European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 136, Issue 2, pp 233–249 | Cite as

Individual tree biomass equations and growth models sensitive to climate variables for Larix spp. in China

  • WeiSheng ZengEmail author
  • HaiRui Duo
  • XiangDong Lei
  • XinYun Chen
  • XueJun Wang
  • Ying Pu
  • WenTao Zou
Original Paper


Climate change has increased the need of information on amount of forest biomass. The biomass and carbon storage for larch (Larix spp.) in large geographic regions in China were failed to be accurately estimated from current biomass equations, because they were usually based on a few sample trees on local sites, generally incompatible to volume estimation, and not additive between components and total biomass. China needs reliable biomass estimation of the important species in the whole country. This study was based on the mensuration data of above- and belowground biomass from 600 and 198 destructive sample trees of larch from four regions in China, respectively. The main purpose was to develop compatible individual tree equations on both national and regional levels for above- and belowground biomass, biomass conversion factor and root-to-shoot ratio, using the nonlinear error-in-variable simultaneous equation approach. In addition, diameter at breast height (D) and tree height (H) growth models were also developed, and effects of key climate variables on biomass variation and growth process were analyzed. The results showed that mean prediction errors (MPEs) of regional aboveground biomass models were from 3.86 to 7.52%, and total relative errors (TREs) are within ±3%; and for regional belowground biomass equations, the MPEs are from 9.91 to 28.85%, and the TREs are within ±4%. The above- and belowground biomass and D- and H-growth were significantly related to mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation. The biomass equations and growth models developed in this paper will provide good basis for estimating and predicting biomass of larch forests in China.


Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass Climate variable Biomass conversion factor Root-to-shoot ratio Larix spp. 



This paper was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China under (Grant No. 31270697 and 31370634). The authors acknowledge the National Biomass Modeling Program in Continuous Forest Inventory (NBMP-CFI), which was funded by the State Forestry Administration of China, for providing mensuration biomass data of larch. The authors also thank the Forestry Departments of related provinces for their efforts in sample collection and appreciate the reviewers and editors for providing valuable comments and constructive suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Academy of Forest Inventory and PlanningState Forestry AdministrationDongcheng District, BeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Nature ConservationBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute of Forest Resource Information TechniquesChinese Academy of ForestryBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Research Institute of Forestry Policy and InformationChinese Academy of ForestryBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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