Advertisement

Perceptions and livestock predation by felids in extensive cattle ranching areas of two Bolivian ecoregions

  • Pablo VillalvaEmail author
  • Francisco Palomares
Original Article

Abstract

Human-carnivore conflicts arise as one of the most urgent carnivore conservation issues worldwide. Jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) coexist with livestock in much of their range and have been historically blamed for livestock predation. At present, livestock landscapes are increasing, enlarging the conflict scenario where local perceptions are vital to understand the context in which the conflict emerges and data of livestock predation become an effective tool to plunge into it. We assess local perceptions about felids and identify the bases of the conflict in the Bolivian Pantanal and dry forest ecoregions using livestock predation data. We interviewed local ranchers and crossed information with the governmental livestock database achieving a comprehensive study on the conflict, based on descriptive statistics for local perceptions and generalized linear mixed models for analyzing cattle predation by felids. The conflict appeared to be widespread since most ranchers suffered predation on cattle, especially in the Pantanal. Annual cattle loss is generally low (1.8%) with some exceptions that may magnify the generalized negative perception towards felids. Factors related to cattle management practices explained better felid predation on livestock rather than habitat quality of the ranch or ranchers’ attitude towards felids. We recommend local administrations to recover livestock predation data and to highlight the importance that husbandry practices may have to reduce cattle losses by felids.

Keywords

Apex felids Livestock predation Extensive ranching Model averaging 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Norka Rocha and Ricardo Barberí for their help in undertaking the questionnaires and the Anmi San Matías office (SERNAP) for the permission to conduct this research in protected areas. We also thank Miguel Camacho and Miguel Clavero for their helpful comments on the first drafts and Eva Moracho and two anonymous referees who have improved notably this paper.

Funding information

Financial support of this work was provided by the Spanish Cooperation Agency (Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo) through a MAEC-AECID personal grant for the author.

Supplementary material

10344_2019_1272_MOESM1_ESM.docx (128 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 127 kb)
10344_2019_1272_MOESM2_ESM.docx (128 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 128 kb)

References

  1. Anderson DR (2008) Model based inference in the life sciences: a primer on evidence. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arispe, R. (2008). Looking for opportunities to protect the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Jaguar NewsGoogle Scholar
  3. Arispe, R., Rumiz, D., Venegas, C., Noss, A. (2006). El conflicto de la depredación de ganado por jaguar (Panthera Onca) en Santa Cruz, Bolivia In conference: Conflito Homem-Animal IlheusGoogle Scholar
  4. Athreya V, Odden M, Linnell JDC, Krishnaswamy J, Karanth U (2013) Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India. PLoS One 8:2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azevedo F, Murray DL (2007) Evaluation of potential factors predisposing livestock to predation by jaguars. J Wildl Manag 71:2379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagchi S, Mishra C (2006) Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). J Zool 268:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2004) Model selection and multimodel inference. Ecol Model 172:96–97Google Scholar
  9. Cavalcanti SMC, Gese EM (2010) Kill rates and predation patterns of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. J Mammal 91:722–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cavalcanti SMC, Marchini S, Zimmermann A, Gese EM, Macdonald DW (2010) Jaguars, livestock, and people in Brazil: realities and perceptions behind the conflict. Biol Conserv wild felids:383–402Google Scholar
  11. Chapron G, Kaczensky P, Linnell JDC, von Arx M, Huber D, Andrén H, López-Bao JV, Adamec M, Álvares F, Anders O, Balčiauskas L, Balys V, Bedő P, Bego F, Blanco JC, Breitenmoser U, Henrik B, Bufka L, Raimonda B, Paolo C, Dutsov A, Engleder T, Fuxjäger C, Claudio G, Holmala K, Hoxha B, Iliopoulos Y, Ionescu O, Jeremić J, Jerina K, Kluth G, Knauer F, Kojola I, Ivan K, Miha K, Jakub K, Kunovac S, Josip K, Kutal M, Liberg O, Majić A, Männil P, Manz R, Marboutin E, Francesca M, Melovski D, Mersini K, Yorgos M, Myslajek RW, Nowak S, Odden J, Ozolins J, Palomero G, Paunović M, Persson J, Potočnik H, Quenette P-Y, Rauer G, Reinhardt I, Rigg R, Ryser A, Salvatori V, Tomaž S, Stojanov A, Swenson JE, László S, Aleksandër T, Váňa ET-SM, Veeroja R, Wabakken P, Wölfl M, Wölfl S, Zimmermann F, Zlatanova D, Boitani L (2014) Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science (80- ) 346:1514–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chavez AS, Gese EM (2006) Landscape use and movements of wolves in relation to livestock in a wildland-agriculture matrix. J Wildl Manag 70:1079–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chavez A, Gese EM, Krannich RS (2005) Attitudes of rural landowners toward wolves in northwestern Minnesota. Wildl Soc Bull 33:517–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conforti V, Azevedo F (2003) Local perceptions of jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) in the Iguaçu National Park area, south Brazil, vol 111. Bio Cons, pp 215–221Google Scholar
  15. Conover, M. (2002). Resolving human-wildlife conflicts: the science of wildlife damage management. Lewis PublishersGoogle Scholar
  16. Crawshaw P (2004) Depredation of domestic animals by large cats in Brazil. Hum Dimens Wildl 9:329–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dirección de Sanidad Agroalimentaria, 2011. Catastro Ganadero 2011. Secretaría de Desarrollo Productivo, Gobierno Departamental Santa Cruz de la SierraGoogle Scholar
  18. Estes J a, Terborgh J, Brashares JS, Power ME, Berger J, Bond WJ, Carpenter SR, Essington TE, Holt RD, Jackson JBC, Marquis RJ, Oksanen L, Oksanen T, Paine RT, Pikitch EK, Ripple WJ, Sandin S a, Scheffer M, Schoener TW, Shurin JB, Sinclair ARE, Soulé ME, Virtanen R, Wardle D (2011) Trophic downgrading of planet earth. Science 333:301–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Foster R, Harmsen B, Valdez B, Pomilla C, Doncaster C (2010) Food habits of sympatric jaguars and pumas, across a gradient of human disturbance. J Zool 280:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Foster RJ, Harmsen BJ, Macdonald DW, Collins J, Urbina Y, Garcia R, Doncaster CP (2014) Wild meat: a shared resource amongst people and predators. Oryx:1–13Google Scholar
  21. Gilroy JJ, Ordiz A, Bischof R (2015) Carnivore coexistence : value the wilderness. Sci Lett 347:382Google Scholar
  22. Graham K, Beckerman AP, Thirgood S (2004) Human–predator–prey conflicts: ecological correlates, prey losses and patterns of management. Biol Conserv 122:159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoogesteijn A (1993) Jaguar predation and consrvation: cattle mortality caused by felines on three ranches in the Venezuelan Llanos. Zool. Soc. London, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoogesteijn, A., Hoogesteijn, R. (2011). Estrategias anti-depredación para fincas ganaderas en latinoamérica: una guía. In: El Futuro Del Jaguar en el nuevo MilenioGoogle Scholar
  25. Inskip C, Zimmermann A (2009) Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson, P., Nowell, K. (1996). Wild cats: status survey and conservation action plan. World Conservation Union; 2 editionGoogle Scholar
  27. Jori, F., Bourgarel, M., Cavalcante Santos, C., Chardonnet, Philippe Zimmermann, A., Coelho, R., Mezeray, J.M. (2006). Importância da onça parda (Puma concolor) e onça pintada (Panthera Onça) no conflito com os fazendeiros no Pantanal e atitude dos fazendeiros para com a onça pintada. In Conference: Conflito Homem-Animal. IlheusGoogle Scholar
  28. Kissling D, Fernández N, Paruelo JM (2009) Spatial risk assessment of livestock exposure to pumas in Patagonia. Argentina Ecography (Cop) 32:807–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kleiven J, Bjerke T, Kalterborn BP (2004) Factors infuencing the social acceptability of large carnivore behaviours. Biodivers Conserv 13:1647–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maffei L, Cuellar E, Noss A (2004) One thousand jaguars (Panthera onca) in Bolivias Chaco? Camera trapping in the Kaa-Iya National Park. J Zool 262:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marchini S, Macdonald DW (2012) Predicting ranchers’ intention to kill jaguars: case studies in Amazonia and Pantanal. Biol Conserv 147:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mazolli M, Graipel M, Dunstone N (2002) Mountainlion depredation in southern Brazil. Biol Conserv 105:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Michalski F, Boulhosa R, Faira A, Peres C (2006) Human–wildlife conflicts in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape: determinants of large felid depredation on livestock. Anim Conserv 9:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mondolfi E, Hoogesteijn R (1986) Notes on the biology and status of the jaguar in Venezuela. In: Cats of the world: biology, conservation and management. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, pp 125–146Google Scholar
  35. Palmeira FBL, Crawshaw PG, Haddad CM, Ferraz KMPMB, Verdade LM (2008) Cattle depredation by puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) in central-western Brazil. Biol Conserv 141:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Parker, T. a, Gentry, A.H., Foster, R.B., Emmons, L.H., Remsen Jr., J. V. (1993). The lowland dry forests of Santa Cruz, Bolivia: a global conservation priority. Rapid Assessment Program Working PapersGoogle Scholar
  37. Polisar J, Maxit I, Scognamillo D, Farrell L, Sunquist ME, Eisenberg JF (2003) Jaguars, pumas, their prey base, and cattle ranching: ecological interpretations of a management problem. Biol Conserv 109:297–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. QGIS Development Team (2011). QGIS geographic information system. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. http://qgis.osgeo.org
  39. Quigley HB, Crawshaw PG (1992) A conservation plan for the jaguar Panthera onca in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Biol Conserv 61:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rabinowitz A (1986) Jaguar predation on domestic livestock in Belize. Wildl Soc Bull 14:170–174Google Scholar
  41. Rabinowitz A, Zeller K (2010) A range-wide model of landscape connectivity and conservation for the jaguar, Panthera onca. Biol Conserv 143:939–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. R Development Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. Available: http://www.R-project.org/ Google Scholar
  43. Redpath SM, Young J, Evely A, Adams WM, Sutherland WJ, Whitehouse A, Amar A, Lambert R a, Linnell JDC, Watt A, Gutiérrez RJ (2013) Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends Ecol Evol 28:100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ripple WJ, Estes JA, Beschta RL, Wilmers C, Ritchie EG, Hebblewhite M, Berger J, Elmhagen B, Letnic M, Nelson MP, Smitz O, Smith D, Wallach A, Wirising AJ (2014) Status and ecological effects of the worlds largest carnivores. Science 343:1241484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rosas-Rosas O, Bender L, Valdez R (2008) Jaguar and puma predation on cattle calves in Northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Rangel Ecol Manag 61:554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Saenz, J., Carrillo, E. (2002) Jaguares depredadores de ganado en Costa Rica: ¿un problema sin solución? In El jaguar en el nuevo milenio: una evaluacio ́n de su estado, deteccio ́n de prioridades y recomendaciones para la conservacio ́n de los jaguares en America (eds R.A. Medell ́ın, C.L.B. Chetkiewicz, A. Rabinowitz, K.H. Redford, J.G. Robinson, E.W. Sanderson & A.B. Taber), pp. 127–137. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico/Wildlife Conservation Society, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  47. Sanderson EW, Redford KH, Chetkiewicz CLB, Medellin R a, Rabinowitz AR, Robinson JG, Taber AB (2002) Planning to save a species: the jaguar as a model. Conserv Biol 16:58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Scognamillo D, Maxit I, Sunquist M, Polisar J (2003) Coexistence of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) in a mosaic landscape in the Venezuelan llanos. J Zool 259:269–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sillero-Zubiri, C., Treves, A., Sukumar, R. (2007). Living with wildlife: the roots of conflict and the solution. in: Macdonald, D., Service, K. (Eds.), Key topics in conservation biology. Blackwell Publishing, pp. 258–300Google Scholar
  50. Soisalo MK, Cavalcanti SMC (2006) Estimating the density of a jaguar population in the Brazilian Pantanal using camera-traps and capture-recapture sampling in combination with GPS radio-telemetry. Biol Conserv 129:487–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tortato FR, Layme G, Crawhaw PG, Izzo TJ (2015) The impact of herd composition and foraging area on livestock predation by big cats in the Pantanal of Brazil. Anim Conserv 18:539–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Treves A, Karanth KU (2003) Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conserv Biol 17:1491–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Venables WN, Ripley BD (2002) Modern applied statistics with S, Fourth edn. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Woodroffe R (1998) Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science (80) 280:2126–2128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Woodroffe R, Redpath SM (2015) When the hunter becomes the hunted. Science (80) 348:1312–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (2005) People and wildlife. Conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zar JH (1999) Biostatistical analysis. Pearson Education, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  58. Zarco-González M, Monroy-Vilchis O, Alaníz J (2013) Spatial model of livestock predation by jaguar and puma in Mexico: conservation planning. Biol Conserv 159:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zimmermann A, Walpole MJ, Leader-Williams N (2005) Cattle ranchers’ attitudes to conflicts with jaguar Panthera onca in the Pantanal of Brazil. Oryx 39:406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Conservation BiologyEstación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC)SevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations