Advertisement

Recovery of forest carbon density and carbon storage in a soil-degraded landscape in southeastern China

  • Kaijian Xu
  • Chung-Te ChangEmail author
  • Qingjiu TianEmail author
  • Hongda Zeng
  • Jinsheng Xie
Original Paper

Abstract

Adaptive managements on susceptible forested regions not only benefit forest recovery, but also help to improve the stability of soil-degraded area and carbon (C) sequestration. The gain of afforestation on C sink has not been addressed clearly especially in tropical and subtropical regions that will be critical in an era of global warming. Based on the Landsat satellite images, in situ forest survey and archives, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of C density and storage in a typical soil–water conservation area in Changting county in southeastern China, dominated by the pioneer tree Pinus massoniana forest. The results showed that the C density (storage) increased significantly from 20.14 Mg C ha−1 (0.38 Tg C) in 1981 to 43.57 Mg C ha−1 (1.98 Tg C) in 2015 (p < 0.05) and proved the success of ecological management adopted considering the interactions between local residential livelihoods and the features of local forest ecosystem. In addition, the differences of C density and storage across elevational and slope gradients also narrowed over the past 35 years. The landscape also gradually shifted from lower C density to higher C density conditions based on the landscape metrics. The ecological-dominated approaches should be put in a high priority for the issue of C sequestration especially in a changing climate.

Keywords

Red soil eroded area Ecological restoration Pinus massoniana Forest carbon density Carbon storage Ecological governance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Soil and Water Conservation, the Statistics Bureau, and the Forestry Bureau of Changting county for providing valuable data and the assistances in the field work. We also thank Prof. T.C. Lin of National Taiwan Normal University for his valuable comments on this manuscript. This study was supported by grants from the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFD0600903), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41771370) and High-resolution Earth Observation Project of China (Grant No. 03-Y20A04-9001-17/18, 30-Y20A07-9003-17/18). CT Chang acknowledges the support from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST 105-2410-H-029-056-MY3).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Arasa-Gisbert R, Vayreda J, Román-Cuesta RM, Villela SA, Mayorga R, Retana J (2018) Forest diversity plays a key role in determining the stand carbon stocks of Mexican forests. For Ecol Manag 415–416:160–171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.02.023 Google Scholar
  2. Asner GP, Clark JK, Mascaro J, Vaudry R, Chadwick KD, Vieilledent G et al (2012) Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar. Carbon Balance Manag 7(2):1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1750-0680-7-2 Google Scholar
  3. Bender DJ, Tischendorf L, Fahrig L (2003) Using patch isolation metrics to predict animal movement in binary landscapes. Landsc Ecol 18:17–39.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022937226820 Google Scholar
  4. Canadell JG, Raupach MR (2008) Managing forest for climate change mitigation. Science 320:1456–1457.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155458 Google Scholar
  5. Cao SX, Zhong BL, Yue H, Zeng HS, Zeng JH (2009) Development and testing of a sustainable environmental restoration policy on eradicating the poverty trap in China’s Changting County. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(26):10712–10716.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0900197106 Google Scholar
  6. Cheng R, Feng X, Xiao W, Wang R, Wang X, Du H (2011) Response of net productivity of masson pine plantation to climate change in North subtropical region. Acta Ecol Sin 31(8):2086–2095 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  7. Das A, Ghosh PK, Lal R, Saha R, Ngachan S (2017) Soil quality effects on conservation practices in maize-rapeseed system in eastern Himalaya. Land Degrad Dev 28:1862–1874.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2325 Google Scholar
  8. Dixon RK, Brown S, Houghton RA, Solomon AM, Trexler MC, Wisniewski J (1994) Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystem. Science 263:185–190.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.263.5144.185 Google Scholar
  9. Dong J, Kaufmann RK, Myneni RB, Tucker CJ, Kauppi PE, Liski J, Buermann W, Hughes MK (2003) Remote sensing estimates of boreal and temperate forest woody biomass: carbon pools, sources, and sinks. Remote Sens Environ 84:393–410.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00130-X Google Scholar
  10. Dubayah RO, Sheldon SL, Clark DB, Hofton MA, Blair JB, Hurtt GC, Chazdon RL (2015) Estimation of tropical forest height and biomass dynamics using lidar remote sensing at La Selva. Costa Rica. J Geophys Res 115(G2):272–281.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JG000933 Google Scholar
  11. Fan SL, Zhang SS, Qiu LJ, Wang PJ, Huang YH (2018) Coordination relationship between ecological environment construction and economic development in Changting County, Fujian Province. J China Agric Univ 23(3):175–184.  https://doi.org/10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2018.03.21 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  12. Fang JY (2000) Forest biomass carbon pool of middle and high latitudes in the north hemisphere is probably much smaller than present estimates. Chin J Plant Ecol 24(5):635–638.  https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1005-264X.2000.05.022 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  13. Fang JY, Chen AP (2001) Dynamic forest biomass carbon pools in China and their significance. Acta Bot Sin 43(9):967–973.  https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1672-9072.2001.09.014 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  14. Feng X, Cheng R, Xiao W, Wang R, Wang X, Gao B (2011) Effects of air temperature in growing season on Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) radial growth in north subtropical region of China. Chin J Ecol 30(4):650–655 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  15. Fraser EDG, Mabee W, Slaymaker O (2003) Mutual vulnerability, mutual dependence: the reflexive relation between human society and the environment. Glob Environ Chang 13:137–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(03)00022-0 Google Scholar
  16. Ganz DJ, Durst PB (2003) Assisted natural regeneration: an overview. In:. Dugan PC, et al. (Eds), Advancing assisted natural regeneration (ANR) in Asia and the Pacific. RAP Publication, Bangkok, pp 1–4. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/ad466e/ad466e03.htm
  17. Gao CB, Liu YQ (1992) Water and soil conservation stand of black wattle and its ecological- economic benefit analysis. For Res 5(1):32–38 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  18. Gautam AP, Webb EL, Shivakoti GP, Zoebisch MA (2003) Land use dynamics and landscape change pattern in a mountain watershed in Nepal. Agric Ecosyst Environ 99(1–3):83–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00148-8 Google Scholar
  19. Goetz S, Dubayah R (2011) Advances in remote sensing technology and implications for measuring and monitoring forest carbon stocks and change. Carbon Manag 2:231–244.  https://doi.org/10.4155/cmt.11.18 Google Scholar
  20. Gottfried M, Pauli H, Futschik A, Akhalkatsi M, Barančok P, Alonso JLB et al (2012) Continent-wide response of mountain vegetation to climate change. Nat Clim Chang 2(2):111–115.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1329 Google Scholar
  21. Han LL, Xie JS, Zeng HD, Xu C, He SJ, Yang YS (2013) Effects of Pasplum notatum flügge on carbon storage change and allocation in an ecosystem developed on degraded red Soil. J Subtrop Res Environ 8(1):33–40.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1673-7105.2013.01.007 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  22. Hao FH, Chang Y, Ning D (2004) Assessment of China’s economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural and in the end of 20th century. J Environ Sci 16:199–203.  https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1001-0742.2004.02.006 Google Scholar
  23. Haque N, Hughes A, Seng L, Vernon C (2014) Rare earth elements: overview of mining, mineralogy, uses, sustainability and environmental impact. Resources 3(4):614–635.  https://doi.org/10.3390/resources3040614 Google Scholar
  24. He SJ, Xie JS, Zeng HD, Tian H, Zhou YX, Xu C, Lyu MK, Yang YS (2013) Dynamic of soil organic carbon pool afer restoration of Pinus massoniana in eroded red soil area. Acta Ecol Sin 33(10):2964–2973.  https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201205180742 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  25. Homer C, Huang CQ, Yang LM, Wylie B, Coan M (2003) Development of a 2001 national landcover database for the United States [EB/OL]. http://landcover.usgs.gov/Pdf/nlcd_pub_august.pdf
  26. Hou XL, Bai GS, Cao QY (1996) Study on benefits of soil and water conservation of forest and its mechanism in loess hilly region. Res Soil Water Conserv 3(2):98–103 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  27. Houghton RA (2003) Why are estimates of the terrestrial carbon balance so different? Global Chang Biol 9(4):500–509.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00620.x Google Scholar
  28. Houghton RA, Butman D, Bunn AG, Krankina ON, Schlesinger P, Stone TA (2007) Mapping Russian forest biomass with data from satellites and forest inventories. Environ Res Lett 2(4):45032.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/2/4/045032 Google Scholar
  29. Huang C (2002) The productivity of 5-year-old young Pinus massoniana forest on differetn site conditions and its distribution. J Fujan For Sci Technol 29(4):17–20.  https://doi.org/10.13428/j.cnki.fjlk.2002.04.006 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  30. Huang SL, Xu HQ, Zeng HD, Liu ZC, Lin W (2013) Analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics of carbon storage of Pinus massoniana forest in the Hetian basin in County Changting of Fujian Province, China. Earth Sci 38(5):1081–1090.  https://doi.org/10.3799/dqkx.2013.106 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  31. Jain AK, Yang X (2005) Modeling the effects of two different land cover change data sets on the carbon stocks of plants and soils in concert with CO2 and climate change. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 19:GB2015.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002349 Google Scholar
  32. Jiang MH, Lyu MK, Lin WS, Xie JS, Yang YS (2018) Effects of ecological restoration on soil organic carbon components and stability in a red soil erosion area. Acta Ecol Sin 38(13):4861–4868.  https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201707271358 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  33. Kim Y, Kimball JS, Didan K, Henebry GM (2014) Response of vegetation growth and productivity to spring climate indicators in the conterminous United States derived from satellite remote sensing data fusion. Agr For Meteorol 194(194):132–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.04.001 Google Scholar
  34. Lausch A, Herzog F (2002) Applicability of landscape metrics for the monitoring of landscape change: issues of scale, resolution and interpretability. Ecol Indic 2:3–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-160x(02)00053-5 Google Scholar
  35. Li YY, Shao MA (2006) Changes of soil physical properties under long-term natural vegetation restoration in the Loess Plateau of China. J Arid Environ 64:77–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2005.04.005 Google Scholar
  36. Li XF, Chen ZB, Chen CM, Chen ZQ (2012) The study of landscape pattern of Fuzhou Gushan scenic spot. J Fujian Norm Univ 28(5):95–100.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-5277.2012.05.019 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  37. Liu J, Li S, Ouyang Z, Tam C, Chen X (2008) Ecological and socioeconomic effects of China’s policies for ecosystem services. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:9477–9482.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706436105 Google Scholar
  38. Liu YC, Wang QF, Yu GR, Zhu XJ, Zhan XY, Guo Q, Yang H, Li SG, Hu ZM (2011) Ecosystems carbon storage and carbon sequestration potential of two main tree species for the Grain for Green Project on China’s hilly Loess Plateau. Acta Ecol Sin 31(15):4277–4286 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  39. Louks CJ, Lü Z, Dinerstein E, Wang H, Olson DM, Zhu C, Wang D (2001) Giant Pandas in a changing landscape. Science 294(5546):1465.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1064710 Google Scholar
  40. Luo X (1994) Discussion on the plant community succession in Hetian erosion area. Bull Soil Water Conserv 14(3):48–51 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  41. Madugundu R, Nizalapur V, Jha CS (2008) Estimation of LAI and above-ground biomass in deciduous forests: Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 10:211–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2007.11.004 Google Scholar
  42. McGarigal K (2014) Fragstat 4.2. help. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/documents/fragstats.help.4.2.pdf
  43. Mekonnen M, Keesstra SD, Stoosnijder L, Baartman JE, Margoulis J (2014) Soil conservation through sediment trapping: a review. Land Degrad Dev 26:544–556.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2308 Google Scholar
  44. Mez-Pompa AG, Kaus A (1999) From pre-Hispanic to future conservation alternatives: lessons from Mexico. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:5982–5986.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.11.5982 Google Scholar
  45. Millington AC, Velez-liendo XM, Bradley AV (2003) Scale dependence in multitemporal mapping of forest fragmentation in Bolivia: implications for explaining temporal trends in landscape ecology and applications to biodiversity conservation. ISPRS J Photogramm 57(4):289–299.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2716(02)00154-5 Google Scholar
  46. Mu S, Zhou S, Chen Y, Li J, Ju W, Odeh IOA (2013) Assessing the impact of restoration-induced land conversion and management alternatives on net primary productivity in Inner Mongolian grassland, China. Glob Planet Chang 108:29–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.06.007 Google Scholar
  47. Myneni RB, Dong J, Tucker CJ, Kaufmann RK, Kauppi PE, Zhou L, Alexeyeu V, Hughes MK (2001) A large carbon sink in the woody biomass of northern forests. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:1484–1489.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.261555198 Google Scholar
  48. Nave LE, Swanston CW, Curtis PS (2010) Harvest impacts on soil carbon storage in temperate forests. For Ecol Manag 259:857–866.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.12.009 Google Scholar
  49. Nave LE, Domke GM, Hofmeister KL, Mishra U, Perry CH, Walters BF, Swanston CW (2018) Reforestation can sequester two petagrams of carbon in US topsoils in a century. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:2776–2781.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1719685115 Google Scholar
  50. Nemani R, Votava P, Michaelis A, Melton AM, Milesi C (2013) Collaborative supercomputing for global change science. EOS 92(13):109–110.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011EO130001 Google Scholar
  51. Olson JS, Watts JA, Allison LJ (1983) Carbon in live vegetation of major world ecosystem. Technical Report. U. S. Washington: Department of EnergyGoogle Scholar
  52. Pan YD, Birdsey RA, Fang JY, Houghton R, Kauppi PE, Kurz WA et al (2011) A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forest. Science 333(6045):988–993.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1201609 Google Scholar
  53. Persha L, Agrawal A, Chhatre A (2011) Social and ecological synergy: local rulemaking, forest livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. Science 331:1606–1608.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1199343 Google Scholar
  54. Piao S, Fang J, Zu B, Tan K (2005) Forest biomass carbon stocks in China over the past 2 decades: estimation based on integrated inventory and satellite data. J Geophys Res 110:G01006.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JG000014 Google Scholar
  55. Piao S, Ciais P, Friedlingstein P, de Noblet-Ducoudré D, Cadule P, Viovy N, Wang T (2009) Spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon cycle during the 20th century. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 23:GB4026.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gb003339 Google Scholar
  56. Ramsey RD, Wright DLJ, McGinty C (2004) Evaluating the use of Landsat 30 m enhanced thematic mapper to monitor vegetation cover in shrub-steppe environments. Geocarto Int 19(2):39–47.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10106040408542305 Google Scholar
  57. Ren Y, Yan J, Wei X, Wang Y, Yang Y, Hua L, Xiong Y, Niu X, Song X (2012) Effects of rapid urban sprawl on urban forest carbon stocks: integrating remotely sensed, GIS and forest inventory data. J Environ Manag 113:447–455.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.09.011 Google Scholar
  58. Saatchi SS, Harris NL, Brown S, Lefsky M, Mitchard ETA, Salas W (2011) Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:9899–9904.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1019576108 Google Scholar
  59. Sanchez-Azofeizi GA, Castro-Esau KL, Kurz WA, Joyce A (2009) Monitoring carbon stocks in the tropics and the remote sensing operational limitations: from local to regional projects. Ecol Appl 19:480–494.  https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1149.1 Google Scholar
  60. Sehott JR, Selvaggio C, Volchok WJ (1988) Radiometric scene normalization using pseudo-invariant features. Remote Sens Environ 26:1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257(88)90116-2 Google Scholar
  61. Shono K, Cadaweng EA, Durst PB (2007) Application of assisted natural regeneration to restore degraded tropical forestlands. Restor Ecol 15(4):620–626.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2007.00274.x Google Scholar
  62. Shoo LP, Catterall CP (2013) Stimulating natural regeneration of tropical forest on degraded land: approaches, outcomes, and information gaps. Restor Ecol 21(6):670–677.  https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12048 Google Scholar
  63. Sun H (2011) Soil erosion problems and preventing countermeasures in China. China Water Resour 6:16–21.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-1123.2011.06.008 Google Scholar
  64. Tan K, Piao S, Peng C, Fang J (2007) Satellite-based estimation of biomass carbon stocks for northeast China’s forests between 1982 and 1999. For Ecol Manag 240:114–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.12.018 Google Scholar
  65. Tischendorf L (2001) Can landscape indices predict ecological processes consistently? Landsc Ecol 16:235–254.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011112719782 Google Scholar
  66. Vayreda J, Gracia M, Canadell JG, Retana J (2012) Spatial patterns and predictors of forest carbon stocks in Western Mediterranean. Ecosystems 15:1258–1270.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-012-9582-7 Google Scholar
  67. Wang C, Yang Y, Zhang Y (2011a) Economic development, rural livelihoods, and ecological restoration: evidence from China. Ambio 40:78–87.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-010-0093-5 Google Scholar
  68. Wang X, Piao S, Ciais P, Li J, Friedlingstein P, Koven C et al (2011b) Spring temperature change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in north America from 1982 to 2006. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(4):1240–1245.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014425108 Google Scholar
  69. Wang C, Yang Y, Zhang Y (2012) Rural household livelihood change, fuelwood substitution, and hilly ecosystem restoration: evidence from China. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16(5):2475–2482.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.070 Google Scholar
  70. Wang YF, Liu L, Li ZC, Shangguan ZP (2015) Carbon storage and carbon density of forest vegetation in Luoyang, Western Henan Province. Acta Prataculturae Sin 24(10):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.11686/cyxb2015078 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  71. Wang C, Yang Y, Zhang Y (2016) Cost-effective targeting soil and water conservation: a case study of Changting County in southeast China. Land Degrad Dev 27:387–394.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2397 Google Scholar
  72. Wu GS, Wang HY (2011) Spatial and temporal analysis of soil erosion in typical areas: a case study of the Hetian Town of County Changting. Straits Sci 6:19–24.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1673-8683.2011.06.006 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  73. Xie JS, Yang YY, Xie MS (2004) Ecological restoration technology and degradation of eroded granite red soil in subtropical regions in China. Res Soil Water Conserv 11(3):154–156.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1005-3409.2004.03.045 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  74. Xie J, Guo J, Yang Z, Huang Z, Chen G, Yang Y (2013) Rapid accumulation of carbon on severely eroded red soils through afforestation in subtropical China. For Ecol Manag 300:53–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.06.038 Google Scholar
  75. Xu HQ (2008) Comparison of the models for the normalization of Landsat imagery. J Geo-Infor Sci 10(3):294–301.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1560-8999.2008.03.004 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  76. Xu HQ, He H, Huang SL (2013) Analysis of fractional vegetation cover change and its impact on thermal environment in the Hetian basinal area of County Changting, Fujian Province, China. Acta Ecol Sin 33(10):2954–2963.  https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201205150720 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  77. Xu KJ, Xie JS, Zeng HD, Lü MK, Ren J, Yang YS (2016a) Driving factors and spatiotemporal dynamics of carbon storage of a Pinus massoniana plantation in reddish soil erosion region with ecological restoration. Sci Soil Water Conserv 14(1):89–96.  https://doi.org/10.16843/j.sswc.2016.01.011 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  78. Xu KJ, Zeng HD, Ren J, Xie JS, Yang YS (2016b) Spatial and temporal variations in vegetation cover in an eroded region of substropical red soil and its relationship with the impact of human activity. Acta Ecol Sin 36(21):6960–6968.  https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201504220831 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  79. Xu KJ, Zeng HD, Zhu XB, Tian QJ (2017) Evaluation of five commonly used atmospheric correction algorithms for multi-Temporal aboveground forest carbon storage estimation. Spectrosc Spectr Anal 37(11):3493–3498.  https://doi.org/10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2017)11-3493-06 Google Scholar
  80. Yan XY, Chen ZQ, Chen ZB, Ma LX (2015) Plant diversity during recovery process of vegetation in eroded red soil region, south China. J Fujian Norm Univ 31(2):90–95 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  81. Yang YS, Guo JF, Chen GS, Xie JS, Gao R, Li Z et al (2005a) Litter production, seasonal pattern and nutrient return in seven natural forests compared with a plantation in southern China. Forestry 78(4):403–415.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13233-015-3053-x (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  82. Yang X, Zhong B, Xie X (2005b) Soil erosion and conservation in red-soil hill area. China Agricultural Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  83. Yang Y, Wang L, Yang Z, Xu C, Xie J, Chen G et al (2018) Large ecosystem service benefits of assisted natural regeneration. J Geophys Res-Biogeosci 123(2):676–687.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JG004267 Google Scholar
  84. Zeng HD, Xu HQ, Xie JS, Huang SL, Chen WH (2014) Selection of vegetation indices for estimating carbon storage of Pinus massoniana forest in a reddish soil erosion region: a case study in Hetian area of Changting county, Fujian Province, China. Sci Geogr Sin 34(7):870–875.  https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.07.870 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  85. Zhang Z (2006) Review of the 10th five-year plan and perspective on the 11th five-year plan in relation to natural forest conservation program. For Eco 1:49–52 (In Chinese) Google Scholar
  86. Zhang X, Wang M, Liang X (2009) Quantitative classification and carbon density of the forest vegetation in Lüliang Mountains of China. Plant Ecol 201:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.2307/40305617 Google Scholar
  87. Zhang MY, Wang KL, Liu HY, Zhang CH, Duan YF (2013) Spatio-temporal variation of vegetation carbon storage and density in Karst areas of northwest Guangxi based on remote sensing images. Chin J Eco-Agric 21(12):1545–1553.  https://doi.org/10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.04.002 Google Scholar
  88. Zhao M, Zhou GS (2006) Carbon storage of forest vegetation in China and its relationship with climatic factors. Clim Chang 74:175–189.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-6775-0 Google Scholar
  89. Zhao QG, Zhou SL, Wu SH (2006) Cultivated land resources and strategies for its sustainable utilization and protection in China. Acta Pedol Sin 43(4):662–672.  https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:0564-3929.2006.04.020 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  90. Zhao G, Wu X, Wen Z, Wang F, Gao P (2013) Soil erosion, conservation, and eco-evnrionment changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Land Degrad Dev 24:499–510.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2246 Google Scholar
  91. Zhao MW, Yue TX, Zhao N, Sun XF, Zhang XY (2014) Combining LPJ-GUESS and HASM to simulate the spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon stock in China. J Geogr Sci 24(2):249–268.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-014-1086-2 Google Scholar
  92. Zhao J, Guo F, Liang H, Zhangwen SU, Wang W, Lin Y (2016) Changes in temperature and precipitation in Changting, Fujian province during 1965–2013. J Fujian Agric For Univ 45(1):77–83.  https://doi.org/10.13323/j.cnki.j.fafu(nat.sci.).2016.01.013 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  93. Zhu HJ (2013) Strategies on eco-restoration in the subtropical mountain ecosystem fragility areas, China: based on the achievement of eleven years’ research in Changting county. J Nat Resour 28(9):1498–1506.  https://doi.org/10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2015.03.002 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Institute for Earth System ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Life ScienceTunghai UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  3. 3.Center for Ecology and EnvironmentTunghai UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  4. 4.College of Geographical SciencesFujian Normal UniversityFuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations