, Taiwan (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. Soil and Water Conservation Bureau (2018) The site information of potential debris-flow hazard areas in Taiwan. Soil and Water Conservation Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Nantou, Taiwan http://www.swcb.gov.tw Google Scholar
  43. Stancanelli LM, Lanzoni S, Foti E (2015) Propagation and deposition of stony debris flows at channel confluences. Water Resour Res 51(7):5100–5116.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015wr017116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Swanson FJ, Oyagi N, Tominaga M (1986) Landslide dam in Japan. In: Schuster RL (ed.), Landslide dam: processes risk and mitigation. American Society of Civil Engineers, Geotechnical Special Publication 3, New York, 131–145Google Scholar
  45. Tabata S, Mizuyama T, Inoue K (2002) Natural landslide dams hazards. Kokonshoin, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  46. Tacconi Stefanelli C, Segoni S, Casagli N, Catani F (2016) Geomorphic indexing of landslide dams evolution. Eng Geol 208:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.04.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Takahashi T (1977) A mechanism of occurrence of mud-debris flows and their characteristics in motion. Ann Disaster Prev Res Inst 20(B-2):405–435 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  48. Takahashi T (1980) Debris flow on prismatic open channel. J Hydraul Div ASCE 106(HY3):381–396Google Scholar
  49. Takahashi T, Yoshida K (1979) Study on the deposition of debris flow, part 1: deposition due to abrupt change of bed slope. Ann Disaster Prev Res Inst 22(B-2):315–328 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  50. Tsai YF (1999) Study on the configurations on debris-flow fan. Ph.D. thesis, National Cheng Kung University. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  51. Tsai YF, Tsai HK, Cheng YL (2011) Study on the configurations of debris-flow fans. Proceedings of 5th international conference on debris-flow hazards mitigation: mechanics, prediction and assessment, Padua, Italy, 273–282.  https://doi.org/10.4408/IJEGE.2011-03.B-032
  52. Wang LJ, Chang M, Dou XY, Ma GH, Yang CY (2017) Analysis of river blocking induced by a debris flow. Geofluids 2017(1268135):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1268135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Water Resources Agency (2009) The analysis of the rainfall and river discharge during Typhoon Morakot. Research report of Water Resources Agency. Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei, Taiwan (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  54. Water Resources Agency (2018) The data of rainfall intensity at the varying recurrence periods. Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei, Taiwan. http://fhy.wra.gov.tw/dmchyV2/test_path/index.aspx
  55. Wu YH, Liu KF, Chen YC (2012) Comparison between FLO-2D and Debris-2D on the application of assessment of granular debris flow hazards with case study. J Mt Sci 10(2):293–304.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2511-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wu CH, Chen SC, Feng ZY (2014) Formation, failure, and consequences of the Xiaolin landslide dam, triggered by extreme rainfall from Typhoon Morakot, Taiwan. Landslides 11:357–367.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-013-0394-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yang SH, Pan YW, Dong JJ, Yeh KC, Liao JJ (2013) A systematic approach for the assessment of flooding hazard and risk associated with a landslide dam. Nat Hazards 65(1):41–62.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0344-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang JS, Cui P (2013) An empirical formula for suspended sediment delivery ratio of main river after confluence of debris flow. J Mt Sci 10(2):326–336.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2519-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhou BF, Li DJ, Luo DF, Lu ZZ, Yang CH (1991) Guideline for debris flow prevention. Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Processes, Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.Institute for Disaster Management and ReconstructionSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River EngineeringSichuan UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations