Advertisement

Landslides

pp 1–16 | Cite as

Comparison of single- and dual-permeability models in simulating the unsaturated hydro-mechanical behavior in a rainfall-triggered landslide

  • Wei Shao
  • Zongji Yang
  • Junjun Ni
  • Ye Su
  • Wen Nie
  • Xieyao Ma
Original Paper
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

Landslide-prone slopes in earthquake-affected areas commonly feature heterogeneity and high permeability due to the presence of cracks and fissures that were caused by ground shaking. Landslide reactivation in heterogeneous slope may be affected by preferential flow that was commonly occurred under heavy rainfall. Current hydro-mechanical models that are based on a single-permeability model consider soil as a homogeneous continuum, which, however, cannot explicitly represent the hydraulic properties of heterogeneous soil. The present study adopted a dual-permeability model, using two Darcy-Richards equations to simulate the infiltration processes in both matrix and preferential flow domains. The hydrological results were integrated with an infinite slope stability approach, attempting to investigate the hydro-mechanical behavior. A coarse-textured unstable slope in an earthquake-affected area was chosen for conducting artificial rainfall experiment, and in the experiment slope, failure was triggered several times under heavy rainfall. The simulated hydro-mechanical results of both single- and dual-permeability model were compared with the measurements, including soil moisture content, pore water pressure, and slope stability conditions. Under high-intensity rainfall, the measured soil moisture and pore water pressure at 1-m depth showed faster hydrological response than its simulations, which can be regarded as a typical evidence of preferential flow. We found the dual-permeability model substantially improved the quantification of hydro-mechanical processes. Such improvement could assist in obtaining more reliable landslide-triggering predication. In the light of the implementation of a dual-permeability model for slope stability analysis, a more flexible and robust early warning system for shallow landslides hazard in coarse-textured slopes could be provided.

Keywords

Rainfall-triggered landslides Soil moisture dynamics Dual-permeability model Preferential flow Slope stability 

Notes

Funding information

The field experience was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41771021, 41471012, 41807286), the Hundred Young Talents Program of IMHE (Grant No.SDSQB-2016-01), and the Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of Chinese Academy of Science (Grant No.KFJ-EW-STS-094, KFJ-STS-ZDTP-015). The first author was financially supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2017M621783, 2018T110527), the International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program by China Postdoctoral Council (Year 2017), and the Startup Foundation for Introducing Talent of NUIST (No.2017r045).,

References

  1. Baum RL, Savage WZ, Godt JW (2008) TRIGRS- a Fortran program for transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis, version 2. 0. U. S. In: Geological surveyGoogle Scholar
  2. Baum RL, Godt JW, Savage WZ (2010) Estimating the timing and location of shallow rainfall-induced landslides using a model for transient, unsaturated infiltration. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 115:F03013.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jf001321 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beven K, Germann P (2013) Macropores and water flow in soils revisited. Water Resour Res 49:3071–3092.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen D, Lehmann P, Or D (2009) Fiber bundle model for multiscale modeling of hydromechanical triggering of shallow landslides. Water Resour Res 45:W10436.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR007889 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cui P, Zhu Y-Y, Han Y-S, Chen X-Q, Zhuang J-Q (2009) The 12 May Wenchuan earthquake-induced landslide lakes: distribution and preliminary risk evaluation. Landslides 6:209–223.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-009-0160-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Durner W (1994) Hydraulic conductivity estimation for soils with heterogeneous pore structure. Water Resour Res 30:211–223.  https://doi.org/10.1029/93WR02676 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dusek J, Gerke HH, Vogel T (2008) Surface boundary conditions in two-dimensional dual-permeability modeling of tile drain bromide leaching. Vadose Zone J 7:1287–1301.  https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2007.0175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gerke HH, van Genuchten M (1993a) A dual-porosity model for simulating the preferential movement of water and solutes in structured porous media. Water Resour Res 29:305–319.  https://doi.org/10.1029/92WR02339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gerke HH, van Genuchten M (1993b) Evaluation of a first-order water transfer term for variably saturated dual-porosity flow models. Water Resour Res 29:1225–1238.  https://doi.org/10.1029/92wr02467 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghestem M, Sidle RC, Stokes A (2011) The influence of plant root systems on subsurface flow: implications for slope stability. BioScience 61:869–879.  https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.11.6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greco R (2002) Preferential flow in macroporous swelling soil with internal catchment: model development and applications. J Hydrol 269:150–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00215-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greco R, Comegna L, Damiano E, Guida A, Olivares L, Picarelli L (2013) Hydrological modelling of a slope covered with shallow pyroclastic deposits from field monitoring data. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 17:4001–4013.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-4001-2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Griffiths DV, Lane PA (1999) Slope stability analysis by finite elements. Geotechnique 49:387–403.  https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1999.49.3.387 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffiths DV, Lu N (2005) Unsaturated slope stability analysis with steady infiltration or evaporation using elasto-plastic finite elements. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 29:249–267.  https://doi.org/10.1002/nag.413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guzzetti F, Peruccacci S, Rossi M, Stark C (2008) The rainfall intensity–duration control of shallow landslides and debris flows: an update. Landslides 5:3–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-007-0112-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hencher SR (2010) Preferential flow paths through soil and rock and their association with landslides. Hydrol Process 24:1610–1630.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7721 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ho J-Y, Lee KT (2017) Performance evaluation of a physically based model for shallow landslide prediction. Landslides 14:961–980.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-016-0762-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang R, Pei X, Fan X et al (2012) The characteristics and failure mechanism of the largest landslide triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake, May 12, 2008, China. Landslides 9:131–142.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-011-0276-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Iverson RM (2000) Landslide triggering by rain infiltration. Water Resour Res 36:1897–1910.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keefer DK, Larsen MC (2007) Assessing Landslide Hazards. Science 316:1136–1138.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1143308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krzeminska DM, Bogaard TA, van Asch TWJ, van Beek LPH (2012) A conceptual model of the hydrological influence of fissures on landslide activity. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 16:1561–1576.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-1561-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krzeminska DM, Bogaard TA, Malet JP, van Beek LPH (2013) A model of hydrological and mechanical feedbacks of preferential fissure flow in a slow-moving landslide. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 17:947–959.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-947-2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kukemilks K, Wagner J-F, Saks T, Brunner P (2017) Conceptualization of preferential flow for hillslope stability assessment. Hydrogeol J.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-017-1667-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lanni C, McDonnell J, Hopp L, Rigon R (2013) Simulated effect of soil depth and bedrock topography on near-surface hydrologic response and slope stability. Earth Surf Process Landf 38:146–159.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3267 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Larsbo M, Jarvis N (2003) MACRO 5.0: a model of water flow and solute transport in macroporous soil: technical description. Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  26. Lu N, Godt J (2008) Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. Water Resour Res 44:W11404.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008WR006976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lu N, Godt JW, Wu DT (2010) A closed-form equation for effective stress in unsaturated soil. Water Resour Res 46:W05515.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR008646 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lu N, Şener-Kaya B, Wayllace A, Godt JW (2012) Analysis of rainfall-induced slope instability using a field of local factor of safety. Water Resour Res 48:W09524.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012wr011830 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matsushi Y, Matsukura Y (2007) Rainfall thresholds for shallow landsliding derived from pressure-head monitoring: cases with permeable and impermeable bedrocks in Boso Peninsula, Japan. Earth Surf Process Landf 32:1308–1322.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Milledge DG, Griffiths DV, Lane SN, Warburton J (2012) Limits on the validity of infinite length assumptions for modelling shallow landslides. Earth Surf Process Landf 37:1158–1166.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3235 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ni JJ, Leung AK, Ng CWW, Shao W (2017) Modelling hydro-mechanical reinforcements of plants to slope stability. Comput Geotech.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nimmo JR (2012) Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions. Hydrol Process 26:786–789.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pierson T (1983) Soil pipes and slope stability. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 16:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1983.016.01.01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pirone M, Papa R, Nicotera MV, Urciuoli G (2015) In situ monitoring of the groundwater field in an unsaturated pyroclastic slope for slope stability evaluation. Landslides 12:259–276.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-014-0483-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ponziani F, Pandolfo C, Stelluti M, Berni N, Brocca L, Moramarco T (2012) Assessment of rainfall thresholds and soil moisture modeling for operational hydrogeological risk prevention in the Umbria region (central Italy). Landslides 9(2):229–237.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-011-0287-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Postance B, Hillier J, Dijkstra T, Dixon N (2017) Comparing threshold definition techniques for rainfall-induced landslides: a national assessment using radar rainfall. Earth Surf Process Landf 43:553–561.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Samia J, Temme A, Bregt A, Wallinga J, Guzzetti F, Ardizzone F, Rossi M (2017) Do landslides follow landslides? Insights in path dependency from a multi-temporal landslide inventory. Landslides 14:547–558.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-016-0739-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shao W, Bogaard TA, Bakker M, Greco R (2015) Quantification of the influence of preferential flow on slope stability using a numerical modelling approach. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 19:2197–2212.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-2197-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shao W, Bogaard T, Bakker M, Berti M (2016) The influence of preferential flow on pressure propagation and landslide triggering of the Rocca Pitigliana landslide. J Hydrol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shao W, Ni J, Leung AK, Su Y, Ng CWW (2017) Analysis of plant root–induced preferential flow and pore-water pressure variation by a dual-permeability model. Can Geotech J 54:1537–1552.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2016-0629 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sidle RC, Bogaard TA (2016) Dynamic earth system and ecological controls of rainfall-initiated landslides. Earth Sci Rev 8(159):275–291.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.05.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sidle RC, Ochiai H (2013) Landslides: processes, prediction, and land use. American Geophysical UnionGoogle Scholar
  43. Simoni S, Zanotti F, Bertoldi G, Rigon R (2008) Modelling the probability of occurrence of shallow landslides and channelized debris flows using GEOtop-FS. Hydrol Process 22:532–545.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6886 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Talebi A, Uijlenhoet R, Troch PA (2008) A low-dimensional physically based model of hydrologic control of shallow landsliding on complex hillslopes. Earth Surf Process Landf 33:1964–1976.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1648 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Uchida T, Kosugi KI, Mizuyama T (2001) Effects of pipeflow on hydrological process and its relation to landslide: a review of pipeflow studies in forested headwater catchments. Hydrol Process 15:2151–2174.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Uchida T, Asano Y, Mizuyama T, McDonnell JJ (2004) Role of upslope soil pore pressure on lateral subsurface storm flow dynamics. Water Resour Res 40:W12401.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003WR002139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Van Asch TWJ, Buma J, Van Beek LPH (1999) A view on some hydrological triggering systems in landslides. Geomorphology 30:25–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00042-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. van Dam JC, Feddes RA (2000) Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow groundwater levels with the Richards equation. J Hydrol 233:72–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00227-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Genuchten MT (1980) A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vogel T, Gerke HH, Zhang R, Van Genuchten MT (2000) Modeling flow and transport in a two-dimensional dual-permeability system with spatially variable hydraulic properties. J Hydrol 238:78–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00327-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wilkinson PL, Anderson MG, Lloyd DM (2002) An integrated hydrological model for rain-induced landslide prediction. Earth Surf Process Landf 27:1285–1297.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yang Z, Qiao J, Uchimura T, Wang L, Lei X, Huang D (2017) Unsaturated hydro-mechanical behaviour of rainfall-induced mass remobilization in post-earthquake landslides. Eng Geol 222:102–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2017.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yang Z, Cai H, Shao W, Huang D, Uchimura T, Lei X, Tian H, Qiao J (2018) Clarifying the hydrological mechanisms and thresholds for rainfall-induced landslide: in situ monitoring of big data to unsaturated slope stability analysis. Bull Eng Geol Environ 5:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-018-1295-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang LM, Zhang S, Huang RQ (2014) Multi-hazard scenarios and consequences in Beichuan, China: the first five years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Eng Geol 180:4–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.03.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhou C, Shao W, van Westen CJ (2014) Comparing two methods to estimate lateral force acting on stabilizing piles for a landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Eng Geol 173:41–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhuang J, Peng J, Wang G, Iqbal J, Wang Y, Li W, Xu Q, Zhu X (2017) Prediction of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the Loess Plateau, Yan’an, China, using the TRIGRS model. Earth Surf Process Landf 42:915–927.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zieher T, Schneider-Muntau B, Mergili M (2017) Are real-world shallow landslides reproducible by physically-based models? Four test cases in the Laternser valley, Vorarlberg (Austria). Landslides.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-017-0840-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Shao
    • 1
  • Zongji Yang
    • 2
  • Junjun Ni
    • 3
  • Ye Su
    • 4
  • Wen Nie
    • 5
  • Xieyao Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Key laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education / Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change / Collaborative Innovation Centre on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters / School of Hydrology and Water ResourcesNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface ProcessInstitute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringThe Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyClear Water BayHong Kong SAR
  4. 4.Department of Physical Geography and Geoecology, Faculty of ScienceCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  5. 5.Quanzhou Institute of Equipment ManufacturingHaixi Institutes, Chinese Academy of SciencesQuanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations