Temporal kinetics of fluoride accumulation: from fetal to adult deer
- 143 Downloads
In June 2011, a volcano deposited about 100 million tons of tephra over parts of Chile and over 36 million ha of Argentina. Initially, fluoride was considered irrelevant; however, recently wild deer exhibited strong fluorosis, with fluoride level increasing 38-fold among severely affected deer. Whereas mothers averaged 2,151 ppm, their late-term fetuses had only 19.8 ppm, indicating a barrier to fluoride transport in utero. Levels among four age classes increased significantly, at a rate of about 1,000 ppm/year. The temporal kinetics of accumulation suggests that sources of available fluoride are highly effective. Thus, compared to prior background levels (63 ppm in adults) and to fetuses starting at about 20 ppm, 1-year-old calves averaged 1,035 ppm (maximum 1,830 ppm), 2-year olds averaged 2,151 ppm (maximum 2,513 ppm), and older deer averaged 2,806 ppm (maximum 5,175 ppm). As osteofluorosis occurs in deer with >4,000 ppm, accumulation of 1,000 ppm/year would result in adults reaching levels causing osteopathology in 1–2 years. Importantly, impacts may be further exacerbated by regional iodine and selenium deficiencies. Iodine deficiency may increase incidences of dental fluorosis and severity of damages, while selenium deficiency impacts iodine metabolism. Fluorosis will affect population dynamics, morbidity, predation susceptibility, and other ecosystem components like scavenger and plant communities.
KeywordsCervids Cervus elaphus Fluorosis Kinetics Pathology Tephra Volcanic eruption
This research was done on private land within a natural reserve of the Argentine Administración de Parques Nacionales (permit 070-2012). The authors are grateful to Juan Jones, Konrad Bailey, Pio Pigorini, Lalo Martinez, and Ricky Aquirre for facilitating access and allowing us to work on their properties. Logistics were provided by DeerLab, Argentina, and we also thank Swazi New Zealand for protective field garments, Rubén Kodjaian for providing our office with crucial logistics via the Hostería El Retorno, and Beat Fuchs for his dedicated field assistance.
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
- Chongwan H, Daijei H, Tingzhong Z, Cundong W (1986) Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observations on human fetal bones from an endemic fluorosis area. Fluoride 19:18–22Google Scholar
- DGA (Dirección General de Aguas) (2012) Informa resultados del programa de monitoreo de emergencia por erupción volcánica en Cordón Caulle. Minuta 7, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago, Chile. 56 pp. http://documentos.dga.cl/CQA5306.pdf Accessed 1 Nov 2012
- Flueck WT (2013) Effects of fluoride intoxication on teeth of livestock due to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia, Argentina. Onl J Vet Res 17:167–176Google Scholar
- Gurumurthy Sastry M, Mohanty S, Rao P (2010) Role of placenta to combat fluorosis (in fetus) in endemic fluorosis area. Nat J Integr Res Med 1:16–19Google Scholar
- Hufner R, Osuna CM (2011) Caracterización de muestras de cenizas volcánicas volcán Puyehue. Doc. C289-CCGG-9IPCA-001-A, INVAP S.E., Bariloche, Argentina. 4 pp. http://organismos.chubut.gov.ar/ambiente/files/2011/06/Informe-Cenizas-Puyehue1.-INVAP.pdf Accessed 1 Nov 2012
- Kay CE, Gordon CC, Tourangeau PC (1975) Industrial fluorosis in wild mule and whitetail deer from Western Montana. Fluoride 8:182–191Google Scholar
- Kay E, Tourangeau PC, Gordon CC (1976) Populational variation of fluoride parameters in wild ungulates from the western United States. Fluoride 9:73–90Google Scholar
- NRC (National Research Council) (2006) Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA's standards. National Academies, Washington, DC, 530 ppGoogle Scholar
- Rigalli A, Pera LI, Di Loreto V, Brun LR (2007) Determinación de la concentración de flúor en muestras biológicas. Editorial de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario, RosarioGoogle Scholar
- Salvaneschi JP, García JR (2009) El bocio endémico en la República Argentina. Antecedentes, extensión y magnitud de la endemia, antes y después del empleo de la sal enriquecida con yodo. Segunda parte. Rev Arg Endocrinol Metabol 46:35–57Google Scholar
- Wilson T, Stewart C, Bickerton H, et al. (2012) The health and environmental impacts of the June 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex eruption. Report on the findings of a multidisciplinary team investigation, 2012. 34 pp. www.diarioandino.com.ar/diario/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Impactos-en-la-salud-y-el-ambiente-tras-la-erupci%C3%B3n-de-Junio-2011-de-CVPCC-Mayo-2012.pdf Accessed 1 Nov 2012
- Xu Y, Lu C, Zhang X (1994) The effect of fluoride on the level of intelligence in children. Endemic Dis Bull 9:83–84Google Scholar