Advertisement

European Journal of Wildlife Research

, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp 399–406 | Cite as

Wildlife-vehicle collisions in Spain

  • Antonio Sáenz-de-Santa-MaríaEmail author
  • José L. Tellería
Original Paper

Abstract

Wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) are important in wildlife management due to their increasing socioeconomic impacts and pervasive effect on some endangered species. In this study, we depict the involved species and evaluate the geographic distribution and economic cost of this human-animal interaction in Spain. We used unpublished information on 74,600 WVC reported by police statements from 2006 to 2012. These collisions accounted for 8.9 % of all reported road traffic accidents in the country. They were unevenly distributed, with WVC accounting for 30–50 % of all road traffic accidents in some mountainous provinces in the north. Results show that wild boar (Sus scrofa) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), two abundant free-ranging ungulates (O. Artiodactyla) whose populations have expanded throughout Spain during the last few decades, were involved in 79 % of WVC. These species were responsible for most economic losses and, in the case of the wild boar, for most human injuries. The number of vehicle collisions involving large carnivores (O. Carnivora) was small, with the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) present in most cases (70 %). They included some endangered species (brown bear, Ursus arctos, and Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus). The results provide a reliable picture of WVC in Spain and provide the first assessment of the economic cost of this wildlife-human interaction (105 million € yearly).

Keywords

Road ecology Roadkill Socioeconomic cost Ungulates (Artiodactyla) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Data reported in this paper were kindly provided by Endika Urtaran (Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism, Spanish Government), Justiniano Redondo (Jefatura Provincial de Tráfico de Álava, Ministry of Interior, Spanish Government), Carlos Hernáez (Ministry of Development, Spanish Government), Garbiñe Sáez (Director of Traffic, Department of Safety, Basque Government), Victorino García (Road Statistical Department, Basque Government), and Jonatan Calafi (Department of Land and Sustainability, Catalonian Government). We also thank the Guardia Civil, Ertzaintza, and Mossos d’Esquadra officers involved in the collection of data reported in this paper. Sarah Young kindly improved the English of an early draft. AS thanks Charo Zárate for continuous support throughout this investigation. We are indebted to Carme Rosell, who substantially improved an earlier version of this paper.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10344_2015_907_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (328 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 327 kb)

References

  1. Abellán JM, Martínez JE, Méndez I, Pinto JL, Sánchez FI (2010) El valor monetario de una vida estadística en España, Estimación en el contexto de los accidentes de tráfico, Universidad de Murcia y Universidad Pablo de Olavide, funded by Dirección General de Tráfico, 111 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Acevedo P, Farfán MA, Márquez AL, Delibes-Mateos M, Real R, Vargas JM (2011) Past, present and future of wild ungulates in relation to changes in land use. Landsc Ecol 26:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benayas JR, Martins A, Nicolau JM, Schulz JJ (2007) Abandonment of agricultural land: an overview of drivers and consequences. CAB Rev Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutri Nat Res 2(57):1–14Google Scholar
  4. Barrientos R, Bolonio L (2009) The presence of rabbits adjacent to roads increases polecat road mortality. Biodivers Conserv 18:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caletrio J, Fernández JM, López J, Roviralta F (1996) Spanish National inventory on road mortality of vertebrates. Global Biodivers 5:15–18Google Scholar
  6. Calzada J, Guzmán JN, Rodríguez A (2007) Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827). Ficha Libro Rojo. Pp. 345–347. In L.J. Palomo, J. Gisbert, y J.C. Blanco (eds.). Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos Terrestres de España. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad-SECEM-SECEMU, Madrid. 588 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Camps F, Rosell C, Boronat C, Fernández-Bou M, Martínez M, Navàs F, Serra V (2012) Estudi de l’accidentalitat provocada per animals en llibertat a la xarxa de carreteres de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Generalitat de Catalunya, Departament de Territori i Sostenibilitat, Direcció General de Carreteres, Unpublished report. 212 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Carbone C, Gittleman JL (2002) A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273–2276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carretero MA, Rosell C (2000) Incidencia del atropello de anfibios, reptiles y otros vertebrados en un tramo de carretera de nueva construcción. Boletín de la Asociación Herpetológica Española 11:39–43Google Scholar
  10. Clevenger AP, Chruszcz B, Gunson KE (2001) Highway mitigation fencing reduces wildlife-vehicle collisions. Wildl Soc Bull 29:646–653Google Scholar
  11. Coffin AW (2007) From roadkill to road ecology: a review of the ecological effects of roads. J Transp Geogr 15:396–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colino VJ, Lizana M (2012) Herpetofauna and roads: a review. Basic Appl Herpetol 26:5–31Google Scholar
  13. Colino VJ, Lizana M, Peris SJ (2011) Factors influencing wolf Canis lupus roadkills in Northwest Spain. Eur J Wildl Res 57(3):399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conover MR, Pitt WC, Kessler KK, DuBow TJ, Sanborn WA (1995) Review of human injuries, illnesses, and economic losses caused by wildlife in the United States. Wildl Soc Bull 23:407–414Google Scholar
  15. Danzberger JB (2009) La caza: un elemento esencial en el desarrollo rural. El nuevo sistema agroalimentario en una crisis global”. Mediterráneo Económico 15:183–203Google Scholar
  16. Delibes M, Rodriguez A, Ferreras P (2000). Action plan for the conservation of the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Europe. Nature and Environment, 111.Council of EuropeGoogle Scholar
  17. Delibes-Mateos M, Farfán MA, Olivero J, Márquez AL, Vargas JM (2009) Long-term changes in games species over a long period of transformation in the Iberian Mediterranean landscape. Environ Manag 46:1256–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DGT (Dirección General de Tráfico) (2012) Las principales cifras de la Siniestralidad Vial España 2011. Comisión Seguridad Vial y Movilidad Sostenible, Dirección General de Tráfico, Ministerio del Interior, Gobierno de España, Madrid, 32 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. DGT (Dirección General de Tráfico) (2013) Las principales cifras de la siniestralidad Vial España 2012. Dirección General de Tráfico, Ministerio del Interior, Gobierno de España, Madrid, 151 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Farell MC, Tappe PA (2007) County-level factors contributing to deer–vehicle collisions in Arkansas. J Wildl Manag 71(8):2727–2731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferreras P, Aldama JJ, Beltran JF, Delibes M (1992) Rates and causes of mortality in fragmented population of Iberian lynx Felis pardina Temminck, 1824. Biol Conserv 61:197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forman RTT, Alexander LE (1998) Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29:207–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fundación Oso Pardo (2014). www.fundacionosopardo.org. Accesed 30 April 2014
  24. García-Delgado JDD, Arévalo JR, Fernández-Palacios JM (2007) Road edge effects on the abundance of the lizard Gallotia galloti (Sauria: Lacertidae) in two Canary Islands forests. Biodivers Conserv 16:2949–2963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. García-González C, Campo D, Pola IG, García-Vázquez E (2012) Rural road networks as barriers to gene flow for amphibians: species-dependent mitigation by traffic calming. Landsc Urban Plan 104:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Garrido JL (2012) La caza. Sector Económico. Valoración por subsectores. FEDENCA-EEC, Madrid, 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Groot-Bruinderink GW, Hazebroek E (1996) Ungulate traffic collisions in Europe. Conserv Biol 10:1059–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gunson KE, Mountrakis G, Quackenbush LJ (2010) Spatial wildlife–vehicle collision models: a review of current work and its application to transportation mitigation projects. J Environ Manag 92:1074–1082. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.11.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hodgson JA, Moilanen A, Wintle BA, Thomas CD (2011) Habitat area, quality and connectivity: striking the balance for efficient conservation. J Appl Ecol 48(1):148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. INE 2014. Evolución de la población en España. Instituto Nacional de Estadística. www.ine.es. Accesed 2 may 2014
  31. IUCN, Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la naturaleza y los Recursos Naturales (2013) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013,2. www.iucnredlist.org. Accesed 7 January 2014
  32. Iuell B, Bekker H, Cuperus R, Dufek J, Fry G, Hicks C, Hlavác V, Keller V, Rosell C, Sangwine T, Tørsløv N, Wandall B. le Maire (2003) COST 341: Habitat fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure: wildlife and traffic; a European handbook for identifying conflicts and designing solutions. KNNV PublishersGoogle Scholar
  33. Joyce TL, Mahoney SP (2001) Spatial and temporal distributions of moose–vehicle collisions in Newfoundland. Wildl Soc Bull 29(1):281–291Google Scholar
  34. Junta de Andalucía (2014). www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente. Accesed 30 April,
  35. Kindlmann P, Burel F (2008) Connectivity measures: a review. Landsc Ecol 23(8):879–890Google Scholar
  36. Lagos L, Picos J, Valero E (2012) Temporal pattern of wild ungulate-related traffic accidents in northwest Spain. Eur J Wildl Res 58:661–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Langbein J, Putman RJ, Pokorny B (2011) Traffic collisions involving deer and other ungulates in Europe and available measures for mitigation. In Putman R, Apollonio M, Andersen R (eds.). Ungulate Management in Europe, Problems and Practices. Cambrigde University Press. Chapter 8. pp 215-259Google Scholar
  38. Langley RL, Mathison J (2008) Worldwide characteristics and mitigation strategies for motor vehicle-animal collisions. In: Bartley GP (ed) Traffic accidents: causes and outcomes. Nova Science Publishers. Inc, New York, pp 75–96Google Scholar
  39. Malo JE, Suárez F, Díez A (2004) Can we mitigate animal-vehicle accidents using predictive models? J Appl Ecol 41:701–710. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00929.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mateos-Quesada P (2005) Corzo-Capreolus capreolus. In: Carrascal LM, Salvador A (eds.). Enciclopedia Virtual de los Vertebrados Españoles. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Madrid. www.vertebradosibericos.org/. Accesed 12 May 2014
  41. Ministerio de Fomento (2013) Mapa de Tráfico 2012. Principales resultados provinciales y nacionales de tráfico registrado en la Red de Carreteras del Estado (R.C.E.). Secretaría General de Infraestructuras. Dirección General de CarreterasGoogle Scholar
  42. Morell K, Lehaire F, Lejeune P (2013) Spatio-temporal patterns of wildlife-vehicle collisions in a region with a high-density road network. Nature Conserv 5:53–73. doi: 10.3897/natureconservation.5.4634 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mulero A (2013) El paisaje forestal-cinegético en Sierra Morena: una lectura geográfica. Cuadernos Geográficos 52(1):108–128Google Scholar
  44. Mysterud A (2004) Temporal variation in the number of car-killed red deer Cervus elaphus in Norway. Wildl Biol 10(3):203–211Google Scholar
  45. Palomo LJ, Gisbert J, Blanco JC (eds) (2007) Atlas y libro rojo de los Mamíferos Terrestres de España. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad-SECEM-SECEMU, Madrid, 588 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Pérez T, Naves J, Vázquez JF, Seijas J, Corao A, Albornoz J, Dominguez A (2010) Evidence for improved connectivity between Cantabrian Brown bear subpopulations. Ursus 21(1):104–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rosell C, Fernández-Bou M, Camps F, Boronat C, Navàs F, Martínez M, Sorolla A (2013) Animal-vehicle collisions: a new cooperative strategy is needed to reduce the conflicto. Proceedings ICOET 2013 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Scottsdale, Arizona, USA, 23-27th June 2013Google Scholar
  48. Sáez-Royuela C, Tellería JL (1986) The increased population of the wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in Europe. Mammal Rev 16:97–101. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2907.1986.tb00027.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Santos X, Llorente GA, Montori A, Carretero MA, Franch M, Garriga N, Richter-Boix A (2007) Evaluating factor affecting amphibian mortality on roads: the case of the Common Toad Bufo bufo, near a breeding place. Anim Biodivers Conserv 30(1):97–104Google Scholar
  50. Seber GA (1982) The estimation of animal abundance and related parameters. Griffin, London, 672 ppGoogle Scholar
  51. StatSoft (2004) STATISTICA. data analysis software system.version 7. StatSoft, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  52. Steiner W, Leisch F, Hackländer K (2014) A review on the temporal pattern of deer–vehicle accidents: impact of seasonal, diurnal and lunar effects in cervids. Accident Anal Prevent 66:168–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vanlaar WGM, Gunson KE, Brown SW, Robertson RD (2012) Wildlife-vehicle collisions in Canada: a review of the literature and a compendium of existing data sources. Traffic Injury Research Foundation & Eco-Kare International, Otawa, 69 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. World Bank (2014) “Densidad vial”. Tablas de Indicadores del desarrollo mundial (WDI). www.datos.bancomundial.org. Accesed 2 May 2014
  55. WWF España (2013) Informe atropellos lince carreteras España 2013, www.wwf.es. Accesed 19 August 2013
  56. Zuberogoitia I, del Real J, Torres JJ, Rodriguez L, Alonso M, Zabala J (2014) Ungulate vehicle collisions in a peri-urban environment: consequences of transportation infrastructures planned assuming the absence of ungulates. PLoS ONE 9(9):e107713. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107713 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Sáenz-de-Santa-María
    • 1
    Email author
  • José L. Tellería
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física (Vertebrados), Facultad de BiologíaUniversidad ComplutenseMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations