Advertisement

European Journal of Wildlife Research

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 583–588 | Cite as

Evaluation of potential deer browsing impact on sunflower (Helianthus annus)

  • Jiří KamlerEmail author
  • Miloslav Homolka
  • Radim Cerkal
  • Marta Heroldová
  • Jarmila Krojerová-Prokešová
  • Miroslava Barančeková
  • Jan Dvořák
  • Karel Vejražka
Original Paper

Abstract

Large herbivores are the key species for game management in the Central Europe. Analyses of factors affecting the feeding behaviour of herbivores and consequences of their browsing are therefore highly important both for farmers and for game managers as the protective measurements should be focused on the most threatened fields. The influence of fallow (Dama dama) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) browsing during vegetation period on sunflower production was studied. The experiment was carried out in 2006 on a field located near a forest complex. We marked out pairs of paired permanent plots and monitored deer impact regularly from the emergence of plants until the harvest. Herbivores damaged the sunflower intensively immediately after the emergence at the height of 1 to 2 cm above the ground. When the plants had reached approximately 15-40 cm in height, deer browsed the top shoots and as the plants grew higher the browsing was restricted to leaves or to substitute stems of the previously browsed plants. Sunflower ceased to attract big herbivores in flowering stage. Browsing significantly affected the yield of seeds. Approximately one half of the plants that had been damaged in early stage died as well as 12.5% of plants that had been damaged at second term; the rest produced substitute stems. Almost 33% of the substitute stems did not form disc florets; the second third of them formed disc florets with a diameter of 6-8 cm, and the last third set disc florets with a diameter of 8-10 cm.

Keywords

Game damages Wild herbivores Oil crop Yield loss 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by NAZV grant agency, project no. QF4192 and by project MSM2629608001 and by the Czech Ministry of Education, grant LC06073. Authors declare that all experiments were in compliance with the current laws of the Czech Republic.

References

  1. Augustine DJ, McNaughton SJ (1998) Ungulate effects on the functional species composition of plant communities: Herbivore selectivity and plant tolerance. J Wildl Manage 62:165–1183Google Scholar
  2. Augustine DJ, DeCalesta D (2003) Defining deer overabundance and threats to forest communities: From individual plants to landscape structure. Ecoscience 10:472–486Google Scholar
  3. Brinkman TJ, Deperno CS, Jenks JA, Haroldson BS, Osborn RG (2005) Movement of female white-tailed deer: Effects of climate and intensive row-crop agriculture. J Wildl Manage 69:1099–1111. doi: 10.2193/0022-541X(2005)069[1099:MOFWDE]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cerkal R, Dvořák J, Vejražka K, Kamler J (2007) The Effect of Leaf Area Reduction on the Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Altissima Döll). Acta Univ Agric Silv Mendel Brun 5:37–44Google Scholar
  5. Conover MR, Pitt WC, Kessler KK, Dubow TJ, Sanborn WA (1995) Review of human injuries, illnesses, and economic-losses caused by wildlife in the united-states. Wildl Soc Bull 23:407–414Google Scholar
  6. Cornelis J, Casaer J, Hermy M (1999) Impact of season, habitat and research techniques on diet composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): a review. J Zool (Lond) 248:195–207. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb01196.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drachovská M, Kec V, Novotný J (1960) Effect of leaf damages to the yield and sugar content in the sugar beet (in Czech with english abstract). Listy cukrovarnické 15:49–53Google Scholar
  8. Gebert C, Verheyden-Tixier H (2001) Variations of diet composition of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Europe. Mammal Rev 31:189–201. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2907.2001.00090.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gill RMA (1992) A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forests. 3. Impact on trees and forests. Forestry 65:363–388. doi: 10.1093/forestry/65.4.363-a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Herrero J, Garcia-Serrano A, Couto S, Ortuno VM, Garcia-Gonzales R (2006) Diet of wild boar Sus Scrofa L. and crop damage in an intensive agroecosystem. Eur J Wildl Res 52:245–250. doi: 10.1007/s10344-006-0045-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Homolka M (1995) The diet of Cervus elaphus and Capreolus capreolus in deforested areas of the Moravskoslezske Beskydy mountains. Folia Zool (Brno) 44:227–236Google Scholar
  12. Johnson RR (1978) Growth and yield of maize as affected by early-season defoliation. Agron J 70:995–998Google Scholar
  13. Kamler J, Homolka M, Dvořák J, Heroldová M (2005) Free living herbivores and field crops (in Czech with english abstract). Folia venatoria 35:205–210Google Scholar
  14. Kamler J, Dvořák J, Turek K (2008) Conflicts between wild boar and agriculture and their possible solutions. In: Abstracts of the 7th International Symposium on Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and on Sub-order Suiformes. Sopron – Hungary 2008:29Google Scholar
  15. Moriondo M, Orlandini S, Villalobos FJ (2003) Modelling compensatory effects of defoliation on leaf area growth and biomass of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.). Eur J Agron 19:161–171. doi: 10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00022-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mrkva R (1996) The game as a natural ressource and its management. Lesnictvi-Forestry 42:414–426Google Scholar
  17. Obrtel R, Holisova V (1983) Effects of a simulated damage done to maize plants by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Folia Zool (Brno) 32:33–39Google Scholar
  18. Pilson D, Decker KL (2002) Compensation for herbivory in wild sunflower: Response to simulated damage by the head-clipping weevil. Ecology 83:3097–3107Google Scholar
  19. Putman RJ, Moore NP (1998) Impact of deer in lowland Britain on agriculture, forestry and conservation habitats. Mammal Rev 28:141–163. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2907.1998.00031.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Reimoser F, Armstrong H, Suchant R (1999) Measuring forest damage of ungulates: what should be considered. For Ecol Manage 120:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sage RB, Hollins K, Gregory CL, Woodburn MIA, Carroll JP (2004) Impact of roe deer Capreolus capreolus browsing on understorey vegetation in small farm woodlands. Wildl Biol 10:115–120Google Scholar
  22. Schley L, Dufrêne M, Krier A, Frantz AC (2008) Patterns of crop damage by wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Luxembourg over a 10-year period. Eur J Wildl Res 54:589–599. doi: 10.1007/s10344-008-0183-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Selting JP, Irby LR (1997) Agricultural land use patterns of native ungulates in south-eastern Montana. J Range Manage 50:338–345. doi: 10.2307/4003296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Suter W, Suter U, Krusi B, Schutz M (2004) Spatial variation of summer diet of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the eastern Swiss Alps. Wildl Biol 10:43–50Google Scholar
  25. Tewolde H, Mulkey JR, Fernandez CJ (1994) Recovery of sesame from defoliation and growth terminal clipping. Agron J 86:1060–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Trdan S, Vidrih M (2008) Quantifying the damage of red deer (Cervus elaphus) grazing on grassland production in southeastern Slovenia. Eur J Wildl Res 54:138–141. doi: 10.1007/s10344-007-0106-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vasilas BL, Seif RD (1985) Defoliation effects on 2 corn inbreds and their single-cross hybrid. Agron J 77:816–820Google Scholar
  28. Vasilas BL, Fuhrmann JJ, Taylor RW (1991) Response of 3 corn hybrids to defoliation of neighboring plants. Can J Plant Sci 71:311–315Google Scholar
  29. Wywialowski AP (1996) Wildlife damage to field corn in 1993. Wildl Soc Bull 24:264–271Google Scholar
  30. Yang Z, Midmore DJ (2004) Experimental assessment of the impact of defoliation on growth and production of water-stressed maize and cotton plants. Exp Agric 40:189–199. doi: 10.1017/S0014479703001534 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yao NR, Yeboua K, Karfouma A (1991) Effect of intensity and timing of defoliation on growth, yield components and grain yield in maize. Exp Agric 27:137–144. doi: 10.1017/S0014479700018792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiří Kamler
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Miloslav Homolka
    • 1
  • Radim Cerkal
    • 2
  • Marta Heroldová
    • 1
  • Jarmila Krojerová-Prokešová
    • 1
  • Miroslava Barančeková
    • 1
  • Jan Dvořák
    • 2
  • Karel Vejražka
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Vertebrate BiologyAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Mendel University of Agriculture and ForestryBrnoCzech Republic
  3. 3.Agricultural research, LtDTroubskoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations