Management of Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Wilt in Tomato Using Green Manure of the Medicinal Plant Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees

  • Raja Asad Ali KhanEmail author
  • Najeeb Ullah
  • Syed Sartaj Alam
  • Asad Ali
  • Ishrat Naz
  • Bilal Ahmad
  • Musharaf Ahmad
  • Inam Ullah
Original Article


Aqueous extracts and green manures of different parts of Adhatoda vasica, a wild medicinal shrub plant, were tested in vitro and in vivo for the control of bacterial wilt (BW) in tomato. Higher concentration (14%, w/v) of aqueous extracts of leaf, succlent shoot and stem were more effective than the lower concentrations and inhibited the in vitro growth of the pathogen by 94, 89, and 65% respectively, of the growth inhibition produced by streptomycin (200 ppm). Green manure dose of 30 g kg−1 soil strongly suppressed the BW pathogen, reduced disease severity and promoted the yield-contributing plant growth parameters. Green manure of leaves, when applied to soil 4 weeks before the transplantation of tomato seedlings, controlled BW more effectively and significantly increased plant growth parameters as compared to the green manures of other parts of the plant and other application times. It can be clearly concluded from our data that Adhatoda vasica leaves green manure dose of 30 g kg−1 soil (or possibly higher) could be included as an effective and nature-friendly component of the integrated disease management (IDM) against BW and possibly other similar diseases.


Adhatoda vasica Bacterial wilt Green manure Integrated disease management Ralstonia solanacearum 

Management der bakteriellen Tomatenwelke durch Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) mittels Gründünger aus der Heilpflanze Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees


Wässrige Extrakte und Gründünger aus verschiedenen Teilen von Adhatoda vasica, einer wilden medizinischen Strauchpflanze, wurden in vitro und in vivo zur Kontrolle der bakteriellen Tomatenwelke getestet. Höhere Konzentrationen (14 %, w/v) von wässrigen Extrakten aus Blättern, Spross und Stiel waren wirksamer als niedrigere Konzentrationen und hemmten das Wachstum des Pathogens in vitro um 94 %, 89 % bzw. 65 % der Wachstumshemmung durch Streptomycin (200 ppm). Die Gründüngerdosis von 30 g/kg Boden unterdrückte den Erreger der Bakterienwelke stark, verringerte den Schweregrad der Erkrankung und förderte die ertragbringenden Pflanzenwachstumsparameter. Die Gründüngung mit Blättern bei Applikation auf den Boden 4 Wochen vor der Verpflanzung der Tomatensämlinge kontrollierte die bakterielle Welke wirksamer und erhöhte die Pflanzenwachstumsparameter signifikant im Vergleich zur Gründüngung mit anderen Pflanzenteilen und zu anderen Anwendungszeiten, Aus unseren Daten lässt sich eindeutig schließen, dass eine Gründüngung mit 30 g Adhatoda-vasica-Blättern/kg Boden (oder möglicherweise höher) als wirksamer und naturverträglicher Bestandteil des integrierten Krankheitsmanagements gegen bakterielle Welke und möglicherweise andere ähnliche Krankheiten aufgenommen werden könnte.


Adhatoda vasica Bakterienwelke Gründüngung Integriertes Krankheitsmanagement Ralstonia solanacearum 


Conflict of interest

R.A.A. Khan, N. Ullah, S.S. Alam, A. Ali, I. Naz, B. Ahmad, M. Ahmad and I. Ullah declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raja Asad Ali Khan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Najeeb Ullah
    • 1
  • Syed Sartaj Alam
    • 1
  • Asad Ali
    • 1
  • Ishrat Naz
    • 1
  • Bilal Ahmad
    • 1
  • Musharaf Ahmad
    • 1
  • Inam Ullah
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyThe University of AgriculturePeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, (Plant Pathology Lab)Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingP. R. China
  3. 3.Department of Plant ProtectionThe University of AgriculturePeshawarPakistan

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