European Journal of Wildlife Research

, Volume 57, Issue 4, pp 785–793

Avian pox infection in different wild birds in India

  • Rahul Mohanchandra Pawar
  • Sirigineedi Sasi Bhushan
  • Anantula Poornachandar
  • Uthandaraman Lakshmikantan
  • Sisinthy Shivaji
Original Paper

Abstract

Amplicons of fpv167 and fpv140, of 578 and 1,800 bp, respectively, characteristic of the avipox viral genes, were amplified by PCR using DNA from viruses isolated from eight Indian wild birds. BLAST and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the fpv167 and fpv140 amplicons indicated that Fowlpox virus (FWPV) was the nearest phylogenetic neighbour to the viral isolates, from two Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus), two golden pheasants (Chrysolophus pictus), one silver pheasant (Lopahura nycthemera) and one sparrow (Passer domesticus). However, the two isolates from the Indian little brown dove (Stigmatopelia senegalensis) and the common wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) formed a separate cluster with turkeypox and pigeonpox virus (PGPV) isolates when the phylogenetic tree was constructed using the sequence of fpv167. When the phylogenetic analysis was done using the fpv140 gene sequence both isolates formed a cluster with isolates of PGPV. Thus, the results support that fpv140 gene along with the fpv167 gene should be used for phylogenetic analyses of avipoxviruses for better discrimination of the viruses. Additionally, avian poxvirus isolated from wild birds of India were identical to those reported in Indian domestic birds, and phylogenetically related to avian poxviruses reported from different parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of avian poxviruses infecting different wild birds in India. The study shows that FWPV and PGPV cause infection in wild birds irrespective of the species of birds indicating that these viruses are not species specific. Thus these viruses, which are not host specific have the ability to cause infection in game birds, endangered birds and domestic birds and therefore could spread easily.

Keywords

Avian poxvirus Wild birds Fowlpox virus Pigeonpox virus Molecular characterization 

References

  1. Adams CJ, Feldman SH, Sleeman JM (2005) Phylogenetic analysis of avian poxviruses among free-ranging birds of Virginia. Avian Dis 49:601–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolte AL, Meurer J, Kaleta EF (1999) Avian host spectrum of avipoxviruses. Avian Pathol 28:415–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boosinger TR, Winterfield RW, Feldman DS, Dhillon AS (1982) Psittacine pox virus: virus isolation and identification, transmission, and cross-challenge studies in parrots and chickens. Avian Dis 26:437–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carulei O, Douglass N, Williamson A (2009) Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus. Virol J 6:52. doi:10.1186/1743-422x-6-52 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dana SS (1998) Animal husbandry practices among Santal and Lodha tribes of Medinipur district of West Bengal. Ph.D. thesis, submitted to the Division of Extension Education, Deemed University Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (UP), IndiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Dash BB, Kataria MJ, Mazoomdar S, Dhama K (2003) Avipox virus infections in Turkeys. Paper presented at the XXI conference of Indian Assosciation of Veterinary Microbiologists, Immunologists and Infectious Diseases (IAVMI) and national seminar on prospects and challenges for better livestock and poultry health management employing conventional and molecular approaches, at ICAR research complex for NEH Region, Umiam. Barapani, Meghalaya, India, p 67Google Scholar
  7. Ensley PK, Anderson MP, Costello ML, Powell HC, Cooper R (1978) Epornitic of avian pox in a zoo. J Am Vet Med Assoc 173:1111–1114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Jarmin S, Manvell R, Gough RE, Laidlaw SM, Skinner MA (2006) Avipoxvirus phylogenetics: identification of a PCR length polymorphism that discriminates between the two major clades. J Gen Virol 87:2191–2201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kumar S, Dudley J, Nei M, Tamura K (2008) MEGA: A biologist-centric software for evolutionary analysis of DNA and protein sequences. Brief Bioinform 9:299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee LH, Lee KH (1997) Application of the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of fowl poxvirus infection. J Virol Meth 63:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Literak I, Kulich P, Robesova B, Adamik P, Roubalova E (2010) Avipoxvirus in great tits (Parus major). Eur J Wildl Res 56(4):529–534. doi:10.1007/s10344-009-0345-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Luschow D, Hoffmann T, Hafez HM (2004) Differentiation of avian poxvirus strains on the basis of nucleotide sequences of 4b gene fragment. Avian Dis 48:453–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mandal MK, Khandekar N, Khandekar P (2006) Backyard poultry farming in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh, India: an analysis. Livest Res Rural Dev 18:7Google Scholar
  14. Mohan M, Fernandez TF (2008) A case report of pigeon pox-histopathologic diagnosis. Vet Worl 1(4):117–118Google Scholar
  15. Mohanty G (1987) Poultry health programme for rural poultry development. Paper presented at the FAO expert consultation on rural poultry development in Asia, Dhaka, Bangladesh, p 23Google Scholar
  16. Moyer RW, Arif BM, Black DN, Boyle DB, Buller RM, Dumbell KR, Esposito JJ, McFadden G, Moss B, Mercer AA, Ropp S, Tripathy DN, Upton C (2000) Family Poxviridae. In: Virus taxonomy, classification, and nomenclature of viruses. Seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego. pp 137–157Google Scholar
  17. Murphy FA, Gibbs EPJ, Horzinek MC, Studdert MJ (1999) Poxviridae. In: Veterinary virology, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 277–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pradhan SK (1997) Characterisation of a Quail pox virus (Coturnix coturni japonica). M.V.Sc. thesis submitted in veterinary virology submitted to Deemed University of Indian Veterinary Research Institute (UP), IndiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Reece RL (1989) Avian pathogens: their biology and methods of spread. In: Disease and threatened birds. ICBP technical publication. Cooper JE, ed. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, United Kingdom 10:1–23Google Scholar
  20. Reed KD, Melski JW, Graham MB, Regnery RL, Sotir MJ, Wegner MV, Kazmierczak JJ, Stratman EJ, Li Y, Fairley JA, Swain GR, Olson VA, Sargent EK, Kehl SC, Frace MA, Kline R, Foldy SL, Davis JP, Damon IK (2004) The detection of monkeypox in humans in the Western Hemisphere. N Engl J Med 350:342–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Schnitzlein WM, Ghildyal N, Tripathy DN (1988) Genomic and antigenic characterization of avipoxviruses. Virus Res 10:65–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Singh DP (2000) Thrills and challenges for backyard poultry production. In: Proceedings of recent advances in rural poultry farming, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar (UP), IndiaGoogle Scholar
  24. Singh R, Kataria JM, Mullick SG, Mall MP, Malhotra DP (1990) An outbreak of pigeon pox involving eight local golla breed of pigeons in rural areas of Bareilly district. Indian J Comp Microbiol Immunol Infect Dis 11(1):46–47Google Scholar
  25. Singh A, Dash BB, Kataria JM, Dandapat S, Dhama K (2003) Characterisation of an Indian isolate of turkey poxvirus. Indian J Comp Microbiol Immunol Infect Dis 24(2):149–152Google Scholar
  26. Tadese T, Reed WM (2003) Use of restriction fragment length polymorphism, immunoblotting, and polymerase chain reaction in the differentiation of avian poxviruses. J Vet Diagn Invest 15:141–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucl Acids Res 25:4876–4882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tripathy DN (1991) Pox. Diseases of poultry. Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, Reid WM, Yoder Jr. HW, eds. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, In, pp 583–596Google Scholar
  29. Tripathy DN, Reed WM (1997) Pox. In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM (eds) Diseases of poultry, 10th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, pp 643–659Google Scholar
  30. Tripathy DN, Reed WM, American Association of Avian Pathologists (1998a) In: Swayne DE, Glisson JR, Jackwood MW, Pearson JE, Reed WM (eds) Pox. In: A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens, 4th edn. New Bolton Center, Kennet Square, pp 137–140Google Scholar
  31. Tripathy DN, Singh P, Schnitzlein WM (1998b) Fowl pox: a re-emerging disease in chickens. In: Proceedings of the 49th North-central avian disease conference and symposium on enteric and emerging diseases, Indian Poles, Inc. p 36Google Scholar
  32. Tripathy DN, Schnitzlein WM, Morris PJ, Janssen DL, Zuba JK, Massey G, Atkinson CT (2000) Characterization of poxviruses from forest birds in Hawaii. J Wildl Dis 36:225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Van Riper CIII, Van Riper SG, Hansen WR (2002) Epizootiology and effects of avian pox on Hawaiian forest birds. Auk 119:929–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Warner RE (1968) The role of introduced diseases in the extinction of the endemic Hawaiian avifauna. Condor 70:101–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weli SC, Traavik T, Tryland M, Coucheron DH, Nilssen O (2004) Analysis and comparison of the 4b core protein gene of avipoxviruses from wild birds: evidence for interspecies spatial phylogenetic variation. Arch Virol 149:2035–2046PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yadav S, Dash BB, Kataria JM, Dhama K, Gupta SK, Rahul S (2007) Pathogenicity study of different avipoxviruses in embryonated chicken eggs and cell cultures. Indian J Vet Path 31(1):17–20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahul Mohanchandra Pawar
    • 1
  • Sirigineedi Sasi Bhushan
    • 1
  • Anantula Poornachandar
    • 1
  • Uthandaraman Lakshmikantan
    • 1
  • Sisinthy Shivaji
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Conservation of Endangered SpeciesCentre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB)HyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations