European Journal of Wildlife Research

, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 265–270

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis

  • M. V. Palmer
  • M. R. Stafne
  • W. R. Waters
  • T. C. Thacker
  • G. E. Phillips
Original Paper


White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA, are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in white-tailed deer after experimental challenge with virulent M. bovis. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the palatability of a molasses-based bait for oral delivery of BCG to white-tailed deer. Relevant practical properties of the bait such as physical stability under various environmental conditions were evaluated, as well as palatability. Captive deer consumed baits within 3 h of introduction during 48 of 50 trials. Digital game cameras revealed consumption of all placed baits by one deer over 62 % of the time. Addition of BCG vaccine did not negatively impact palatability. Physical stability analysis demonstrated that ice and water significantly reduced bait stability as measured with a compression assay. Storage of BCG-containing baits at 4 °C showed a slight decrease in colony-forming units (CFUs) by day 31. In contrast, storage at −20 or −80 °C over the same 31-day period showed no significant decrease in BCG viability. The results of this study suggest that molasses-based baits, as prepared here, represent a plausible means of oral delivery of BCG to white-tailed deer under most environmental conditions.


Bait White-tailed deer Mycobacterium bovis Tuberculosis Vaccination 

Supplementary material

Online Resource 1

Near video images showing data collection of bait consumption observations. An example of “Different deer returning” is shown. (MPG 4656 kb).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. V. Palmer
    • 1
  • M. R. Stafne
    • 1
  • W. R. Waters
    • 1
  • T. C. Thacker
    • 1
  • G. E. Phillips
    • 2
  1. 1.United States Department of AgricultureNational Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research ServiceAmesUSA
  2. 2.United States Department of AgricultureNational Wildlife Research Center, Animal and Plant Health Inspection ServiceFort CollinsUSA

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