Landslides

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 167–194

The Varnes classification of landslide types, an update

Review Article

Abstract

The goal of this article is to revise several aspects of the well-known classification of landslides, developed by Varnes (1978). The primary recommendation is to modify the definition of landslide-forming materials, to provide compatibility with accepted geotechnical and geological terminology of rocks and soils. Other, less important modifications of the classification system are suggested, resulting from recent developments of the landslide science. The modified Varnes classification of landslides has 32 landslide types, each of which is backed by a formal definition. The definitions should facilitate backward compatibility of the system as well as possible translation to other languages. Complex landslides are not included as a separate category type, but composite types can be constructed by the user of the classification by combining two or more type names, if advantageous.

Keywords

Classification of landslides Typology Materials Mechanisms Engineering geology Geotechnical engineering 

References

  1. Antoine P, Camporota A, Giraud A, Rochet L (1987) La menace d’écroulement aux Ruines de Séchillienne. Bulletin, Liaison Laboratoire des Pontes et Causées 150:55–64Google Scholar
  2. Avelar AS, Coelho Netto AL, Lacerda WL, Becker LB, Mendonça MB (2011) Mechanisms of the recent catastrophic landslides in the mountainous range of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Procs., 2nd World Lansdlides Forum, RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. Baltzer A (1875) Über bergstürze in den Alpen. Verlag der Schabelitz’schen buchhandlung (C. Schmidt), Zurich, 50pGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates RL, Jackson JA (eds) (1984) Glossary of geology. American Geological Institute, Falls Church, Virginia, 788pGoogle Scholar
  5. Benko B, Stead D (1998) The frank slide: a reexamination of the failure mechanism. Canadian Geotech J 35:299–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertolini G, Guida M, Pizziolo M (2005) Landslides in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy): strategies for hazard assessment and risk management. Landslides 2:302–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bishop AW (1973) The stability of tips and spoil heaps. Q J Eng Geol 6:335–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bjerrum L (1971) Subaqueous slope failures in Norwegian fjords. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions, 1:24–47Google Scholar
  9. Blight GE (1997) Destructive mudflows as a consequence of tailings dyke failures: geotechnical engineering. In: Proceedings, Institution of Civil Engineers 125:9–18Google Scholar
  10. Bourrier F, Dorren L, Hungr O (2013) The use of ballistic trajectory and granular flow models in predicting rockfall propagation. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38:435–440Google Scholar
  11. Bovis MJ (1985) Earthflows in the interior plateau: southwest B.C. Canadian Geotech J 22:313–334Google Scholar
  12. Bozzano F, Lenti L, Martino S, Paciello A, Scarascia MG (2008) Self-excitation process due to local seismic amplification responsible for the 31st October 2002 reactivation of the Salcito landslide (Italy). J Geophys Res 113, B10312Google Scholar
  13. Bull WB (1964) Alluvial fans and near-surface subsidence in Western Fresno County, California, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 437-A. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, COGoogle Scholar
  14. Cannon SH (1993) An empirical model to predict debris flow travel distance. In: Shem, H.W. and Wen, F. (eds) Proceedings, ASCE Hydraulic Engineering, '93. Pp. 1768–1773Google Scholar
  15. Cannon SH, Gartner JE (2005) Wildfire related debris flow from a hazards perspective. Chapter 15. In: Jacob, M., and Hungr, O. (eds) Debris-flow hazards and related phenomena: Springer, Berlin. pp. 321–344Google Scholar
  16. Canuti P, Casagli N, Garzonio CA, Vannocci P (1990) Lateral spreads and landslide hazards in the Northern Apennine: the example of the Mt. Fumaiolo (Emilia-Romagna) and Chiusi della Verna (Tuscany). In: Proceedings 6th Congr. IAEG, Amsterdam, 3:1525–1533Google Scholar
  17. Cascini L, Cuomo S, Guida D (2008) Typical source areas of May 1998 flow-like mass movements in the Campania region, Southern Italy. Eng Geol 96:107–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Casagrande A (1940) Characteristics of cohesionless soils affecting the stability of slopes and earth fills. Contributions to soil mechanics, 1925 to 1940. Boston Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 257–276Google Scholar
  19. Chernomorec CC (2005) Selevoye ochagi do i posle katastrof (Mud flows during and after catastrophic outbursts) Nauchnii Mir (World of Science), Moscow, 184p (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. Chigira M, Kiho K (1994) Deep-seated rockslide-avalanches preceded by mass rock creep of sedimentary rocks in the Akaishi Mountains, central Japan. Eng Geol 38:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coelho Netto AL, Sato AM, Avelar AS, Vianna LGG, Araujo IS, Croix D, Lima P, Silva AP, Pereira R (2011) The extreme landslide disater in Brazil. In: Proc. 2nd World Lansdlides Forum, RomeGoogle Scholar
  22. Costa JE (1984) Physical geomorphology of debris flows. In: Costa JE, Fleisher PJ (eds) Developments and Applications in Geomorphology: Springer, Berlin, pp. 268–317Google Scholar
  23. Crosta GB, Frattini P, Fugazza F, Caluzzi L (2005) Cost-benefit analysis for debris avalanche risk management. In: Hungr O, Fell R, Couture R, Eberhardt E (eds) Landslide risk management. Proceedings Vancouver Conference. Taylor and Francis Group, London, pp 517–524Google Scholar
  24. Crozier MJ (2005) Multiple-occurrence regional landslide events in New Zealand. Hazard management issues. Landslides 2:247–256Google Scholar
  25. Cruden DM (1989) Limits to common toppling. Canadian Geotech J 26:737–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cruden DM, Antoine P (1984) The slide from Mt. Granier, Isére and Savoie, France on Nov. 24, 1248. In: Proc. 4th. International Symposium on Landslides, Toronto, vol. 1, pp. 475–481Google Scholar
  27. Cruden DM, Hu XQ (1992) Rock mass movements across bedding in Kananaskis country, Alberta. Canadian Geotech J 29:675–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cruden DM, Varnes DJ (1996) Landslide types and processes. In: Turner AK, Schuster RL (eds) Landslides investigation and mitigation. Transportation research board, US National Research Council. Special Report 247, Washington, DC, Chapter 3, pp. 36–75Google Scholar
  29. Dai FC, Lee CF (2003) Landslide characteristics and slope instability modeling using GIS, Lantau Island. Hong Kong. Geomorphology 42:213–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. D’Alessandro GR, Berti M, Urbani A, Tecca PR (2002) Geomorphology, stability analyses and the stabilization works on the Montepiano travertinous cliff (Central Italy). In: Allison RJ (ed) Applied geomorphology—theory and practice. Wiley, New York, pp. 21–38Google Scholar
  31. Davies TRH (1986) Large debris flows: a macroviscous phenomena. Acta Mechanica 63:161–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Delaney KB, Evans SG (2013) The 1997 mount Munday landslide, British Columbia; behaviour, dynamic analysis, and fragmentation of a rock avalanche on a glacier surface. Landslides 13 (in press)Google Scholar
  33. Deline P, Alberto W, Broccolato D, Hungr O, Noetzli J, Ravanel L, Tamburini A (2011) The December 2008 Crammont rock avalanche, Mont Blanc massif area, Italy. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 11:3307–3318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Derbyshire E, Wang J, Jin Z, Billard A, Egles Y, Kasser M, Jones DKC, Muxart T, Owen L (1991) Landslides in the Gansu Loess of China. Catena, Cremlingen, Supplement 20, p. 119–145Google Scholar
  35. Dijkstra TA, Rogers CDF, Smalley IJ, Derbyshire E, Li YJ, Meng XM (1994) The loess of north-central China: geotechnical properties and their relation to slope stability. Eng Geol 36:153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dikau R, Brunsden D, Schrott L, Ibsen M-L (Editors) (1996) Landslide recognition: Identification, movement, and causes. Wiley, New York, 1996, 210pGoogle Scholar
  37. Discenza ME, Esposito C, Martino S, Petitta M, Prestininzi A, Scarascia Mugnozza G (2011) The gravitational slope deformation of Mt. Rocchetta ridge (central Apennines, Italy): geological-evolutionary model and numerical analysis. Bulletin of Eng Geol Environ 70:559–575Google Scholar
  38. Dykes AP, Warburton J (2007) Mass movements in peat: a formal classification scheme. Geomorphology 86:73–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eberhardt E (2008) Twenty-Ninth Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium: the role of advanced numerical methods and geotechnical field measurements in understanding complex deep-seated rock slope failure mechanisms. Canadian Geotech J 45:484–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eden WJ, Mitchell RJ (1970) The mechanics of landslides in Leda Clay. Canadian Geotech J 7:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. ERM-Hong Kong Ltd (1998) Feasibility study for QRA of boulder fall hazards in Hong Kong (GEO Report No. 80). Geotechnical Engineering Office, Hong Kong GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  42. Evans SG, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Strom A, Hermanns RL (2006) Landslides from massive rock slope failure. Proceedings, Celano Workshop, NATO Science Series, Series VI, 49:53–73Google Scholar
  43. Evans SG, Hungr O (1993) The assessment of rockfall hazards at the base of talus slopes. Canadian Geotech J 30:620–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Evans SG, Clague JJ (1994) Recent climatic change and catastrophic geomorphic processes in mountain environments. Geomorphology 10:107–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Evans SG, Tutubalina OV, Drobyshev VN, Chernomorets SS, McDougall S, Petrakov DA, Hungr O (2009) Catastrophic detachment and high-velocity long-runout flow of Kolka Glacier, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2002. Geomorphology 105:314–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Evans SG, Delaney KB, Hermanns RL, Strom A, Scarascia Mugnozza G (2011) Formation and behaviour of natural and artificial rockslide dams. In: Evans SG, Hermanns RL, Strom A, Scarascia Mugnozza G (eds) Natural and artificial rockslide dams. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fine IV, Rabinovich AB, Bornhold BD, Thomson RE, Kulikov EA (2005) The Grand Banks landslide-generated tsunami of November 18, 1929: preliminary analysis and numerical modeling. Marine Geology 215:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fletcher L, Hungr O, Evans SG (2002) Contrasting failure behaviour of two large landslides in clay and silt. Canadian Geotech J 39:46–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Follacci JP (1987) Les mouvements du versant de la Clapiére a Saint Étienne de Tinée (Alpes Maritimes). In: Bull. Liaison Laboratoire des Ponts et Chausées, Paris, 151: 39–54 (in French)Google Scholar
  50. Forlati F, Lancellotta R, Scavia C, Simeoni L (1998) Swelling processes in sliding marly layers in the Langhe region, Italy. In: Evangelista E, Picarelli L (eds) The geotechnics of hard soils-soft rocks. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 1089–1099Google Scholar
  51. Froese CR, Moreno F, Jaboyedoff M, Cruden DM (2009) 25 years of monitoring on Southe Peak, Turtle Mountain: understanding the hazard. Canadian Geotech J 46:256–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gerath RF, Hungr O (1993) Landslide terrain, Scatter River valley, north-eastern British Columbia. Geoscience Canada 10:30–32Google Scholar
  53. Goguel J, Pachoud A (1972) Geology and dynamics of the rockfall of the Granier Range which occurred in November 1248. Bulletin, Bureau de Récherches Geologiques et Miniéres, Hydrogeologie, Lyon, 1:29–38Google Scholar
  54. Goguel J, Pachoud A (1981) Les mouvements de terrain du versant sud du Massif de Platé, Haute Savoie, France. Bull. Liaison Laboratoire des Pontes et Chausées, Spécial X:15-25Google Scholar
  55. Goodman RE, Bray JW (1976) Toppling of rock slopes. Procs., ASCE specialty conference on rock engineering for foundation and Slopes, Boulder, Colo., Vol.2Google Scholar
  56. Guadagno FM, Forte R, Revellino P, Fiorillo F, Focareta M (2005) Some aspects of the initiation of debris avalanches in the Campania Region: the role of morphological slope discontinuities and the development of failure. Geomorphology 66:237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Guerricchio A, Doglioni A, Fortunato G, Galeandro A, Guglielmo EA, Versace P, Simeone V (2012) Landslide hazard connected to deep seated gravitational slope deformations and prolonged rainfall: Maierato landslide case history. Società Geologica Italiana 21:574–576, RomaGoogle Scholar
  58. Guerriero L, Revellino P, Coe JA, Focareta M, Grelle G, Albanese V, Corazza A, Guadagno FM (2013) Multi-temporal Maps of the Montaguto Earth Flow in Southern Italy from 1954 to 2010. J Maps 9(1):135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Guthrie RH, Evans SG (2004) Magnitude and frequency of landslides triggered by a storm event, Loughborough Inlet, British Columbia. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 4:475–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Haug MD, Sauer EK, Fredlund DG (1977) Retrogressive slope failures at Beaver Creek, south of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Canadian Geotech J 14:288–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Heim A (1932) Landslides and human lives (Bergsturz and Menschenleben). In: Skermer, N. (ed) Bi-Tech Publishers, Vancouver, BC, 196pGoogle Scholar
  62. Hendron AJ, Patton FD (1985) The Vaiont Slide, a geotechnical analysis based on how geologic observations of the failure surface. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Technical Report 85, Number 5, 104pGoogle Scholar
  63. Highland LM, Bobrowsky P (2008) The landslide handbook: a guide to understanding landslides; U.S. Geological Survey, Circular 1325, 129pGoogle Scholar
  64. Hoek E, Bray J (1981) Rock slope engineering, 3rd edn. Inst. Mining and Metallurgy, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Hübl J, Suda J, Proske D, Kaitna R, Scheidl C (2009) Debris flow impact estimation. Proceedings, International Symposium on Water Management and Hydraulic Engineering, Ohrid/Macedonia, Paper: A5Google Scholar
  66. Hungr O (1981) Dynamics of rock avalanches and other types of slope movements. Ph.D. thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 500pGoogle Scholar
  67. Hungr O (2000) Analysis of debris flow surges using the theory of uniformly progressive flow. Earth Surface Processes and Land-forms 25:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hungr O, Evans SG, Bovis M, Hutchinson JN (2001) Review of the classification of landslides of the flow type. Environ Eng Geosci VII:221–238Google Scholar
  69. Hungr, O., Dawson, R., Kent, A., Campbell, D. and Morgenstern, N.R. (2002) Rapid flow slides of coal mine waste in British Columbia, Canada. In: Catastrophic Landslides Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology 15, pp. 191–208Google Scholar
  70. Hungr O, Evans SG (2004a) The occurrence and classification of massive rock slope failure. Felsbau, Vienna, Austria 22:16–23Google Scholar
  71. Hungr O, Evans SG (2004b) Entrainment of debris in rock avalanches; an analysis of a long run-out mechanism. Bulletin, Geological Society of America, no. 9/10, 116:1240–1252Google Scholar
  72. Hungr O, McDougall S, Bovis M (2005) Entrainment of material by Debris Flows. In: Jakob M, Hungr O (eds) Debris flow hazards and related phenomena Chapter 7. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 135–158 (in association with Praxis Publishing Ltd)Google Scholar
  73. Hutchinson JN (1961) A landslide on a thin layer of quick clay at Furre, Central Norway. Géotechnique 11:69–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hutchinson JN (1968) Mass movement. In: Fairbridge RW (ed) Encyclopedia of geomorphology. Reinhold Publishers, New York, pp 688–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hutchinson JN (1988) General report: morphological and geotechnical parameters of landslides in relation to geology and hydrogeology. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Landslides, Lausanne, 1:3–35Google Scholar
  76. Hutchinson JN (1991) Periglacial and slope processes. In: Forster A, Culshaw MG, Cripps JC, Little JA, Moon CF (eds) Quaternary engineering geology (Edinburgh, 1989). Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publication No. 7, 283–331Google Scholar
  77. Hutchinson JN (1992a) Landslide hazard assessment. In: Bell DH (ed) Proc. 6th Inter. Sym. on Landslides. Christchurch, N.Z. pp. 1805–1842Google Scholar
  78. Hutchinson JN (1992b) Flow slides from natural slopes and waste tips, in Proceedings, 3rd National Symposium on Slopes and Landslides. La Coruna, Spain, pp 827–841Google Scholar
  79. Hutchinson JN (2002) Chalk flows from the coastal cliffs of north-west Europe. In: Catastrophic Landslides, Evans SG, DeGraff JV (eds) Geological Society of America, Reviews in Engineering Geology XV, pp. 257–312Google Scholar
  80. Hutchinson JN, Bhandari RK (1971) Undrained loading, a fundamental mechanism of mudflows and other mass movements. Geotechnique 21:353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hutchinson JN, Prior DB, Stephens N (1974) Potentially dangerous surges in an Antrim mudslide. Q J Eng Geol 7:363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hutchinson JN, Bromhead EN, Lupini JF (1980) Additional observations on the Folkestone Warren landslides. Q J Eng Geol London 13:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. ICIMOD (2011) Glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods in Nepal. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, 109pGoogle Scholar
  84. International Geotechnical Society’s UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI) (1990) A suggested method for reporting a landslide. Bull Inter Assoc Eng Geol 41:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. International Geotechnical Society’s UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI) (1991) A suggested method for a landslide summary. Bull Intern Assoc Eng Geol 43:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. International Geotechnical Society’s UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI) (1993a) A suggested method for describing the activity of a landslide. Bull Intern Assoc Eng Geol 47:53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. International Geotechnical Society’s UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI) (1993b) A multi-lingual landslide glossary. Bitech Publishers, Vancouver, 59pGoogle Scholar
  88. International Geotechnical Society’s UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI) (1994) A suggested method for describing the causes of a landslide. Bull Intern Assoc Eng Geol 50:71–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. International Geotechnical Society’s UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI) (1995) A suggested method for describing the rate of movement of a landslide. Bull Inter Assoc Eng Geol 52:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jakob M (2000) The impacts of logging on landslide activity at Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia. Catena 38:279–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jibson RW (2005) Landslide hazards at La Conchita, California. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005–1067Google Scholar
  92. Keefer DK, Johnson AM (1983) Earthflows: morphology, mobilization and movement. USGS Professional Paper 1264Google Scholar
  93. Kieffer DS (2003) Rotational instability of hard rock slopes. Felsbau 21:31–38Google Scholar
  94. King JP, Loveday I, Schuster RL (1989) The 1985 Bairaman landslide dam and resulting debris flow Papua New Guinea. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 22:257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Koppejan AW, van Wamelen BM, Weinberg LJH (1948) Coastal flow slides in the Dutch Province of Zeeland. Procs., 2nd International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rotterdam, Holland, 5:89–96Google Scholar
  96. Lacerda WA (2007) Landslide initiation in saprolite and colluvium in southern Brazil: field and laboratory observations. Geomorphology 87:104–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Larsen MC, Wieczorek GF (2006) Geomorphic effects of large debris flows and flash floods, northern Venezuela, 1999. Z. Geomorph. N.F. suppl.-vol. 145:147–175. Stuttgart, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  98. Lavigne F, Suwa H (2004) Contrasts between debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows at a channel of Mount Semeru, East Java, Indonesia. Geomorphology 61:41–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lefebvre G (1995) Collapse mechanisms and design considerations for some partly saturated and saturated soils. In: Derbyshire E. et al. (eds) Genesis and properties of collapsible soils. Kluver Academic Publishers, pp.361–374. Nelson, J.D. and Miller, D.J., 1992.. Expansive Soils. John Wiley, NYGoogle Scholar
  100. Leroueil S, Locat J, Vaunat J, Picarelli L, Lee H, Faure R (1996) Geotechnical characterization of slope movements. In: Senneset K (ed) Landslides. Balkema, Rotterdam 1:53–74Google Scholar
  101. Leroueil S, Locat A, Eberhardt E, Kovacevic N (2012) Progressive failure in natural and engineered slopes. In: Eberhardt E, Froese C, Turner AK, Leroueil S (eds) Landslides and Engineered Slopes. Proceedings, 11th International Symposium on Landslides, Banff, 1:31, CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  102. Locat A, Leroueil S, Bernander S, Demers D, Jostad HP, Ouehb L (2011) Progressive failures in eastern Canadian and Scandinavian sensitive clays. Canadian Geotech J 48:1696–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Locat J, Lee HJ (2002) Submarine landslides: advances and challenges. Canadian Geotech J 39:193–212Google Scholar
  104. Londe P (1965) Une méthode d’analyse à trois dimensions de la stabilité d’une rive rocheuse. Annales des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, pp 37–60Google Scholar
  105. Lutton RJ, Banks DC, Strohm WE (1978) Panama Canal slides. In: Voight B (ed) Rockslides and avalanches, vol. 2. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  106. McKenna GT, Luternauer JL, Kostaschuk RA (1992) Large-scale mass-wasting events on the Fraser River delta front near Sandheads, British Columbia. Canadian Geotech J 29:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. McRoberts EC, Morgenstern NR (1974) The stability of thawing slopes. Canadian Geotech J 11:447–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Matheson DS, Thomson S (1973) Geological implications of valley rebound. Can J Earth Sci 20:961–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Meyerhof GG (1957) The mechanism of flow slides in cohesive soils. Géotechnique 7:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mencl V (1966) Mechanics of landslides with non-circular sliding surfaces with special reference to the Vaiont Slide. Gétechnique 16:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mollard JD, Janes JR (1984) Airphoto interpretation and the Canadian landscape. Energy, Mines and Resources, Toronto, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  112. Montgomery DR, Dietrich WE (1994) A physically based model for the topoographic control on shallow landsliding. Water Resour Res 30:1153–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Morgenstern NR (1967) Submarine slumping and the initiation of turbidity currents. In: Marine Geotechnique, Richards AF (ed) University of Illinois Press: 189–220Google Scholar
  114. Morgenstern NR (1992) The evaluation of slope stability: a 25 year perspective. In: Seed RB, Boulanger RW (eds) Stability and performance of slopes and embankments, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication 31, 1:1–26Google Scholar
  115. Morgenstern NR, Tschalenko JS (1967) Microscopic structures in kaolin subjected to direct shear. Géotechnique 17:309–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Moser M (1996) The time-dependent behaviour of sagging slopes (talzuschübe). In: Senneset K (ed) Proceedings, 7th. International Symposium on Landslides. Balkema, Rotterdam, 2:809–814Google Scholar
  117. Nemčok A (1982) Zosuvy v Slovenskych Karpatov (Landslides in the Slovak Carpathians). Slovak Academy of Sciences, BratislavaGoogle Scholar
  118. Nichol S, Hungr O (2002) Brittle and ductile toppling of large rock slopes. Canadian Geotech J 39:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. O’Loughlin CL (1972) A preliminary study of landslides in the coast mountains of southwestern British Columbia. In: Slaymaker HO, McPherson HJ (eds) Mountain geomorphology, geomorphological processes in the Canadian Cordillera. B.C. Geographical Ser. 14:101–11. Tantalus Research Limited, Vancouver, BCGoogle Scholar
  120. Picarelli L, Olivares L, Comegna L, Damiano E (2008) Mechanical aspects of flow-like movements in granular and fine-grained soils. Rock Mech Rock Eng 41(1):179–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Picarelli L, Russo C (2004) Mechanics of slow active landslides and interaction with man-made works. Landslides. Evaluation & Stabilization, 9th International Symposium on Landslides. In: Lacerda WA, Ehrlich M, Fontoura SAB, Sayao ASF (eds) Rio de Janeiro (28 June −2 July, 2004), 1141–1176. A.A. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  122. Picarelli L, Urciuoli G, Ramondini L, Comegna L (2005) Main features of mudslides in tectonized highly fissured clay shales. Landslides 2(1):15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pierson TC (1986) Flow behavior of chanellized debris flows, Mount St. Helens, Washington. In: Abrahams AD (ed) Hillslope processes. Allen and Unwin, Boston, pp 269–296Google Scholar
  124. Pierson TC (2005) Hyperconcentrated flow—transitional process between water flow and debris flow. In: Jakob M, Hungr O (eds) Debris flows and related phenomena, vol 8. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 159–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pierson TC, Janda RJ, Thouret J-C, Borrero CA (1990) Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobiliztion, flow, and deposition of lahars. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 41:17–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Plafker G, Ericksen GE (1978) Nevados Huascarán avalanches, Peru. In: Voight B (ed) Rockslides and avalanches. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1:277–314Google Scholar
  127. Postma G (1986) Classification for sediment gravity-flow deposits based on flow conditions during sedimentation. Geology 14:291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Roberts NJ, Evans SG (2013) The gigantic Seymareh (Saidmarreh) rock avalanche, Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran. J Geol Soc. doi:10.1144/jgs2012-090 Google Scholar
  129. Revellino P, Grelle G, Donnarumma A, Guadagno FM (2010) Structurally controlled earth flows of the Benevento province (Southern Italy). Bul Eng Geol Environ 69:487–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sassa, K., 1985, The mechanism of debris flows. In: Proceedings, 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, 1:1173–1176Google Scholar
  131. Sassa K (1999) Introduction. In: Sassa K (ed) Landslides of the world. Kyoto University Press, 3–18Google Scholar
  132. Sassa K (2000) Mechanism of flows in granular soils. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, GEOENG2000, Melbourne, 1:1671–1702Google Scholar
  133. Saunders I, Young A (1983) Rates of surface processes on slopes, slope retreat and denudation. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 8:473-501Google Scholar
  134. Savigny KW, Morgenstern NR (1986) Creep behaviour of undisturbed clay permafrost. Canadian Geotech J 23:515–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Schumm SA, Chorley RJ (1964) The fall of threatening rock. Am J Sci 262:1041–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schuster RL (Editor) (1986) Landslide dams. Geotechnical special publication no. 3, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 164pGoogle Scholar
  137. Schuster RL, Highland LM (2001) Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of landslides in the western hemisphere. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01–0276Google Scholar
  138. Schuster RL, Salcedo DA, Valenzuela L (2002) Overview of catastrophic landslides of South America in the twentieth century. In: Evans SG, DeGraff JV (eds) Catastrophic Landslides, Geological Society of America, Reviews in Engineering Geology XV, pp.1–34Google Scholar
  139. Seed HB, Wilson SD (1967) The Turnagain heights Landslide, Anchorage, Alaska. ASCE Journal, 95-SM4:325–353Google Scholar
  140. Seed HB, Lee KL, Idriss IM, Makdisi F (1973) Analysis of the slides in the San Fernando Dams during the earthquake of Feb. 9, 1971, Earthquake Engineering Research Center 73–2. University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  141. Sharpe CFS (1938) Landslides and related phenomena. Columbia University Press, NY, 1370Google Scholar
  142. Skempton AW, Hutchinson JN (1969) Stability of natural slopes and embankment foundations. In: Proceedings, 7th. International conference of soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Mexico, State of the Art volume, 291–340Google Scholar
  143. Slingerland RL, Voight B (1979) Occurrences, properties, and predictive models of landslide-generated impulse waves, Developments in geotechnical engineering, rockslides and avalanches, Vol. 2, In: Voight B (ed), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 317–397Google Scholar
  144. Stini J (1910) Die Muren. Verlag der Wagner’shen Universitätsbuchhandlung, Innsbruck (Debris flows, English translation by M. Jakob and N. Skermer, 1997, EBA Engineering Consultants, Vancouver, Canada, 106p)Google Scholar
  145. Strouth A, Eberhardt E (2009) Integrated back and forward analysis of rock slope stability and rockslide runout at Afternoon Creek, Washington. Canadian Geotech J 46:1116–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Swanston DN (1974) Slope stability problems associated with timber harvesting in mountainous regions of the Southwestern United States, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-021. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  147. Terzaghi K (1950) Mechanics of landslides (Berkey volume). Geological Society of America, New York, pp 83–124Google Scholar
  148. Terzaghi K (1957) Varieties of submarine slope failures, NGI Publication No. 25. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, OsloGoogle Scholar
  149. Terzaghi K, Peck RB (1967) Soil mechanics in engineering practice, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, 729pGoogle Scholar
  150. Turner AK, Schuster RL (2013) Rockfall: characterization and control. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 658pGoogle Scholar
  151. Vallance JW (2005) Volcanic debris flows. In: Jakob M, Hungr O (eds) Debris flows and related phenomena, vol 10. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 247–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. VanDine DF (1985) Debris flows and debris torrents in the southern Canadian Cordillera. Canadian Geotech J 22:44–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Varnes DJ (1954) Landslide types and processes. In: Eckel EB (ed) Landslides and engineering practice, special report 28. Highway research board. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, pp. 20–47Google Scholar
  154. Varnes DJ (1978) Slope movement types and processes. In: Schuster RL, Krizek RJ (eds) Landslides, analysis and control, special report 176: Transportation research board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., pp. 11–33Google Scholar
  155. Varnes DJ, Savage W (eds.) (1996) The Slumgullion earth flow: a large-scale natural laboratory. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2130Google Scholar
  156. Wang B, Paudel B, Li H (2009) Retrogression characteristics of landslides in fine-grained permafrost soils, Mackenzie Valley, Canada. Landslides 6:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Whalley WB (1984) Rockfalls. In: Brunsden D, Prior DB (eds) Slope instability. Wiley, New York, pp. 217–256Google Scholar
  158. Zaruba Q, Mencl V (1969) Landslides and their control. Elsevier, New York, 238pGoogle Scholar
  159. Zhang D, Wang G (2007) Study of the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake-induced landslides in loess (China). Eng Geol 94:76–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhang ZY, Chen SM, Tao LJ (2002) The sale mountain landslide, Gansu Province, China. In: Evans SG, DeGraff JV (eds) Catastrophic landslides, Geological Society of America, Reviews in Engineering Geology XV, pp. 149–173Google Scholar
  161. Zischinsky U (1969) Uber Sackungen. Rock Mechanics 1:30–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zweifel A, Zuccalà D, Gatti D (2007) Comparison between computed and experimentally generated impulse waves. J Hydraulic Eng 133(2):208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oldrich Hungr
    • 1
  • Serge Leroueil
    • 2
  • Luciano Picarelli
    • 3
  1. 1.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Université LavalQuébecCanada
  3. 3.Seconda Università di NapoliCasertaItaly

Personalised recommendations