Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars
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We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study.
KeywordsCanis lupus Global positioning system (GPS) collars Predation Telemetry White-tailed deer Wolf
This study was supported by the Biological Resources Division, United States Geological Survey, and the United Sates Department of Agriculture NorthCentral Research Station. We thank M.E. Nelson, D. Thompson, and A. Bennett for field assistance, and especially M. Clark for special devotion to this project, and D.J. Demma and S.M. Barber-Meyer for reviewing the manuscript and offering helpful suggestions for improvement.
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