Relationship between landslide size and rainfall conditions in Taiwan
- 759 Downloads
This study analyzed the size of 172 rainfall-induced landslides in Taiwan during 2006–2012. Comparing the landslide size with rainfall conditions, this study found that large and deep landslides usually occurred due to long-duration and moderate-intensity rainfall (11.5–31.0 mm/h; 26.5–62.5 h), whereas small and shallow landslides occurred in a wide range of rainfall intensity and duration (8.5–31.0 mm/h; 4.0–62.5 h). This observation is ascribable to the fact that large and deep landslides need a high ground water level caused by a prolonged rainfall. Concerning the area of landslides, their frequency–area distribution correlates well with a power law relation having an exponent of −1.1 ± 0.07, over the range 6.3 × 102 to 3.1 × 106 m2. The slope of the power law relation for the size–frequency distribution of landslides in Taiwan is lower than those for other areas around the world. This indicates that for the same total area or total number of landslides, the proportion of large landslides is higher in Taiwan than in other areas.
KeywordsLandslides Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency–area Power law
We would like to thank the Typhoon and Flood Research Institute (TTFRI) and the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau (SWCB) of Taiwan for providing rainfall data and information on landslides. We would also like to thank the Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University, for providing satellite images. The authors acknowledge Dr. Naoto Takahata in the Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, for his inspiring ideas of presenting our data.
- Brunsden D (1984) Mudslides. In: Brunsden D, Prior DB (eds) Slope instability. Wiley, London, pp. 363–418Google Scholar
- Cannon SH, Ellen SD (1985) Rainfall conditions for abundant debris avalanches, San Francisco Bay region, California. Calif Geol 38:267–272Google Scholar
- De Luca DL, Versace P (2017) A comprehensive framework for empirical modeling of landslides induced by rainfall: the generalized FLaIR model (GFM). Landslides (article in press)Google Scholar
- Flentje PN, Chowdhury RN, Tobin P (2000) Management of landslides triggered by a major storm event in Wollongong, Australia. In: Wieczorek GF, Naeser ND (eds) Proceedings of the II International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation, Mechanics, Prediction and Assessment, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 479–487Google Scholar
- Fujii Y (1969) Frequency distribution of landslides caused by heavy rainfall. Journal Seismological Society Japan 22:244–247Google Scholar
- Ho CS (1988) An introduction to the geology of Taiwan, explanatory text of the geologic map of Taiwan. Central Geological Survey, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
- Little RJ, Rubin DB (2014) Statistical analysis with missing data. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Shieh SL (2000) User’s guide for typhoon forecasting in the Taiwan area (VIII). Central Weather Bureau, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
- Sugai T, Ohmori H, Hirano M (1994) Rock control on magnitude–frequency distribution of landslides. Transactions Japanese Geomorphological Union 15:233–251Google Scholar
- Tao T, Chocat B, Liu S, Xin K (2009) Uncertainty analysis of interpolation methods in rainfall spatial distribution—a case of small catchment in Lyon. J Environ Prot 1:50–58Google Scholar