European Journal of Wildlife Research

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 531–533 | Cite as

No distinct difference in the excretion of large particles of varying size in a wild ruminant, the banteng (Bos javanicus)

  • Angela Schwarm
  • Sylvia Ortmann
  • Christian Wolf
  • Marcus ClaussEmail author
Short Communication


The forestomach of ruminants and camelids does not only allow a differential excretion of fluids and small particles but also a differential excretion of small and large particles. The question whether larger particles of different size classes are also retained for different time periods, or whether simply a particle-size threshold exists above which all particles of a size higher than this threshold are retained in an undifferentiated manner, has not been addressed so far. We determined the mean retention time (MRT) of different-sized large particles (10 and 20 mm) in three banteng (Bos javanicus) on two forage only diets, grass and grass hay. We used cerium-mordanted fibre (10 mm) and lanthanum-mordanted fibre (20 mm) as particle markers, mixed in the food. Average total tract MRT for large and very large particles at the grass diet was 58 and 56 h and at the grass hay diet 66 and 64 h, respectively. Very large particles moved slightly faster than large particles through the gut of the banteng. Three interpretations are possible: Very large particles are resubmitted to rumination sooner than large particles; ingestive mastication of the particle markers could have reduced the difference in the size of the particle markers; alternatively, particle retention may be governed by a threshold, above which all particles of a size higher than this threshold are retained in an undifferentiated manner. In order to test these possibilities, experiments with fistulated animals would have to be performed.


Ruminant Particle size Retention Ingestion Mastication 



This study was supported by grants from the Freie Universität Berlin (NaFöG) to AS and the German Science Foundation (DFG) to SO (OR 86/1-1). We thank the staff of the Zoological Garden of Berlin, the IZW Berlin and the Landeslabor Brandenburg for their engaged support. This study complied with current German laws.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela Schwarm
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sylvia Ortmann
    • 1
  • Christian Wolf
    • 4
  • Marcus Clauss
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Freie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Research Institute for the Biology of Farm AnimalsDummerstorfGermany
  4. 4.Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and EnergyBerlinGermany
  5. 5.Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse FacultyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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