, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 1–11 | Cite as

Partial breaching of Hattian Bala Landslide Dam formed in the 8th October 2005 Kashmir Earthquake, Pakistan

Original Paper


The 8th October 2005 Kashmir Earthquake of magnitude 7.6 triggered a huge landslide 3.5 km upstream of Hattian Bala town in the state of Azad Jammu Kashmir of Pakistan. The debris mass blocked two tributaries of the Karli branch of the Jhelum River and was breached on 9th February 2010. This debris dam provided us with a rare opportunity to keep careful and continuous eyes on its post-earthquake behavior especially as it was a serious threat to people living along the lower reaches of both the Karli and Jhelum Rivers. This paper describes post-formation behaviors of the debris mass, breaching-inflicted changes of not only the debris mass but also both upstream and downstream reaches based upon laser-scanned images of landforms and Differential Global Positioning System survey results.


Hattian dam Breaching Landslide dam Flood Dam-break Drawdown 



This paper summarizes one of the outcomes of the MEXT Research Project, “Scientific surveys for long-lasting geotechnical problems caused by large earthquakes and their implementations for rational rehabilitation strategies,” Konagai K. Leader of the project, 2008 Grant-in-aid for scientific research (A) no. 20254003, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to officers and experts at the Geological Survey of Pakistan, the State Earthquake research and Rehabilitation Authority, the Development Authority Muzaffarabad, and Earthquake Research and Rehabilitation Authority for their collaboration and help during the field surveys and devotion towards these long-lasting issues and their mitigation strategies. The authors are also thankful to officers and experts at Japan Embassy in Islamabad, Islamabad Office of Japan International Cooperation Agency, and Islamabad Office of Tobishima Corporation not only for their willingness to support the authors’ surveys but also for providing the team with every possible logistic convenience. Special thanks are due to Mr. Takaaki Ikeda at Tobishima Research Institute of Technology, Dr. Takashi Kiyota and Mr. Zaheer A. Kazmi, Association Professor and Ph.D. candidate, respectively, at the Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, who have devoted much of their energies to field surveys and analyzing the results.


  1. Dunning SA, Mitchell WA, Rosser NJ, Petley DN (2007) The Hattian Bala rock avalanche and associated landslides triggered by the Kashmir Earthquake of 8th October 2005. Eng Geol 93(3–4):130–144. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.07.00 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Johnson AM, Rodine JR (1984) Debris Flow. In: Brunsden D, Prior DB (eds) Slope Instability. Wiley, Chichester, pp 257–361Google Scholar
  3. Kiyota T, Konagai K, Sattar A, Kazmi ZA, Okuno D, Ikeda T (2011) Breaching failure of a huge landslide dam formed by 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Soils and Foundations. (accepted for publication in Vol. 51, No. 6)Google Scholar
  4. Nakata T, Tsutsumi H, Khan SH and Lawrence RD (1991) Active faults of Pakistan, map sheets and inventories. Research Center for Regional Geography, Hiroshima University, Special Publication 21, pp. 1–141Google Scholar
  5. O’Brien JS, Julien PY, Fullerton WT (1993) Two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation. J Hydr Engrg 119(2):244–261. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1993)119:2(244) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sattar A, Konagai K, Kiyota T, Ikeda T, Johansson J (2010) Measurement of debris mass changes and assessment of the dam-break flood potential of earthquake-triggered Hattian landslide dam. Landslides J. doi: 10.1007/s10346-010-0241-9
  7. Schneider JF (2008) Seismically reactivated Hattian slide in Kashmir, Northern Pakistan. J Seismol. doi: 10.1007/s10950-008-9103-5
  8. Tropical rainfall measuring Mission (TRMM) A joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Available from Accessed 06 June 2011
  9. WAPDA Report (2007) Study of Hattian Ballah landslide, Potential hazards of land sliding and mitigation measures at Hattian Ballah and other earthquake hit areas, National Engineering Services Pakistan limited (NESPAK) and Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP), Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), 2006, Government of PakistanGoogle Scholar
  10. Yatagai A., Kawamoto H. (2008) Quantitative estimation of orographic precipitation over the Himalayas by using TRMM/PR and a dense network of rain gauges. In: Remote Sensing and Modeling of the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Interactions II, doi: 10.1117/12.811943Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Industrial ScienceUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations