Advertisement

Landslides

pp 1–14 | Cite as

Landslide susceptibility assessment by TRIGRS in a frequently affected shallow instability area

  • Mariantonietta Ciurleo
  • Maria Clorinda Mandaglio
  • Nicola Moraci
Technical Note
  • 233 Downloads

Abstract

Landslide susceptibility assessment over large areas is considered a preliminary step for the planning or design of the most appropriate risk mitigation measures. The use of physically based models is considered a useful tool for landslide susceptibility assessment. Sometimes, using the available geotechnical input data, physically based models can be used to assess landslide susceptibility to obtain a susceptibility map which allows the expert to identify areas where detailed in situ investigations and laboratory tests should be carried out. In this context, the paper proposes a methodology based on the use of TRIGRS to assess landslide susceptibility in an area of about 1 km2 frequently affected by shallow phenomena in weathered gneiss. Owing to the fact that these materials are extremely complex to characterize from a mechanical and hydraulic point of view, the methodology starts with the collection and analysis of the geotechnical data available for weathered gneiss outcropping in the study area. These data are combined with the data provided by scientific literature on soils similar, for genesis and stress history, to those of the studied area. Through the application of TRIGRS, the data are combined in order to obtain the values of parameters that better analyze shallow landslide source areas. Subsequently, using the abovementioned values, several susceptibility maps are obtained. Finally, the most representative shallow landslide susceptibility map for the area is chosen by means of the error index (EI), the true positive fraction (TPF), and the forecasting index (FI). The success of the best map is confirmed by the high value of the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) that demonstrates a good level of forecasting ability.

Keywords

Weathered gneiss Shallow landslides Susceptibility TRIGRS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

All authors have contributed equally to the development of the research and to the extension of memory.

References

  1. Antronico L, Cotecchia F, Cotecchia V, Gabriele S, Gullà G, Iovine G, Lollino G, Moraci N, Pagliarulo R, Petrucci O, Rocca F, Sorriso-Valvo M, Terranova O (2006) Relazione finale Lotto 5 - Attività di monitoraggio di siti in frana e di aree soggette a fenomeni di subsidenza. In Azione 1.4.c - Azioni di studio, programmazione, sperimentazione, monitoraggio, valutazione e informazione finalizzati alla predisposizione e gestione di politiche integrate d'intervento di difesa del suolo. POR Calabria 2000–2006Google Scholar
  2. Baum RL, Savage WZ, Godt JW (2002). TRIGRS-A FORTRAN program for transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-0424. Available via: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/ofr-02-424/
  3. Baum RL, Coe JA, Godt JW, Harp EL, Reid ME, Savage WZ, Schulz WH, Brien DL, Chleborad AF, Mckenna JP, Michael JA (2005) Regional landslide-hazard assessment for Seattle, Washington, USA. Landslides 2(4):266–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baum RL, Savage WZ, Godt JW (2008) TRIGRS-A Fortran program for transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis, version 2.0. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008–1159. Available from: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1159/
  5. Bishop AW (1959) The principle of effective stress. Teknisk Ukeblad 106(39):859–863Google Scholar
  6. Bonavina M, Bozzano F, Martino S, Pellegrino A, Prestininzi A, Scandurra R (2005) Le colate di fango e detrito lungo il versante costiero tra Bagnara Calabra e Scilla (Reggio Calabria): valutazioni di suscettibilità. Giornale di Geologia Applicata 2:65–74Google Scholar
  7. Borrelli L, Gioffrè D, Gullà G, Moraci N (2012) Suscettibilità alle frane superficiali veloci in terreni di alterazione: un possibile contributo della modellazione della propagazione. Rendiconti Online Società Geologica Italiana 21:534–536Google Scholar
  8. Borrelli L, Perri F, Critelli S, Gullà G (2014) Characterization of granitoid and gneissic weathering profiles of the Mucone River basin (Calabria, southern Italy). Catena 113:325–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borrelli L, Critelli S, Gullà G, Muto F (2015) Weathering grade and geotectonics of the western-central Mucone River basin (Calabria, Italy). J Maps 11:606–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borrelli L, Coniglio S, Critelli S, La Barbera A, Gullà G (2016) Weathering grade in granitoid rocks: the San Giovanni in Fiore area (Calabria, Italy). J Maps 12:260–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borrelli L, Ciurleo M, Gullà G (2018) Shallow landslide susceptibility assessment in granitic rocks using GIS-based statistical methods: the contribution of the weathering grade map. Landslides 15:1127–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brabb EE (1984) Innovative approaches to landslide hazard and risk mapping. Proc of the IV International Symposiumon Landslides, Toronto vol. 1, pp. 307–323Google Scholar
  13. Calvello M, Ciurleo M (2016) Optimal use of thematic maps for landslide susceptibility assessment by means of statistical analyses: case study of shallow landslides in fine grained soils. In: Proceedings ISL 2016, Landslides and Engineered Slopes Experience–Theory and Practice, Napoli, Italy, vol. 2. pp. 537–544 (ISBN: 978-1-138-02988-0)Google Scholar
  14. Calvello M, Cascini L, Sorbino G, Gullà G (2008) Soil suction modelling in weathered gneiss affected by landsliding. Landslides and engineered slopes – Chen et al. (eds) © 2008. Taylor & Francis Group, London. ISBN 978-0-415-41196-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calvello M, Cascini L, Mastroianni S (2013) Landslide zoning over large areas from a sample inventory by means of scale-dependent terrain units. Geomorphology 182:33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cascini L (2008) Applicability of landslide susceptibility and hazard zoning at different scales. Eng Geol 102(3-4):164–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2008.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cascini L, Gullà G, Sorbino G (2006) Groundwater modelling of a weathered gneissic cover. Can Geotech J 43:1153–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ciurleo M, Calvello M, Cascini L (2016) Susceptibility zoning of shallow landslides in fine grained soils by statistical methods. Catena 139:250–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ciurleo M, Cascini L, Calvello M (2017) A comparison of statistical and deterministic methods for shallow landslide susceptibility zoning in clayey soils. Eng Geol 223:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fell R, Corominas J, Bonnard C, Cascini L, Leroi E, Savage WZ, On behalf of the JTC-1 Joint Technical Committee on Landslides and Engineered Slopes (2008) Guidelines for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk zoning for land-use planning. Eng Geol 102:85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferranti L, Monaco C, Morelli D, Antonioli F, Maschio L (2008) Holocene activity of the Scilla fault, southern Calabria: insights from coastal morphological and structural investigations. Tectonophysics 453:74–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fressard M, Thiery Y, Maquaire O (2014) Which data for quantitative landslide susceptibility mapping at operational scale: case study of the Pays d’Auge plateau hillslopes (Normandy, France). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 14:569–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gardner WR (1958) Some steady-state solutions of the unsaturated moisture flow equation with application to evaporation from a water table. Soil Sci 85:228–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. GCO (1988) Geoguide 3: guide to rock and soil descriptions. Geotechnical Control Office (GCO), Civil Engineering Services Department, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  25. Gioffrè D, Moraci N, Borrelli L, Gullà G (2016) Numerical code calibration for the back analysis of debris flow runout in southern Italy. Landslides and engineered slopes. Experience, theory and practice: Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Landslides 2, pp 991–997Google Scholar
  26. Gioffrè D, Mandaglio MC, di Prisco C, Moraci N (2017) Evaluation of rapid landslide impact forces against sheltering structures. Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica 3:79–91Google Scholar
  27. Godt JW, Baum RB, Savage WZ, Salciarini D, Schulz WH, Harp EL (2008) Transient deterministic shallow landslide modeling: requirements for susceptibility and hazard assessments in a GIS framework. Eng Geol 102:214–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grelle G, Soriano M, Revellino P, Guerriero L, Anderson MG, Diambra A, Fiorillo F, Esposito L, Diodato N, Guadagno FM (2014) Space-time prediction of rainfall-induced shallow landslides through a combined probabilistic/deterministic approach, optimized for initial water table conditions. Bull Eng Geol Environ 73:877–890.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-013-0546-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gullà G, Sorbino G (1994) Considerazioni sulla permeabilità satura dei materiali di alterazione di origine gneissica. In: Proceedings of the Symposium “Il ruolo dei fluidi nei problemi di ingegneria geotecnica”, Mondovì, Italy, 1: 85–99Google Scholar
  30. Gullà G, Sorbino G (1996) Soil suction measurements in a landslide involving weathered gneiss. In: Proceeding of the 7th ISL, Trondheim, Norway, 2: 749–754Google Scholar
  31. Gullà, G, Mandaglio MC, Moraci N (2005) Influence of degradation cycles on the mechanical characteristics of natural clays. In: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering: Geotechnology in harmony with the global environment Volume 4, 2005, pp 2521–2524Google Scholar
  32. Gullà G, Mandaglio MC, Moraci N (2006) Effect of weathering on the compressibility and shear strength of a natural clay. Can Geotech J 43(6):618–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hungr O, Picarelli L, Leroueil S (2014) The Varnes classification of landslides-an update. Landslides 11:167–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Iverson RM (2000) Landslide triggering by rain infiltration. Water Resour Res 36(7):1897–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson AI (1967) Specific yield-compilation of specific yields for various materials. US Geological Survey,Water Supply Paper, 1662- D, 74 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Loheide SP II, Butler JJ Jr, Gorelick SM (2005) Estimation of groundwater consumption by phreatophytes using diurnal water table fluctuations: a saturated-unsaturated flow assessment. Water Resour Res 41:W07030.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005WR003942 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mandaglio MC, Moraci N, Gioffrè D, Pitasi A (2015) Susceptibility analysis of rapid flowslides in southern Italy. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Geohazards and Geomechanics, ISGG 2015, University of Warwick, United Kingdom, 10–11 September 2015. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mandaglio MC, Moraci N, Rosone M, Farulla CA (2016a) Experimental study of a naturally weathered stiff clay. Can Geotech J 53(12):2047–2057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mandaglio MC, Moraci N, Gioffrè D, Pitasi A (2016b) A procedure to evaluate the susceptibility of rapid flowslides in southern Italy. In Proceedings of 12th international symposium on landslides, Napoli, Italy, 12–19 June 2016. Landslides and engineered slopes, experience, theory and practice, 3: pp. 1339–1344Google Scholar
  40. Metz CE (1978) Basic principles of ROC analysis. Semin Nucl Med 8:283–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Montrasio L, Valentino R, Losi GL (2011) Towards a real-time susceptibility assessment of rainfall-induced shallow landslides on a regional scale. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 11:1927–1947.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-11-1927-2011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Moraci N, Mandaglio MC, Gioffrè D, Pitasi A (2017) Debris flow susceptibility zoning: an approach applied to a study area. Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica 51(2)Google Scholar
  43. Salciarini D, Godt JW, Savage WZ, Conversini P, Baum R, Michael JA (2006) Modeling regional initiation of rainfall induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria region of Central Italy. Landslides 3:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Salciarini D, Fanelli G, Tamagnini C (2017) A probabilistic model for rainfall—induced shallow landslide prediction at the regional scale. Landslides 14:1731–1746.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-017-0812-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Savage WZ, Godt JW, Baum RL (2004) Modeling time-dependent areal slope stability. In: Lacerda WA, Erlich M, Fontoura SAB, Sayao ASF (eds) Landslides-evaluation and stabilization, Proceedings of 9th International symposium on Landslides, vol 1. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 23–36Google Scholar
  46. Schilirò L, Esposito C, Scarascia Mugnozza G (2015) Evaluation of shallow landslide triggering scenarios through a physically based approach: an example of application in the southern Messina area (northeastern Sicily, Italy). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 15:2091–2109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schilirò L, Montrasio L, Scarascia Mugnozza G (2016) Prediction of shallow landslide occurrence: validation of a physically-based approach through a real case study. Sci Total Environ 569–570:134–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Soeters R, van Westen CJ (1996) Slope instability recognition, analysis and zonation. In: Turner AK, Schuster RL (eds) Landslides investigation and mitigation. TRB Special Report 247 National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 129–177Google Scholar
  49. Sorbino G, Sica C, Cascini L, Cuomo S (2007) On the forecasting of flowslides triggering areas using physically based models. In: Proceedings of 1st North American Landslides Conference, vol. 23. AEG Special Publication, pp. 305–315Google Scholar
  50. Sorbino G, Sica C, Cascini L (2010) Susceptibility analysis of shallow landslides source areas using physically based models. Nat Hazards 53:313–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Srivastava R, Yeh T-CJ (1991) Analytical solutions for one-dimensional, transient infiltration toward the water table in homogeneous and layered soils. Water Resour Res 27:753–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Swets JA (1988) Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science 240:1285–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Taylor DW (1948) Fundamentals of soil mechanics. Wiley, New York 700 pGoogle Scholar
  54. Vanapalli SK, Fredlund DG (2000) Comparison of different procedures to predict unsaturated soil shear strength. In Shackelford CD, Houston SL and Chang N-Y (eds) Advances in unsaturated geotechnics. (Proceedings of Geo-Denver 2000, Denver, Colo., August 5-8, 2000): Reston, Va., American Society of Civil Engineers, Geotechnical Special Publication 99:195–209Google Scholar
  55. Varnes DJ (1984) Landslide hazard zonation: a review of principles and practice. The International Association of Engineering Geology Commission on Landslides and Other Mass Movements. Natural Hazards 3–63 (Paris, France. ISBN 92-3- 01895-7)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil, Energy, Environmental and Materials EngineeringMediterranea University of Reggio CalabriaReggio CalabriaItaly

Personalised recommendations