European Journal of Wildlife Research

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 255–265

The non-impact of hunting on moose Alces alces movement, diurnal activity, and activity range

Original Paper

Abstract

Previous studies on moose Alces alces have suggested that interactions with humans may trigger anti-predator behaviors and generate a demographical cost. Therefore, we hypothesized that disturbances from small and big game hunting may have negative effects on moose movements, diurnal activity, and activity range. Using location data from 64 moose equipped with GPS collars from three populations (Low Alpine, Inland, Coastal) with different temporal human presence and spatial accessibility, we evaluated the impact of hunting on moose activity rhythms. On average, female moose in the low human population density (Low Alpine) area (<0.5/km2) had significantly lower movement rates during moose hunting season, but variation in movement rates among individuals were higher compared with female moose in regions with denser human populations (6–24/km2). We found no evidence that reproductive status influenced female moose sensitivity to disturbance. As expected, females used smaller activity ranges and were less active nocturnally than males. The high within-group variation suggests that current hunting disturbance levels do not alter moose population behavior in general. Our data indicate that alterations in movement were related to rutting activity, not human disturbance induced by hunting. In line with behavioral theory, our study suggests that some individuals were more sensitive to hunting disturbance than the general population. Our work suggests that individual moose may perceive human predation risk to be similar to other predation risks.

Keywords

Human disturbance Temporal/spatial Predation risk Sweden Ungulate 

References

  1. Abrams P, Matsuda H (1993) Effects of adaptive predatory and anti-predator behavior in a two-prey-one-predator system. Evol Ecol 7:312–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnemo JM, Andersen R, Berntsen F, Ericsson G, Odden J, Brunberg S, Segerström P, Swenson JE (2006) Risk of capture-related mortality in large free-ranging mammals: experience from Scandinavia. Wildlife Biology 12(1):109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baskin L, Ball JP, Danell K (2004) Moose escape behavior in area of high hunting pressure. Alces 40:123–131Google Scholar
  4. Bender LC, Beyer DE, Haufler JB (1999) Effects of short-duration, high density hunting on elk wariness in Michigan. Wildl Soc Bull 27(2):441–445Google Scholar
  5. Berger J, Swenson JE, Persson IL (2001) Re-colonizing carnivores and naive prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions. Science 291:1036–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjornlie DD, Garrott RA (2001) Effects of winter road grooming on bison in Yellowstone National Park. J Wildl Manage 65(3):560–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowyer RT, van Ballenberghe V, Rock KR (1994) Scent marking by Alaskan moose—characteristics and spatial distribution of rubbed trees. Can J Zool 72(12):2186–2192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Breitenmoser U (1998) Large predators in the Alps: the fall and rise of man’s competitors. Biol Cons 83(3):279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Broman E (2003) Environment and moose population dynamics. Doctoral thesis, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden: paper IVGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown JS, Kotler BB (2007) Foraging and the ecology of fear. Chapter 13. In: Stephens DW, Brown JS, Ydenberg RC (eds) Foraging: behavior and ecology. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown JS, Laundre JW, Gurung M (1999) The ecology of fear: optimal foraging, game theory, and trophic interactions. J Mammal 80(2):385–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carranza J, Valencia J (1999) Red deer females collect on male clumps at mating areas. Behav Ecol 10(5):525–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cassirer EF, Freddy DJ, Ables ED (1992) Elk responses to disturbance by cross-country skiers in Yellowstone National Park. Wildl Soc Bull 20(4):375–381Google Scholar
  14. Cederlund G, Markgren G (1987) The development of the Swedish moose population, 1970–1983. Swed Wildlife Res Supplement 1:55–62Google Scholar
  15. Cederlund G, Sand H (1994) Home range size in relation to age and sex in moose. J Mammal 75(4):1005–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cederlund G, Ljungqvist H, Markgren G, Stålfelt F (1980) Foods of moose and roe deer at Grimsö in Central Sweden—results of rumen content analyses. Swed Wild Res 11:170–247Google Scholar
  17. Conner MM, White GC, Freddy DJ (2001) Elk movement in response to early-season hunting in Northwest Colorado. J Wildl Manage 65(4):926–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Courtois R, Quellet JP, Gingras A, Dussault C, Breton L, Maltais J (2003) Historical changes and current distribution of caribou Rangifer tarandus, in Quebec. Can Field Nat 117(3):399–414Google Scholar
  19. De Boer HY, van Breukelen L, Hootsmans MJM, van Wieren SE (2004) Flight distance in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama as related to hunting and others factors. Wildl Biol 10(1):35–41Google Scholar
  20. Dettki H, Ericsson G, Edenius L (2004) Real-time moose tracking: an internet based mapping application using GPS/GSM-collars in Sweden. Alces 40:13–21Google Scholar
  21. Edwards J (1983) Diet shifts in moose due to predator avoidance. Oecologia 60:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ericsson G (2001) Reduced cost of reproduction in moose Alces alces through human harvest. Alces 37(1):61–69Google Scholar
  23. Ericsson G, Wallin K (1996) The impact of hunting on moose movement. Alces 32:31–40Google Scholar
  24. Ericsson G, Wallin K (2001) Age-specific moose Alces alces mortality in a predator-free environment: evidence for senescence in females. Ecoscience 8(2):157–163Google Scholar
  25. Frid A, Dill L (2002) Human-caused disturbances stimuli as a form of predation risk. Conserv Ecol 6(1):Art. No. 11Google Scholar
  26. Gill JA, Norris K, Sutherland WJ (2001) Why behavioural responses may not reflect the population consequences of human disturbance. Biol Cons 97:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hawth (2007) Homepage of Hawth’s analysis tools for ArcGis with current information about areas of application and access to company’s software. http://www.spatialecology.com/index.php. Accessed February 22, 2007
  28. Heberlein TA (2000) The gun, the dog and the thermos. Culture and hunting in Sweden and in the United States, Sweden and America. Fall 2000:24–29Google Scholar
  29. Histol T, Hjeljord O (1993) Winter feeding strategies of migrating and non-migrating moose. Can J Zool 71(7):1421–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hjeljord O, Hovik N, Pedersen HB (1990) Choice of feeding sites by moose during summer, the influence of forest structure and plant phenology. Holarctic Ecol 13(4):281–292Google Scholar
  31. Hunter LT, Skinner JD (1998) Vigilance behavior in African ungulates: the role of predation pressure. Behaviour 135:195–211Google Scholar
  32. Ingold P (2005) Freizeitaktivitäten im Lebensraum der Alpentiere. (English translation: recreational activities in the habitat of Alpine wildlife). Haupt Publisher, BerneGoogle Scholar
  33. Ingold P, Huber B, Neuhaus P, Mainini B, Marbacher H, Schnidrigpetrig R, Zeller R (1993) Tourism and sport in the Alps—a serious problem for wildlife. Rev Suisse Zool 100(3):529–545Google Scholar
  34. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (2006) Using “Dilution of Precision (DOP)” as a quality measure of GPS data. http://ioc.unesco.org/oceanteacher/OceanTeacher2/02_InfTchSciCmm/01_CmpT ch/10_enavsys/DilutionOfPrecision.htm. Accessed October 31, 2006
  35. Isaac JL (2005) Potential causes and life-history consequences of sexual size dimorphism in mammals. Mammal Rev 35(1):101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson CJ, Parker KL, Heard DC (2001) Foraging across a variable landscape: behavioral decisions made by woodland caribou at multiple spatial scales. Oecologia 127(4):590–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laundre JW, Hernandez L, Altendorf KB (2001) Wolves, elk, and bison: re-establishing the “landscape of fear” in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Can J Zool 79(8):1401–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lima SL (1992) Life in a multipredator environment—some considerations for anti-predatory vigilance. Ann Zool Fennici 29(4):217–226Google Scholar
  39. Lima SL, Bednekoff PA (1999) Temporal variation in danger drives anti-predator behavior: the predation risk allocation hypothesis. Amer Nat 153(6):649–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Littell RC, Stroup WW, Freund RJ (2002) SAS for linear models, 4th edn. Wiley, New York, pp 265–304Google Scholar
  41. Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD, Schabenberger O (2006) SAS for mixed models, 2nd edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC, pp 188Google Scholar
  42. Main MB, Coblentz BE (1996) Sexual segregation in rocky Mountain mule deer. J Wildl Manage 60(3):497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McElligott AG, Naulty F, Clarke WV, Hayden TJ (2003) The somatic cost of reproduction: what determines reproductive effort in prime-aged fallow bucks? Evol Ecol Res 5(8):1239–1250Google Scholar
  44. Millspaugh JJ, Brundige GC, Gitzen RA, Raedeke KJ (2000) Elk and hunter space-use sharing in South Dakota. J Wildl Manage 64(4):994–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Milner JM, Bonenfant C, Mysterud A, Gaillard JM, Csanyi S, Stenseth NC (2006) Temporal and spatial development of red deer harvesting in Europe: biological and cultural factors. J Appl Ecol 43(4):721–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miquelle DG, Peek JM, van Ballenberghe V (1992) Sexual segregation in Alaskan moose. Wildl Monogr 122:1–57Google Scholar
  47. Mysterud A, Langvatn R, Stenseth NC (2004) Patterns of reproductive effort in male ungulates. J Zool 264:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Papouchis CM, Singer FJ, Sloan WB (2001) Responses of desert bighorn sheep to increased human recreation. J Wildl Manage 65(3):573–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Persson IL (1998) Brown bear Ursus arctos predation upon adult moose Alces alces in Scandinavia: a study on two levels of scale. M Sc thesis Univ of Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  50. Persson IL, Danell K, Bergström R (2000) Disturbance by large herbivores in boreal forests with special reference to moose. Ann Zool Fennici 37(4):251–263Google Scholar
  51. Phillips GE, Alldredge AW (2000) Reproductive success of elk following disturbance by humans during calving season. J Wildl Manage 64(2):521–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Poole KG, Heard DC, Mowat G (2000) Habitat use by woodland caribou near Takla Lake in central British Columbia. Can J Zool 78(9):1552–1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ranges (2007) Homepage of Ranges6 with current information about application areas of company’s software. http://www.anatrack.com/index.html. Accessed February 22, 2007
  54. Recarte JM, Vincent JP, Hewison AJM (1998) Flight response of park fallow deer to human observer. Behav Process 44(1):65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ruckstuhl KE (1998) Foraging behavior and sexual segregation in bighorn sheep. Anim Behav 56(1):99–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ruckstuhl KE, Kokko H (2002) Modelling sexual segregation in ungulates: effects of group size, activity budgets and synchrony. Anim Behav 64(6):909–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ruth TK, Smith DW, Haroldson MA, Buotte PC, Schwartz CC, Quigley HB, Cherry S, Murphy KM, Tyers D, Frey K (2003) Large carnivore response to recreational big-game hunting along Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka–Beartooth Wilderness boundary. Wildl Soc Bull 31(4):1150–1161Google Scholar
  58. Sand H (1996) Life history patterns in female moose Alces alces: the relationship between age, body size, fecundity, and environmental conditions. Oecologia 106(2):212–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sand H, Cederlund G (1996) Individual and geographical variation in age at maturity in female moose Alces alces. Can J Zool 74(5):954–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. SAS Institute Inc (2003) Help-The Proc mixed procedure, system documentation, SAS 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary. Accessed May 3, 2007Google Scholar
  61. Schneider RR, Wasel S (2000) The effect of human settlement on the density of moose in Northern Alberta. J Wildl Manage 64(2):513–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Statistics Sweden (2007) Swedish center for statistical information about different demographic data like inhabitants per square kilometer in different administrative districts. http://www.scb.se. Accessed October 30, 2006
  63. Stearns SC (1992) The evolution of life histories. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  64. Stedman R, Diefenbach DR, Swope CB, Finley JC, Luloff AE, Zinn HC, San Julian GJ, Wang GA (2004) Integrating wildlife and human-dimensions research methods to study hunters. J Wildl Manage 68(4):762–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management (2007) Moose observations register of 2004 and 2005. http://www.jagareforbundet.se/lan/vasterbotten/jaktochfauna/algobs.asp. Accessed on May 28, 2007
  66. Swedish EPA (2006) Current population estimates and distribution of large carnivores in Sweden. Published on http://www.naturvardsverket.se. Accessed on February 7, 2007
  67. Swenson JE (1982) Effects of hunting on habitat use by mule deer on mixed-grass prairie in Montana. Wildl Soc Bull 10(2):115–120Google Scholar
  68. Taylor AR, Knight RL (2003) Wildlife response to recreational and associated visitor perceptions. Ecolog Appl 13(4):951–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Testa JW, Becker EF, Lee GR (2000) Movement of female moose in relation to birth and death of calves. Alces 36:155–162Google Scholar
  70. Thelander B (1992) The way we hunt in Sweden. In: Bergström R, Huldt H, Nilsson U (eds) Swedish game-biology and management. Svenska Jägareförbundet, Spånga, pp 50–63Google Scholar
  71. Västerbotten CAB (2007a) Administrative Board of Västerbotten, Sweden. Current management and hunting activity of small game hunt in the mountains. http://www.ac.lst.se. Accessed on February 12, 2007
  72. Västerbotten CAB (2007b) Administrative Board of Västerbotten, Sweden. Information about moose density received by aerial inventories. http://www.ac.lst.se. Accessed on February 12, 2007
  73. Vectronic Aerospace GmbH (2007) http://www.vectronic-aerospace.com/html/gps_plus.html. Accessed on January 31, 2007
  74. Vieira MEP, Conner MM, White GC, Freddy DJ (2003) Effects of archery hunter numbers and opening dates on elk movement. J Wildl Manage 67(4):717–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vistnes I, Nellemann C (2001) Avoidance of cabins, roads, and power lines by reindeer during calving. J Wildl Manage 65(4):915–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. White KS, Berger J (2001) Antipredator strategies of Alaskan moose: are maternal trade-offs influenced by offspring activity. Can J Zool 79(11):2055–2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wolfe SA, Griffith B, Wolfe CAG (2000) Response of reindeer and caribou to human activities. Polar Res 19(1):63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wiebke Neumann
    • 1
  • Göran Ericsson
    • 1
  • Holger Dettki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental StudiesSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUmeåSweden

Personalised recommendations