European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 134, Issue 2, pp 365–376 | Cite as

Influence of species interactions on transpiration of Mediterranean tree species during a summer drought

  • Charlotte Grossiord
  • Alicia Forner
  • Arthur Gessler
  • André Granier
  • Martina Pollastrini
  • Fernando Valladares
  • Damien Bonal
Original Paper

Abstract

Recent research has shown that interactions between species with different functional traits can promote forest ecosystem processes. In the context of climate change, understanding whether species interactions in mixed-species ecosystems can improve the adaptation of these ecosystems to extreme climatic events is crucial to developing new management strategies. In this study, we investigated the impact of species interactions on the sap flux density of three Mediterranean tree species (Quercus faginea, Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris) during a summer drought. Measurements of foliar carbon isotopic composition (δ 13C) were also conducted on the same trees. The decline in transpiration during drought was the greatest for P. sylvestris and the least pronounced for Q. faginea. For P. nigra and Q. faginea, the decrease in transpiration as the drought progressed was lower when these species where interacting with another tree species, particularly with P. sylvestris. In contrast, the decrease for P. sylvestris was higher when this species was interacting with another species. Differing drought effects were consistent with the δ 13C values. We showed that the identity of the species present in the direct neighbourhood of a given tree can differentially influence water availability and water-use of these three co-existing Mediterranean tree species during a summer drought. Our findings suggest that species interactions play an important role in modulating the response of tree species to drought. Favouring tree species diversity in this region does not seem to be systematically beneficial in terms of soil water availability and water-use for all the interacting species.

Keywords

Complementarity Competition Facilitation Species interaction Drought Transpiration δ13

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Miguel Fernández and David L. Quiroga for their technical assistance. We thank the technical Isotope Platform of INRA Nancy for the carbon isotope analyses. A.F. was supported by JAE-PREDOC from CSIC and co-funded by the European Union (Fondo Social Europeo). This work was conducted in the framework of the ARBRE Laboratory of Excellence project (ANR-12-LABXARBRE-01) supported by the French National Research Agency. The research leading to these results was conducted within the FunDiv EUROPE project and has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant agreement No 265171.

References

  1. Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H, Bachelet D, McDowell N, Vennetier M, Kitzberger T, Rigling A, Breshears DD, Hogg EH, Gonzalez P, Fensham R, Zhang Z, Castro J, Demidova N, Lim J-H, Allard G, Running SW, Semerci A, Cobb N (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. For Ecol Manag 259(4):660–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baeten L et al (2013) A novel comparative research platform designed to determine the functional significance of tree species diversity in European forests. Persp Plant Ecol Evol Syst 15(5):281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2013) lme4: linear mixed-effects models using eigen and S4. R package version 0.99999911-5. http://lme4.r-forge.r-project.org
  4. Bréda N, Cochard H, Dreyer E, Granier A (1993) Field comparison of transpiration, stomatal conductance and vulnerability to cavitation of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur under water stress. Ann For Sci 50(6):571–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burgess SSO (2006) Measuring transpiration responses to summer precipitation in a Mediterranean climate: a simple screening tool for identifying plant water-use strategies. Physiol Planta 127(3):404–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carnicer J, Barbeta A, Sperlich D, Coll M, Penuelas J (2013) Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale. Front Plant Sci 4:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carnicer J, Coll M, Pons X, Ninyerola M, Vayreda J, Peñuelas J (2014) Large-scale recruitment limitation in Mediterranean pines: the role of Quercus ilex and forest successional advance as key regional drivers. Glob Ecol Biogeog 23(3):371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cermak J, Cienciala E, Kucera J, Hällgren J-E (1992) Radial velocity profiles of water flow in trunks of Norway spruce and oak and the response of spruce to severing. Tree Physiol 10(4):367–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Choat B et al (2012) Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought. Nature 491(7426):752–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark DA, Clark DB (1992) Life history diversity of canopy and emergent trees in a neotropical rain forest. Ecol Monogr 62(3):315–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clearwater MJ, Meinzer FC, Andrade JL, Goldstein G, Holbrook M (1999) Potential errors in measurement of non-uniform sap flow using heat dissipation probes. Tree Physiol 19(6):681–687CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cochard HB, Bréda N, Granier A (1996) Whole tree hydraulic conductance and water loss regulation in Quercus during drought: evidence for stomatal control of embolism? Ann For Sci 53(2–3):197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corcuera L, Camarero JJ, Gil-Pelegrin E (2004) Effects of a severe drought on growth and wood anatomical properties of Quercus faginea. IAWA 25(2):185–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forrester DI, Theiveyanathan S, Collopy JJ, Marcar NE (2010) Enhanced water use efficiency in a mixed Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii plantation. For Ecol Manag 259(9):1761–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gebauer T, Horna V, Leuschner C (2012) Canopy transpiration of pure and mixed forest stands with variable abundance of European beech. J Hydrol 442:2–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Granier A (1987) Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by means of sap flow measurements. Tree Physiol 3(4):309–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Granier A, Bréda N, Biron P, Villette S (1999) A lumped water balance model to evaluate duration and intensity of drought constraints in forest stands. Ecol Model 116(2):269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grossiord C, Granier A, Gessler A, Pollastrini M, Bonal D (2013) The influence of tree species mixture on ecosystem-level carbon accumulation and water use in a mixed boreal plantation. For Ecol Manag 298:82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grossiord C, Granier A, Gessler A, Jucker T, Bonal D (2014a) Does drought influence the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in boreal forests? Ecosystems 17(3):394–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grossiord C, Gessler A, Granier A, Pollastrini M, Bussotti F, Bonal D (2014b) Interspecific competition influences the response of oak transpiration to increasing drought stress in a mixed Mediterranean forest. For Ecol Manag 318:54–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hegyi F (1974) A simulation model for managing jack-pine stands. J. Fries (ed) Growth models for tree and stand simulation, Royal College of Forestry, Stockholm, pp 74–90Google Scholar
  22. Herrero de Aza C, Turrión M, Pando V, Bravo F (2011) Carbon in heartwood, sapwood and bark along the stem profile in three Mediterranean Pinus species. Ann For Sci 68:1067–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hothorn H, Bretz F, Westfall P (2008) Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biome J 50(3):346–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. IPCC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  25. Irvine J, Perks MP, Magnani F, Grace J (1998) The response of Pinus sylvestris to drought: stomatal control of transpiration and hydraulic conductance. Tree Physiol 18(6):393–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kalliokoski T, Nygren P, Sievänen R (2008) Coarse root architecture of three boreal tree species growing in mixed stands. Silva Fennica 42(2):189–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kelty MJ (2006) The role of species mixtures in plantation forestry. For Ecol Manag 233:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kramer P (1983) Drought tolerance and water use efficiency, water relations of plants. Academic, New York, pp 390–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kunert N, Schwendenmann L, Potvin C, Hölscher D (2012) Tree diversity enhances tree transpiration in a Panamanian forest plantation. J Appl Ecol 49(1):135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Loreau M, Naeem S, Inchausti P, Bengtsson J, Grime JP, Hector A, Hooper DU, Huston MA, Raffaelli D, Schmid B, Tilman D, Wardle DA (2001) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294(5543):804–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Montserrat-Martí G, Camarero J, Palacio S, Pérez-Rontomé C, Milla R, Albuixech J, Maestro M (2009) Summer-drought constrains the phenology and growth of two coexisting Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit: implications for their persistence and reproduction. Trees 23(4):787–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nadezhdina N, Cermak J, Ceulemans R (2002) Radial patterns of sap flow in woody stems of dominant and understory species: scaling errors associated with positioning of sensors. Tree Physiol 22(13):907–918CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Peñuelas J, Filella I (2003) Deuterium labelling of roots provides evidence of deep water access and hydraulic lift by Pinus nigra in a Mediterranean forest of NE Spain. Environ Exp Bot 49(3):201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Poorter L, Lianes E, Moreno-de las Heras M, Zavala M (2012) Architecture of Iberian canopy tree species in relation to wood density, shade tolerance and climate. Plant Ecol 213(5):707–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Poyatos R, Llorens P, Gallart F (2005) Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd, forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Disc 2(3):1011–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pretzsch H (2014) Canopy space filling and tree crown morphology in mixed-species stands compared with monocultures. Carl Olof Tamm review. For Ecol Manag 327:251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pretzsch H, Bielak K, Block J, Bruchwald A, Dieler J, Ehrhart H-P, Kohnle U, Nagel J, Spellmann H, Zasada M, Zingg A (2013a) Productivity of mixed versus pure stands of oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus robur L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) along an ecological gradient. Eur J For Res 132(2):263–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pretzsch H, Schütze G, Uhl E (2013b) Resistance of European tree species to drought stress in mixed versus pure forests: evidence of stress release by inter-specific facilitation. Plant Biol 15(3):483–495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. R Development Core Team (2011) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. The R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  40. Rybnicek M, Vavrcik H, Hubeny R (2006) Determination of the number of sapwood annual rings in Oak in the region of southern Moravia. J For Sci 52(3):141–146Google Scholar
  41. Saurer M, Siegwolf RT, Schweingruber FH (2004) Carbon isotope discrimination indicates improving water use efficiency of trees in northern Eurasia over the last 100 years. Glob Change Biol 10(12):2109–2120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schenk HJ, Jackson RB (2002) Rooting depths, lateral root spreads and below-ground/above-ground allometries of plants in water-limited ecosystems. J Ecol 90(3):480–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schmid I, Kazda M (2001) Vertical and radial growth of coarse roots in pure and mixed stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Can J For Res 31(3):539–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xu H, Li Y (2006) Water-use strategy of three central Asian desert shrubs and their responses to rain pulse events. Plant Soil 285(1–2):5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zapater M, Hossann C, Bréda N, Bréchet C, Bonal D, Granier A (2011) Evidence of hydraulic lift in a young beech and oak mixed forest using 18O soil water labelling. Trees 25(5):885–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zapater M, Bréda N, Bonal D, Pardonnet S, Granier A (2013) Differential response to soil drought among co-occurring broad-leaved tree species growing in a 15- to 25-year-old mixed stand. Ann For Sci 70(1):31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang Y, Chen HYH, Reich PB (2012) Forest productivity increases with evenness, species richness and trait variation: a global meta-analysis. J Ecol 100(3):742–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlotte Grossiord
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alicia Forner
    • 3
  • Arthur Gessler
    • 4
    • 5
  • André Granier
    • 1
    • 2
  • Martina Pollastrini
    • 6
  • Fernando Valladares
    • 3
  • Damien Bonal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.UMR 1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie ForestièresINRAChampenouxFrance
  2. 2.UMR 1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie ForestièresUniversité de LorraineVandoeuvre-Les-NancyFrance
  3. 3.Departamento de Biogeografía y Cambio Global, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN-CSICLINCGlobalMadridSpain
  4. 4.Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)BirmensdorfSwitzerland
  5. 5.Berlin-Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research (BBIB)BerlinGermany
  6. 6.Section of Soil and Plant Science, Department of Agri-food and Environmental SciencesUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations