Advertisement

Landslides

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 397–406 | Cite as

Stability of sandy slopes under seepage conditions

  • Hossein Ghiassian
  • Soheil Ghareh
Original Article

Abstract

Stability against shallow mass sliding in saturated sandy slopes under seepage depends on the flow direction and hydraulic gradient, particularly near the ground surface. Two modes of instability i.e., Coulomb sliding and liquefaction have been studied and the critical flow directions discussed. The utility of the numerical approach in solving complex flow problems with irregular boundaries and surface topography is demonstrated by means of two slope examples with different internal drainage conditions. The numerical results for the seepage gradients at different points are compared with those predicted by the simple expression derived in this study, and the corresponding effects on the stability are evaluated.

Keywords

Landslide Infinite slope Seepage Horizontal drain Flownet 

References

  1. Barrett RK (1980) Use of horizontal drains: case history from the Colorado division of highways. Transp Res Rec 783:20–25Google Scholar
  2. Cai F, Ugai K, Wakai A, Li Q (1998) Effects of horizontal drains on slope stability under rainfall by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Comput Geotech 23(4):255–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chan RKS (1987) Use of horizontal drains to stabilize a steep hillside in Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 9th European Conference of Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering, DublinGoogle Scholar
  4. Crosta G, Prisco C (1999) On slope instability induced by seepage erosion. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 36:1056–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Das BM (1983) Advanced soil mechanics. McGraw-Hill, New York, N.YGoogle Scholar
  6. Dunne T (1990) Hydrology, mechanics, and geomorphic implications of erosion by subsurface flow. Geol Soc Amer, Spec Pap 252:1–28Google Scholar
  7. Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  8. Freeze RA, Witherspoon PA (1966) Theoretical analysis of regional groundwater flow: 1. Analytical and numerical solutions to the mathematical model. Water Resour Res 2:641–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freeze RA, Witherspoon PA (1967) Theoretical analysis of regional groundwater flow: 2. Effect of water-table configuration and subsurface permeability variation. Water Resour Res 3:623–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghiassian H (1996) Stabilization of sandy slopes with anchored geosynthetic systems. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  11. Hagerty DJ (1991a) Piping/sapping erosion. I: basic considerations. J Hydraul Eng 17:991–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hagerty DJ (1991b) Piping/sapping erosion. II: identification—diagnosis. J Hydraul Eng 17:1009–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Higgins CG (1984) Piping and sapping; development of landforms by groundwater outflow. Allen & Unwin, Boston, pp 18–58Google Scholar
  14. Huang R (1982) Slope stability analysis. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Hutchinson JN (1968) Field meeting on the coastal landslides of Kent. Proc Geol Assoc 79(Part II):227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hutchinson JN (1982) Damage to slopes produced by seepage erosion in sands. In: Landslides and mudflows, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, Moscow, pp 250–265Google Scholar
  17. Iverson RM, Major JJ (1986) Groundwater seepage vectors and the potential for hillslope failure and debris flow mobilization. Water Resour Res 22(11):1543–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones JAA (1990) Piping effects in humid lands. In: Groundwater geomorphology, Geol Soc Amer, Spec Pap 252, pp 111–138Google Scholar
  19. Kenney TC, Pazin M, Choi WS (1977) Design of horizontal drains for soil slopes. ASCE J Geotech Eng Div 103(GT11):1311–1323Google Scholar
  20. Kleiner DE (1985) Engineering with spreadsheets. Civil Eng, ASCE 55(10):55–57Google Scholar
  21. Koenders MA, Selimeyer JB (1992) Mathematical model for piping. J Geotech Eng 118:943–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lambe TW, Whitman RV (1969) Soil mechanics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Nonveiller E (1981) Efficiency of horizontal drains on slope stability. Proc Int Conf Soil Mech Found Eng, Stockholm 3:495–500Google Scholar
  24. Pinsky AM (1991) Partial differential equations and boundary-value problems with applications. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Pipes LD (1958) Applied mathematics for engineers and physicists. McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y.Google Scholar
  26. Powers LD (1972) Boundary value problems. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Rahardjo H, Hritzuk KJ, Leong EC, Rezaur RB (2003) Effectiveness of horizontal drains for slope stability. Eng Geol 69(3–4):295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ruff WT (1980) Mississippi’s experience with horizontally drilled drains and conduits in soil. Transp Res Rec 783:35–38Google Scholar
  29. Schuster RL, Krizek RJ (1978) Landslides. Transportation Research Board, Special Report 176, National Academy of Science, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  30. Shaw FS, Southwell RV (1941) Relaxation methods applied to engineering problems. VII, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A178:1–17Google Scholar
  31. Singer GC (1990) Use of horizontal drain holes for slope stability control. Proc 2nd International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, Calgary, pp 379–384Google Scholar
  32. Skempton AW, Brogan JM (1994) Experiments on piping in sandy gravels. Geotechnique 44:449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Smith TW, Stafford GV (1955) California experience with horizontal drains for landslide correction and prevention. ASCE Annual Convention, New York City, New York October pp. 24–28Google Scholar
  34. Southwell RV (1946) Relaxation methods in theoretical physics. Oxford University Press, pp 248Google Scholar
  35. Terzaghi K, Peck RB (1967) Soil mechanics in engineering practice. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Tong PYL, Maher RO (1975) Horizontal drains as a slope stabilizing measure. J Eng Soc Hong Kong 3(1):15–27Google Scholar
  37. Toth J (1962) A theory of groundwater motion in small drainage basins in central Alberta Canada. J Geophys Res 67(11):4375–4387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Toth J (1963) A theoretical analysis of groundwater flow in small drainage basins. J Geophys Res 68(16):4795–4812Google Scholar
  39. Whiteside PGD (1997) Drainage characteristics of a cut soil slope with horizontal drains. Q J Eng Geol 30:137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Worman A (1993) Seepage-induced mass wasting in coarse soil slopes. J Hydraul Eng 119:1155–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Civil EngineeringIran University of Science & TechnologyNarmakIran

Personalised recommendations