Advertisement

European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 135, Issue 6, pp 1107–1117 | Cite as

Effects of fire recurrence and different salvage logging techniques on carbon storage in Pinus pinaster forests from northern Portugal

  • Victor M. SantanaEmail author
  • Oscar González-Pelayo
  • Paula A. A. Maia
  • María E. Varela T.
  • Alejandro Valdecantos
  • V. Ramón Vallejo
  • J. Jacob Keizer
Original Paper

Abstract

Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) is widely planted in the Mediterranean Basin. Maritime pine forests’ carbon stocks are dynamic because of the effect of wildfires and timber activities. Management practices offer an opportunity to mitigate climate change via increasing carbon storage in various ecosystems. In this work, we quantified carbon pools in P. pinaster forests in relation to fire occurrence and different post-fire salvage logging techniques. For this, we studied an area in northern Portugal where different parts had burned zero, one and four times during the last three decades. Following the last fire in 2012, two salvage logging treatments were carried out: (1) typical logging where all logs and tree biomass were removed and (2) conservation logging where burned tree branches were left in piles and log extraction was restricted to specific extraction trails. We assessed the carbon stocks for the aboveground and belowground compartments, taking into account their different components (vegetation, litter, roots and soil organic carbon). Our main findings were, firstly, that recurrent fires can be catastrophic in terms of carbon sequestration if the overstory dominated by P. pinaster does not regenerate after fire (2.4 times less). Secondly, soil organic carbon constituted an important carbon pool, being the most important when pines are eliminated due to recurrent fires with short intervals (90–95 %). Finally, the conservation technique applied here, leaving piles of branches on the soil surface, would be a suitable measure to increase carbon storage, at least in the short term, but might interfere with the recruitment of the pine stand.

Keywords

Carbon stocks Maritime pine Pine recruitment Shallow root biomass Soil organic carbon 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors fully acknowledge Martinho Martins, Sérgio Prats, Franz-Joost Boogert and Ariët Kieskamp for their help in collecting field data and Sílvia Faria for the SOC laboratory analysis. This work was developed and funded under the EC 7th framework programme project CASCADE (Grant Agreement No. 283068). Additional support was provided by CESAM (UID/AMB/50017/2013), funded by the FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC) with co-funding by FEDER through COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade; POFC).

References

  1. Alday JG, Santana VM, Lee H, Allen KA, Marrs RH (2015) Above-ground biomass accumulation patterns in moorlands after prescribed burning and low-intensity grazing. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 17:388–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alía R, Martín S, De Miguel J, Galera R, Agúndez D, Gordo J, Salvador L, Catalán G, Gil L (1996) Las regiones de procedencia de Pinus pinaster. Organismo Autónomo Parques Nacionales y ETSI de Montes, MadridGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakker MR, Augusto L, Achat DL (2006) Fine root distribution of trees and understory in mature stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) on dry and humid sites. Plant Soil 286:37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B (2011) lme4: Linear mixed effects models using S4 classes. R package version 0.999375-42. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4
  5. Bedia J, Herrera S, Camia A, Moreno JM, Gutiérrez JM (2014) Forest fire danger projections in the Mediterranean using ENSEMBLES regional climate change scenarios. Clim Chang 122:185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bond WJ, Keeley JE (2005) Fire as a global ‘herbivore’: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol 20:387–394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boucher D, Gauthier S, Noël J, Greene DF, Bergeron Y (2014) Salvage logging affects early post-fire tree composition in Canadian boreal forest. For Ecol Manage 325:118–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowman DM, Murphy BP, Boer MM, Bradstock RA, Cary GJ, Cochrane MA, Fensham RJ, Krawchuk MA, Price OF, Williams RJ (2013) Forest fire management, climate change, and the risk of catastrophic carbon losses. Front Ecol Environ 11:66–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunner I, Godbold DL (2007) Tree roots in a changing world. J For Res 12:78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De la Rosa JJ, Faria SR, Varela ME, Knicker HE, González-Vila FJ, González-Pérez JA, Keizer JJ (2012) Characterization of wildfire effects on soil organic matter using analytical pyrolysis. Geoderma 191:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Delitti W, Ferran A, Trabaud L, Vallejo VR (2005) Effects of fire recurrence in Quercus coccifera L. shrublands of the Valencia Region (Spain): I. plant composition and productivity. Plant Ecol 177:57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dodson EK, Peterson DW (2010) Mulching effects on vegetation recovery following high severity wildfire in north-central Washington State, USA. For Ecol Manage 260:1816–1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Donato DC, Fontaine JB, Campbell JL, Robinson WD, Kauffman JB, Law BE (2006) Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk. Science 311:352–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Faria SR, De la Rosa JM, Knicker H, González-Pérez JA, Keizer JJ (2015a) Molecular characterization of wildfire impacts on organic matter in eroded sediments and topsoil in Mediterranean eucalypt stands. Catena 135:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Faria SR, De la Rosa JM, Knicker H, González-Pérez JA, Villaverde-Capellán J, Keizer JJ (2015b) Wildfire-induced alterations of topsoil organic matter and their recovery in Mediterranean eucalypt stands using biogeochemical markers. Eur J Soil Sci 66:699–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernández C, Veja JA, Fonturbel T, Pérez-Gorostiaga P, Jiménez E, Madrigal J (2007) Effects of wildfire salvage logging and slash treatments on soil degradation. Land Degrad Dev 18:591–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernández C, Vega JA, Fonturbel T, Jiménez E, Pérez-Gorostiaga P (2008) Effects of wildfire, salvage logging and slash manipulation on Pinus pinaster Ait. recruitment in Orense (NW Spain). For Ecol Manage 255:1294–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garcia-Gonzalo J, Marques S, Borges JG, Botequim B, Oliveira MM, Tomé J, Tomé M (2011) A three-step approach to post-fire mortality modelling in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait) stands for enhanced forest planning in Portugal. Forestry 84:197–206Google Scholar
  19. Gonzalez M, Augusto L, Gallet-Budynek A, Xue J, Yauschew-Raguenes N, Guyon D, Trichet P, Delerue F, Niollet S, Andreasson F, Achat DL, Bakker MR (2013) Contribution of understory species to total ecosystem aboveground and belowground biomass in temperate Pinus pinaster Ait. forests. For Ecol Manage 289:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. González-Pérez JA, González-Vila FJ, Almendros G, Knicker H (2004) The effect of fire on soil organic matter—a review. Environ Int 30:855–870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hosseini M, Keizer JJ, González-Pelayo O, Prats SA, Ritsema C, Geissen V (2016) Effect of fire frequency on runoff, soil erosion, and loss of organic matter at the micro-plot scale in north-central Portugal. Geoderma 269:126–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hothorn T, Bretz F, Westfall P (2008) Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biom J 50:346–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006). 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp./public/2006gl/indexGoogle Scholar
  24. Kaipainen T, Liski J, Pussinen A, Karjalainen T (2004) Managing carbon sinks by changing rotation length in European forests. Environ Sci Policy 7:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaye JP, Romanyà J, Vallejo VR (2010) Plant and soil carbon accumulation following fire in Mediterranean woodlands in Spain. Oecologia 164:533–543CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Krawchuk MA, Moritz MA, Parisien MA, Van Dorn J, Hayhoe K (2009) Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire. PLoS ONE 4:e5102CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Lindenmayer DB, Burton PJ, Franklin JF (2008) Salvage logging and its ecological consequences. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  28. Lopes D (2005) Estimating net primary production in Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster ecosystems in Portugal. Dissertation, Kingstone University and Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  29. Maia P, Pausas JG, Vasques A, Keizer JJ (2012) Fire severity as a key factor in post-fire regeneration of Pinus pinaster (Ait.) in Central Portugal. Ann For Sci 69:489–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malvar MC, Martins MA, Nunes JP, Robichaud PR, Keizer JJ (2013) Assessing the role of pre-fire ground preparation operations and soil water repellency in post-fire runoff and inter-rill erosion by repeated rainfall simulation experiments in Portuguese eucalypt plantations. Catena 108:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martins MA, Machado AI, Serpa D, Prats SA, Faria SR, Varela ME, González-Pelayo O, Keizer JJ (2013) Runoff and inter-rill erosion in a Maritime Pine and a eucalypt plantation following wildfire and terracing in north-central Portugal. J Hydrol Hydromech 61:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martí-Roura M, Casals P, Romanyà J (2011) Temporal changes in soil organic C under Mediterranean shrublands and grasslands: impact of fire and drought. Plant Soil 338:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McRae DJ, Duchesne LC, Freedman B, Lynham TJ, Woodley S (2001) Comparisons between wildfire and forest harvesting and their implications in forest management. Environ Rev 9:223–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mendiburu F (2015) Agricolae: statistical procedures for agricultural research. R package version 1.2-2. http://tarwi.lamolina.edu.pe/~fmendiburu
  35. Mouillot F, Rambal S, Joffre R (2002) Simulating climate change impacts on fire frequency and vegetation dynamics in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem. Glob Change Biol 8:423–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nunes L, Lopes D, Rego FC, Gower ST (2013) Aboveground biomass and net primary production of pine, oak and mixed pine–oak forests on the Vila Real district, Portugal. For Ecol Manage 305:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Odion DC, Moritz MA, DellaSala DA (2010) Alternative community states maintained by fire in the Klamath Mountains, USA. J Ecol 98:96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Fang J, Houghton R, Kauppi PE, Kurz WA, Phillips OL, Shvidenko A, Lewis SL, Canadell JG, Ciais P, Jackson RB, Pacala SW, McGuire AD, Piao S, Rautiainen A, Sitch S, Hayes D (2011) A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333:988–993CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Pausas JG, Fernández-Muñoz S (2012) Fire regime changes in the Western Mediterranean Basin: from fuel-limited to drought-driven fire regime. Clim Change 110:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Porté A, Trichet P, Bert D, Loustau D (2002) Allometric relationships for branch and tree woody biomass of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). For Ecol Manage 158:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Prats SA, MacDonald LH, Monteiro M, Ferreira AJ, Coelho CO, Keizer JJ (2012) Effectiveness of forest residue mulching in reducing post-fire runoff and erosion in a pine and a eucalypt plantation in north-central Portugal. Geoderma 191:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prats SA, Malvar MC, Vieira DCS, MacDonald L, Keizer JJ (2013) Effectiveness of hydromulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degrad Dev. doi: 10.1002/ldr.2236 Google Scholar
  43. Prats SA, Malvar MC, Martins MAS, Keizer JJ (2014) Post-fire erosion risk assessment and mitigation: new approaches for reducing runoff and soil erosion in Portugal. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 40:403–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Puig-Gironès, R, Pons, P (2014) Seed removal by rodents in burned and logged pine forests. 5th international conference on Mediterranean Pines (Medpine 5), Solsona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  45. Ravindranath NH, Ostwald M (2007) Carbon inventory methods: handbook for greenhouse gas inventory, carbon mitigation and roundwood production projects. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  46. San-Miguel-Ayanz J, Moreno JM, Camia A (2013) Analysis of large fires in European Mediterranean landscapes: lessons learned and perspectives. For Ecol Manage 294:11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Santana VM, Baeza MJ, Marrs RH, Vallejo VR (2010) Old-field secondary succession in SE Spain: Can fire divert it? Plant Ecol 211:337–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Santana VM, Alday JG, Baeza MJ (2014) Effects of fire regime shift in Mediterranean Basin ecosystems: changes in soil seed bank composition among functional types. Plant Ecol 215:555–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schimel D, Baker D (2002) Carbon cycle: the wildfire factor. Nature 420:29–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Serrano-Ortiz P, Marañón-Jiménez S, Reverter BR, Sánchez-Cañete EP, Castro J, Zamora R, Kowalski AS (2011) Post-fire salvage logging reduces carbon sequestration in Mediterranean coniferous forest. For Ecol Manage 262:2287–2296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shakesby RA (2011) Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: review and future research directions. Earth-Sci Rev 105:71–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tapias R, Gil L, Fuentes-Utrilla P, Pardos JA (2001) Canopy seed banks in Mediterranean pines of south-eastern Spain: a comparison between Pinus halepensis Mill., P. pinaster Ait., P. nigra Arn. and P. pinea L. J Ecol 89:629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Varela ME, Benito E, Keizer JJ (2010) Effects of wildfire and laboratory heating on soil aggregate stability of pine forests in Galicia: the role of lithology, soil organic matter content and water repellency. Catena 83:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vilà-Cabrera A, Saura-Mas S, Lloret F (2008) Effects of fire frequency on species composition in a Mediterranean shrubland. Ecoscience 15:519–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wagenbrenner JW, MacDonald LH, Coats RN, Robichaud PR, Brown RE (2015) Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils, and sediment production in the interior western United States. For Ecol Manage 335:176–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zwolak R, Pearson D, Ortega Y, Crone EE (2010) Fire and mice: seed predation moderates fire’ s influence on conifer recruitment. Ecology 91:1124–1131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor M. Santana
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Oscar González-Pelayo
    • 1
  • Paula A. A. Maia
    • 1
  • María E. Varela T.
    • 1
  • Alejandro Valdecantos
    • 3
  • V. Ramón Vallejo
    • 2
  • J. Jacob Keizer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environment and Planning, Earth Surface Processes Team (ESP), Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM)University of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Fundación de la Generalitat Valenciana Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo (CEAM)Parque tecnológico PaternaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations