, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 323–329 | Cite as

A deep-seated landslide dam in the Siriu Reservoir (Curvature Carpathians, Romania)

  • Mihai Micu
  • Dan Bălteanu
Recent Landslides


The Groapa Vântului (Wind’s Dip) landslide, situated in the Buzău Carpathians, on the right-hand slope of the Siriu Reservoir, occurred in April 2006, after the first local movements were signaled in September–October 2005. It represents a reactivation of an older, apparently relict (and well covered by a secular beech forest) landslide, which blocked Siriu Reservoir for several weeks and caused a major change in the sedimentation regime downstream of it. The volume of the displaced material reached almost 2.5 million m3, affecting a surface of more than 250,000 m2 and reducing the reservoir’s volume by almost 2 million m3. The landslide developed on a lithological contact of Paleogene flysch formations and features steep (40–50°) and high (up to 30 m) scarps, as well as complex inner sectors, of rotational, translational, and compresional movement. The assessment of landslide’s morphodynamic behavior is based on repeated geomorphological field mapping and measurements, differential Global Positioning System, and total station profiles, and mobile and fixed landmarks. This preliminary assessment contributes to the understanding of the behavior of old, peri-glacial landslide reactivations and also represents progress towards a better hazard assessment.


Landslide Complex Carpathians Siriu Reservoir 



The paper was conducted under the Romanian Academy research project “national, regional, and local assessment of natural and technological hazards” (Coord. Dan Bălteanu). In the field campaign, we received additional help from Dănuţ Călin, Laurenţiu Niculescu, Daniel Ciupitu, and Nicolae Barbu, to whom we are thankful. Also, we would like to extend our thanks to Eng. Bogdan Albu, Dr. Răzvan Zarea, Dr. Ion Minea, and Eng. Cristian Voicu, for their support, field assistance, constructive advice, and comments.


  1. Bălteanu D (1976) Two case studies of mudflows in the Buzau Subcarpathians. Geografiska Annaler, 58 A, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  2. Bălteanu D (1983) Experimentul de teren în geomorfologie. Edit, Academiei, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  3. Băncilă I (1989) The geology of hydro-technical works. Ed. Tehnică, Bucureşti (in Romanian)Google Scholar
  4. Baron I, Cılek V, Krejcı O, Melichar R, Hubatka F (2004) Structure and dynamics of deep-seated slope failures in the Magura Flysch Nappe, outer Western Carpathians (Czech Republic). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 4:549–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brânduş C (1981) Subcarpaţii Tazlăului. Studiu Geomorfologic. Edit, Academiei RSR, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  6. Cojocar M (2005) Hidroconstrucţia—tradition and modernity. Bucureşti (in Romanian)Google Scholar
  7. Deng JH, Tham LG, Dai FC, Wei JB, Min H, Loo H, Lee CF (2005), Monitoring a pre-existing landslide during reservoir filling. In: Gabr M, Bowders JJ, Elton D, Zomberg JG (eds) Proceedings of the session of the Geo-Frontiers 2005 Congress. January 24–26, 2005, Austin, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. Dlugosz M (2009) Landslide susceptibility zoning in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 53(Supplementary Issue 2):49–56Google Scholar
  9. Marchidanu E (2006) Engineering-geology study for the Groapa Vantului landslide and the landslide hazard map for Siriu Reservoir, Contract: 29E/15.12.2006, Beneficiary: Romanian Waters National AdministrationGoogle Scholar
  10. Gil E, Dlugosz M (2006) Threshold values of rainfalls triggering selected deep-seated landslides in the Polish flysch Carpathians. Stud Geomorphol Carpatho-Balcanica XL:21–43, ISBN 83-88549-56-1Google Scholar
  11. González E, Alvarez-Cedrón C, Drempetic V (2008) Modelling of fast catastrophic landslides and impulse waves induced by them in fjords, lakes and reservoirs. Eng Geol. doi: 10.1016/J.Enggeo.2008.10.006
  12. Hinks JL, Lewin J, Warren AL (2003) Extreme events and reservoir safety. Dams and Reservoirs 13(3):12–19Google Scholar
  13. Ichim I, Rădoane M (1986) The effects of dams in relief dynamics. A geomorphological approach. Edit. Academiei RSR, Bucureşti, in RomanianGoogle Scholar
  14. Ielenicz M (1984) Ciucaş-Buzau Mountains. Geomorphic study. Edit. Academiei RSR, Bucureşti, in RomanianGoogle Scholar
  15. Kiersch GA (1964) Vaiont reservoir disaster. Civ Eng 34:32–39Google Scholar
  16. Klimes J, Baron I, Panek T, Kosacık T, Burda J, Kresta F, Hradecky J (2009) Investigation of recent catastrophic landslides in the flysch belt of Outer Western Carpathians (Czech Republic): progress towards better hazard assessment. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krejcı O, Baron I, Bıl M, Jurova Z, Hubatka F, Kirchner K (2002) Slope movements in the Flysch Carpathians of Eastern Czech Republic triggered by extreme rainfalls in 1997: a case study. Phys Chem Earth 27:1567–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mac I (1997) Types of landslides from the Transylvania depression with differentiated effect on the morphology of the slope. Studia Universitaria Babeş-Bolyai, Serie Geografie, ClujGoogle Scholar
  19. Panek T, Brazdil R, Klimes J, Smolkova V, Hradecky J, Zdradnicek P (2011) Rainfall-induced landslide event of May 2010 in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Landslides 8(4):507–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Petley DN (2006) The Vajont (Vaiont) landslide. Geo-Strata 2006:27–28Google Scholar
  21. Sandu M, Bălteanu D (eds) (2005) Natural hazards in the Carpathians and the Subcarpathians between Trotus and Teleajen Valeys. Geographical study. Edit. Ars Docendi, Bucuresti, in RomanianGoogle Scholar
  22. Surdeanu V (1998) Geografia terenurilor degradate. Presa Universitară Clujană, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  23. Tufescu V (1966) Modelarea naturală a reliefului şi eroziunea accelerată. Edit, Academiei Române, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  24. Varnes DJ (1978) Slope movement types and processes. In: Schuster RL, Krizek RJ (eds) Landslides, analysis and control. Transportation Research Board Sp. Rep. No. 176. Nat Acad oi Sci pp. 11–33Google Scholar
  25. Wang FW, Zhang YM, Huo ZT, Peng XM, Araiba K, Wang G (2008a) Movement of the Shuping landslide in the first four years after the initial impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir, China. Landslides 5(3):321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang FW, Zhang YM, Huo ZT, Peng XM, Wang SM, Yamasaki S (2008b) Mechanism for the rapid motion of the Qianjiangping landslide during reactivation by the first impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam reservoir, China. Landslides 5(4):379–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. WP/WLI (1993) A suggested method for describing the activity of a landslide. Bull Int Assoc Eng Geol 47:53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. WP/WLI (1994) A suggested method for reporting landslide causes. Bull Int Assoc Eng Geol 50:71–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zugrăvescu D, Polonic G, Horomnea M, Dragomir V (1998) Recent vertical movements on the Romanian territory, major tectonic compartments and their relative dynamics. Rev Roum Géophys, series Geophysics 42:3–14Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Romanian AcademyInstitute of GeographyBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations